Please choose a pathophysiology topic that interests you. Find sources and review the current literature on this topic. Find a total 15 sources that are relevant to your topic. All sources should be from peer-reviewed journals. Important Note: Only the next five sources are due with this submission.
Use the following guiding questions to help your search:

How significant is this medical condition?
What causes this condition?
What is this medical condition linked to (genetic, behavior, or environment)?
Who is more affected by this medical issue?Running Head: PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF HYPERTENSION
Annotated bibliography on pathophysiology of hypertension
Institutional Affiliation
Fryar, C. D., Ostchega, Y., Hales, C. M., Zhang, G., & Kruszon-Moran, D. (2017).
Hypertension prevalence and control among adults: United States, 2015-2016.
Fryar et al. (2016) state that hypertension remains a significant public health issue in the
United States. The article shows the prevalence of controlled and uncontrolled hypertension
among different populations of all ages and races. It also reports the prevalence and comparison
of hypertension control among populations from 1999 to 2016. Hypertension prevalence among
adults was twenty-nine percent, and men had an increased prevalence of hypertension compared
to women.
Doulougou, B., Gomez, F., Alvarado, B., Guerra, R. O., Ylli, A., Guralnik, J., &
Zunzunegui, M. V. (2016). Factors associated with hypertension prevalence, awareness,
treatment, and control among participants in the International Mobility in Aging Study
(IMIAS). Journal of human hypertension, 30(2), 112-119.
The article assesses the factors linked to hypertension prevalence, its awareness,
management, and control among the elderly population. It involves a study of about four hundred
adults aged 65-74 years from five cities and ranks diabetes and obesity as the substantial risk
factors of hypertension.
Mahilmaran, A. (2018). Rare and unusual causes of hypertension. Hypertension, 4(4), 233.
Mahilmaran (2018) explains the pathophysiology of rare hypertension, the secondary type
of hypertension. According to the article, while most cases of hypertension are primary
hypertension whose causes are unknown and only attributed to risk factors such as genetic
factors, Mahilmaran (2018) confirms that some cases attributed to known underlying causes. It
provides that the main aim of diagnosing secondary hypertension is to assess whether the
underlying cause is reversible and shows that its etiology is rare and can easily be missed if not
cheeked keenly.
Nathan, S. D., Barbera, J. A., Gaine, S. P., Harari, S., Martinez, F. J., Olschewski, H., … &
Weissmann, N. (2019). Pulmonary hypertension in chronic lung disease and
hypoxia. European Respiratory Journal, 53(1), 1801914.
The article presents pulmonary hypertension as a significant cause of the exacerbating
lung disease, reduced functionality and low quality of life, among other health concerns.
However, the etiology of chronic lung diseases associated with pulmonary hypertension (CLDPH) is quite complex and comprises of numerous pathogenic sequelae. It recommends that when
doing a hemodynamic evaluation of pulmonary hypertension, the severity must be based around
the underlying lung disease. Besides, Nathan et al. (2019) addresses the screening of pulmonary
hypertension and recommends its management with pulmonary vasoactive agents, although they
were earlier on refuted based on the state of findings.
Di Giosia, Paolo, Paolo Giorgini, Cosimo Andrea Stamerra, Marco Petrarca, Claudio
Ferri, and Amirhossein Sahebkar. “Gender differences in epidemiology, pathophysiology,
and treatment of hypertension.” Current atherosclerosis reports 20, no. 3 (2018): 13.
The article assesses the gender differences on prevalence and pathophysiology of
hypertension to determine various gender peculiarities on the impacts of ant hypertension
mediations on lowering blood pressure and cardiovascular events. Its findings show that there are
vast differences in prevalence, awareness, and management rate of hypertension among men and
women in an age-dependent way. Di Giosia et al. (2018) provide that changes in sex hormones
influence the pathophysiology of hypertension during menopause. Further, the articles state that
estrogen affects the vascular system and may induce vasodilation, inhibit vascular remodeling
processes, and modulate RAAS as well as the sympathetic system. This may cause a protective
impact on arterial stiffness, particularly during reproductive age, which is then reversed when
menopause sets in.

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