Attached is the assignment instructions and the two sources to use. No other outside sources and no plagiarism please. due by 7pm Jan. 01, 2023Instructions

Goal: Create a case study analysis based on two scholarly studies that utilize metaphors (Morgan’s, or similar) to describe the functionality of organizations. After a concise but thorough analysis of the cases, summarize the benefits of using metaphorical devices in management practice. You will search for, find, and use two case studies from the APUS Library. FYI – there is an FAQ in the library with a question on how to find case studies.

Instructions: Students will write a 600-750 word case study analysis based on two case studies that use Morgan’s metaphors (or similar) as a tool to understand organizations. Review the Case Study Analysis procedure attached to this assignment. Obtain your case study articles from scholarly peer-reviewed journals in the APUS online library. Use case studies that were published within the last ten years. After a concise but thorough and clear delineation and analysis of the cases, complete the paper with a summary of what you gleaned from using metaphors to understand management practice within organizations.

Write using the APA style format, including a title page and references page (no abstract is required). When you upload your paper, also upload pdfs of BOTH case studies so that the professor can check your analysis.
Use the following outline in your summary (in APA format with a Title page and References page):
1. Identify the business problems of each of the cases; describe the metaphor(s) used.
2. Evaluate the proposed solutions. Are the solutions valid? Why or why not? How/why did the use of metaphor(s) assist in the solution?
3. Submit recommendations you propose beyond what is already stated in the cases.
4. State how the solutions will be communicated in each case. Do you agree? Why or why not?
5. At the end of the paper, write a paragraph expressing the takeaways/benefits of using metaphors in management practice.Full Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at

Public Management Review

ISSN: (Print) (Online) Journal homepage:

Introducing strategic measures in public facilities
management organizations: external and internal
institutional work

Ingrid Svensson, Sara Brorström & Pernilla Gluch

To cite this article: Ingrid Svensson, Sara Brorström & Pernilla Gluch (2022): Introducing strategic
measures in public facilities management organizations: external and internal institutional work,
Public Management Review, DOI: 10.1080/14719037.2022.2097301

To link to this article:

© 2022 The Author(s). Published by Informa
UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis

Published online: 07 Jul 2022.

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Introducing strategic measures in public facilities
management organizations: external and internal
institutional work
Ingrid Svensson a,b, Sara Brorström c and Pernilla Gluch a

aDepartment of Technology Management and Economics, Service Management and Logistics,
Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; bDepartment of Learning, Informatics,
Management and Ethics, Medical Management Center, Leadership in Healthcare and Academia,
Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; cDepartment for Business Administration, School of
Business Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden

To increase knowledge about the consequences of introducing strategic measures in
public organizations, for both intra- and interorganizational relationships, interviews
in eight – and shadowing in two – public facilities management organizations were
performed. Using a frame for data analysis based on institutional work, findings show
that, when introducing strategic measures, public officials worked to place their
organizations in a new position within the institutional field. During this process,
officials engaged in both external and internal institutional work. The findings high-
light how tensionsAdministrative Science Quarterly
2022, Vol. 67(4)1012–1048
� The Author(s) 2022
Article reuse guidelines:
DOI: 10.1177/00018392221117996

The Two Blades of the
Scissors: Performance
Feedback and Intrinsic
Attributes in Organizational
Risk Taking

Xavier Sobrepere i Profitós,1 Thomas Keil,2

and Pasi Kuusela3


We draw on the behavioral theory of the firm and prospect theory to examine
how performance feedback (decision context) and the characteristics of the
alternatives (decision content) that decision makers face jointly determine orga-
nizational risk-taking choices. While the behavioral theory of the firm has identi-
fied performance feedback’s important role in driving organizational risk-taking
decisions, it has not considered the intrinsic attributes of alternatives, specifi-
cally the magnitude and likelihood of their outcomes, which have been the
focus of prospect theory. We argue that these two attributes play a key role in
decision makers’ assessment of alternatives, but because achieving organiza-
tional goals is the prime objective in organizations, performance feedback
drives how decision makers process information regarding these attributes.
Analyzing 23,895 fourth-down decisions from the U.S. National Football
League, we find that decision makers weigh attainment discrepancy and the
magnitude and likelihood of outcomes in their choices, depending on deadline
proximity. Furthermore, the size and valence of attainment discrepancy modify
the weight of the magnitude and likelihood of outcomes in risky choices. Our
arguments and findings suggest extensions to the behavioral theory of the firm
and imply modifications to prospect theory when applied to the organizational

Keywords: risk taking, behavioral theory of the firm, prospect theory,
aspirations, performance feedback

1 UPF Barcelona School of Management, Spain
2 University of Zurich, Switzerland
3 University of Groningen, Netherlands

Corresponding Author:

Xavier Sobrepere i Profitós, UPF Barcelona School of Management, Balmes 132, Barcelona,

Catalonia 08008, Spain. Email: [email protected]

How do organizational decision makers make risky choices? Using the meta-
phor of the two blades of scissors, Simon (1947, 1990) suggested that
decisions are shaped by the decision context and how decision makers process
information regarding the decision content. Yet prior research has typically
focused on only one blade of the scissors. Emphasizing the organizational deci-
sion context, research drawing on the behavioral theory of the firm (Cyert and
March, 1963) has focused on performance feedback relative to an organiza-
tional goal (e.g., Bromiley, 1991; Greve, 1998; Lehman and Hahn, 2013) and
has thus not considered the attributes of the alternatives that decision makers
face: the

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