I have attached the document with 6 discussions and I need to reply to each one of them in 150 words eeach. APA format and referencesHussain Replies
2 minutes ago
Anupama Raman Nair
Dr. Aline Yurik
Anupama Raman Nair
University of the Cumberlands
Fundamentally, governance is about establishing policy. IT Governance is about implementing structure
around how organizations align their IT strategy with their business strategy, to ensure that they stay on
track to achieve their strategic goals and implement effective ways to measure the agencies’ IT performance.
The relationship between IT governance and effective value creation of IT investments has long been
recognized and is cited as the reason for achieving excellence in the management of IT [1]. It gives a clear
direction for the organization in many ways

it helps IT portfolio management to align IT investments with agency objectives
allows leadership to actively commit to improve the management and control of IT activities in the agency.
Proper management of critical resources enables control in planning and organizing IT initiatives.
Proactive risk management ensures that IT federal managers and leadership are aware of the risk associated
with the IT initiatives and provides the basis to implement risk mitigation strategies.
Governance provides federal managers with the framework to manage all IT initiatives and demands through
a single point where they are prioritized and fulfilled
Effective governance is about accountability. This enables federal managers to enforce the responsibilities
that relate to IT program management.
There are multiple standards that set up standards for different aspects of the business of an organization.
For example, ISO/IEC 27033 is to provide detailed guidance on internet security aspects of the management,
operation and use of information system networks, and their inter-connections.[2] It provides guidelines on
setting up the network security by giving the guidance on
Provides an overview of security gateways through a description of different architectures
Securing communications across networks using VPN
Securing wireless IP network access
IT governance is important and will ensure the effective and efficient use of IT to achieve agency goals. As
Peter Weill, chairman of the Center for Information Systems Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
“If I was to choose one factor that most contributed to the success of IT, it is IT governance.”
Each agency is unique, and each agency’s approach to executing governance may vary with the culture and
organizational structure. Implementing good IT governance requires a framework based on three major
elements: effective structure, effective process, and effective communication.

Understanding IT Governance and Why It Often Fails

1 day ago
Krishna Mohan Arvapalli
week 6 Discussion
Many organizations today rely on Information Technology (IT) and continue to make significant
IT enabled business investments. This dependency on IT in such an environment with wider
accountability, more bureaucracy, lower managerial autonomy (Nicoll, 2005) and a complex mix
of political, organizational, technical and cultural concerns. IT governance is an “integral part of
enterprise governance and have potential to provide mechanisms for leadership and
organizational structures and processes.
It Governance critical success factors:
The Critical Success Factors are the limited number of areas in which satisfactory results will
ensure a successful competitive performance for the individual, department or organization.
organizations to focus on several factors that help to define and ensure the success of the
business, and in this way help the organization and its personnel to understand the key areas in
which to invest their resources and time. However, in the area of IT governance, few CSFs
studies have been undertaken though IT governance has become critical in most organizations
today. Different to others are actively designed IT governance to avoid uncoordinated
mechanisms, exceptional handling process and aligned incentives.
SO, 27001 is one of the fastest-growing management standards in the world, with
certifications growing at an annual rate of 20%. If you have not already done so, it may be
time to consider this standard for your organization. It can take anything from three months
to a year from scoping to certification, depending on numerous factors specific to the
organization. When it comes to security breaches, loss of customer confidence can have far more
serious consequences for an organization than the fines levied by the country’s supervisor
authority or the Payment Card Industry.
Buckby S., Best, P. & Stewart, J. (2008). The Current State of Information Technology
Governance Literature. In A. Cater-Steel, (Ed.). IT Governance and Service Management:
Frameworks and Adaptations. Hershey, PA: Idea Group Publishing.
Donnelly. C ( July , 2017) Why ISO 27001 is the standard for information security Retrieved
from : https://www.itgovernance.eu/blog/en/why-iso-27001-is-the-standard-forinformation-security
Sashi Replies : Organizational theory
10 hours ago
Naga Naresh Babu Jasti
Week 6
Organizational Behavior Reflection and Discussion Forum Week 6
The previous readings focused on leadership traits. The leaders have some power, which they can use
to benefit the firm or destroy its reputation (Robbins & Judge, 2018). The abuse of power might lead to
conflict, which have different levels. Therefore, it is advisable to investigate the types of powers that the
employees amass (Robbins & Judge, 2018). Consequently, it will be possible to determine the strategies
required in conflict resolutions.
I discovered that power refers to the capacity of an individual influencing the behavior of another. The
influenced individual must depend, either intentionally or subconsciously, on the power holder (Robbins &
Judge, 2018). One of the types of power is formal, which results from the position they possess in an
establishment. Second, we have coercive power, derived from imposing fear on the subordinates if negative
outcomes are achieved. Third, some individuals possess reward power, where the holder entices the
subordinates with positive benefits if they performed well (Robbins & Judge, 2018). The three attributes tend
to be imposed, other than inherent.
On the contrary, we have leaders with personal power, ingrained in their long-term behavior or
experience. For instance, we have expert power, result from expertise and knowledge (Robbins & Judge,
2018). The leaders may also cultivate it through special skills. Moreover, we have referent power that is in
persons with charisma (Robbins & Judge, 2018). The leaders in this category tend to possess desirable
resources that make them highly effective.
I have learned that not all types of power are effective. The most preferred kinds is expert and
reference power (Robbins & Judge, 2018). They are very efficient in improving firm’s performance and
commitment. The utilization of reward and legitimate powers have no significant impact on organization
outcomes. On the other hand, coercive power lower employee satisfaction (Robbins & Judge, 2018).
Therefore, employee turnover might increase leading to reduced commitment.
Moreover, one can also analyze the efficiency of the leadership approach based on the relationship
between the individuals. The reason being, power depends on the perception of one individual on another
(Robbins & Judge, 2018). Therefore, the higher the dependence, the more the efficiency of the power utilized.
The dependence may rely on importance, scarcity and non-substitutability (Robbins & Judge, 2018).
Therefore, employee with formal power, leading a large pool of un-educated employees and has high
unmatched experiences, he is likely to be highly effective.
The study also allowed me to understand about power tactics, that most leaders apply. The leaders
have to ensure the tactics they use are effective (Robbins & Judge, 2018). Examples of the tactics include
inspirational, consultation, and exchange. Moreover, we have those applying personal appeals. Ingratiation,
coalitions, and pressure. However, there are tactics that individuals should maximize on and resist from
applying some. For example, it is advisable to invest in rational persuasion, inspiration and consultation
(Robbins & Judge, 2018). Nevertheless, they should not invest in pressure tactics.
Robbins, S. & Judge T. (2018). Essentials of Organizational Behavior. 14th. Boston, MA: Pearson.ISBN 13:
14 hours ago
Ing Teck Wee
Week 6 discussion
Ing Teck Wee
Forum Discussion Week 6
When we talk about organizational behavior, power and leadership have always come to my
mind together. Power is the key for a leader to lead his/her team. Power is a capacity of one that
can influence the behavior of the other so that others would act accordingly with what the
leader’s wishes. (Robins and Judge, 2014) Chapter 13 has brought us to understand what’s
consider as formal power and what’s consider as personal power. Coercive power, reward power,
and legitimate power have been categorized as formal power. It often comes from an individual’s
position in an organization. Expert power and referent power are considered as personal power.
It usually comes from an individual’s unique personality.
Coercive power is like a threat. Coercive power often describes as people used this power to
withholding key information that can make others dependent on them. For example, some
industries used to hire a foreign worker and keep their passport to prevent them from switching
the job. It is one type of coercive power being used to keep your follower amend it may result in
negative return sometime. Reward power is a totally opposite power as compare to coercive
power. This power provides a positive benefit to their employees. For example, providing
promotions, interesting work assignments, bonuses more and raise. This is used more often in
society nowadays. Legitimate power is like a contract that employers used in the organization to
hire employees. It is different than coercive power that it includes members’ acceptance of agree
for the contact on the position.
Expert power often describes as the person who has special knowledge and skills in their area.
As jobs become more specialized, they attract others dependent on them because of their skills.
For example, financial consultants and tax accountants that others depend on them for advice.
Besides that, referent power is another personal power that influences others to respect and
follow them. For example, when Warren Buffett announced that he is interested to invest in a
certain business, people tend to follow his decision because they are influenced by his referent
From chapter 14, we learned how different type of conflicts works within an organization.
Research showed that there are two types of conflict based on their effect. It is a functional
conflict and dysfunctional conflict. The conflict effect that supports the goals of the organization
and improves the overall performance consider as functional conflict. The conflict effect that
hinders group performance considers as dysfunctional conflict. Moreover, conflict can as well
differentiate into three categories. There are relationship conflict, task conflict, and process
conflict. Relationship conflict is considered a dysfunctional conflict. This is because it is more
likely to increase personality clashes and decrease mutual understanding which would slow
down the organization’s growth.
Task conflict is a special kind within those three categories. It is because task conflict can be
functional conflict and also can be dysfunctional conflict. If task conflict happens together with
relationship conflict, it is more likely to result in a negative effect which it confides as
dysfunctional conflict. However, if task conflict occurred by itself, it is more likely resulting in a
positive effect. Some research also showed that the level of test conflict can change the
performance. Ideally, moderate levels of task conflict would be optimal.
Last but not least, process conflict found to be related to delegation and roles. We often waste
much time discussing the process instead of actually doing it. The reason is that we all are having
a different personality and often lead to arguments and debates. It would slow down the process
and quickly devolve into relationship conflicts.
Robbins, S. P., & Judge, T. (2018). Essentials of organizational behavior. Harlow: Pearson
Project management:
11 hours ago
Preeti Solanki
Reflection and Discussion Forum Week 6
Chapter 7 covers the scope and organizational structure of a project. The goal of the chapter, as defined by
Shtub & Rosenwein (2016), is to provide a clear analysis of the structures that are needed for the success of a
project. At the beginning, three of these structures are identified. The first structure is the work breakdown
structure (WBS). The WBS is basically covers the scope of the whole project. The project scope is all the work
that has to be done within a project to deliver the end product or service. This includes project management
work and product related work. The WBS is a list or a hierarchical decomposition of task and work packages
that will be handled by the team members throughout the course of a project. The second structure is the
organizational structure of the units that are participating to handle the project. This refers to everyone such
as the client, contractors and in some cases even government agencies (Shtub & Rosenwein, 2016). There is
also the organizational breakdown structure (OBS) and this refers to the relationship between people doing
the work and the organization. This is very important as a poorly constructed OBS will result in poor results
from the project.
The authors then move on to discuss the different types of organizational structures. The first of these is the
functional structure. In this structure the organization is divided into functional units i.e. units of the
organization that carry out specific functions. An example, would be the HR department that is tasked with
handling matters relating to employees. However, this structure tends to make it difficult to carry out project
activities because functional managers are in control of the resources. The second structure is the project
organization. This is an organization built around the idea of project management. In such an organization a
project manager is powerful and in control of the resources. The third structure is a product organization.
This is an organization that is divided into divisions that make various products. For example, Sony is a
product organization. The matrix organization is another structure covered by Shtub & Rosenwein (2016)
and is perhaps the most popular of the structures. This is because it is a hybrid of a project structure and any
other structure. The goal here is to give functional managers and project managers an equal standing.
By the end of the chapter an interesting topic is covered: the management of human resources. It is important
to note that without the proper management of team members within a project, the project is bound to fail.
This is why a lot of attention is paid on how the members of a project team are picked, their cohesion with the
other members and their experiences when it comes to working in similar projects. This are all important
considerations that can make or break the project team. Even more important is the project manager. The
project manager needs to be experienced otherwise if the team is made up of experts, it would be difficult for
them to respect him.
Shtub, A. & Rosenwein, M. (2016). Project Management. New York: Pearson.
1 day ago
Anamika Dipakkumar Patel
Week 6 Discussion
Chapter 7. Scope and Organization Structure of a Project
Project Management is the application the application of processes, methods, skills, knowledge
and experience to achieve specific project objectives according to the project acceptance criteria
with agreed parameters. Project management has final deliverables that are constraint to a
definite timescale and budget. I found the topic of role and concerns of Project and Functional
Managers to be quite interesting.
When a company wants to launch a new item or design and build new infrastructure, they have
functional and project managers who supervise elements of the project. Functional managers are
tasked with controlling the resources that will support a project, such as financial backing and
skilled employees. Project managers, however, work with the team to develop the product and
ensure the project is finished according to the deadline. Because informed, productive employees
are the key to efficiency, both these managers should gain an understanding of what will
motivate their teams, including bonuses or some autonomy to be creative.
Functional Managers:
Functional managers work for a specific department in a company or on a project team. They
locate funding, raw materials, and even staff for the organization or project. In fact, they may
complete the hiring of contractors or other employees who can add their abilities to the group.
Evaluating employees after a project or at the end of each year helps these managers maintain the
efficiency of the department or team. They also schedule employees based on a master schedule.
This master schedule is controlled by the functional manager and includes all the assignments the
crew should complete within a given time frame.
Responsibilities of a functional manager include:
• Analyzing data from previous fiscal years or projects to determine which resources will
be required as they plan the next year
• Collecting budget and cost estimates from project managers
• Determining the department or team’s strategy for completing a task
• Providing training opportunities for employees to continue their professional
Project Managers:
Project managers base their goals on objectives handed down by executives and clients. They
develop a project proposal that outlines this goal, as well as the requirements for the finished
product. Understanding the details of the project helps these mangers to break the project into
smaller tasks, outlining the timeline for ideally completing each one. They also decide what

elements of the project to spend more money on, such as raw materials or a workforce. They
supervise the design process as the new software, toy, or space shuttle is developed, and foresee
any issues with the project and plan ahead accordingly.
Responsibilities of a project manager include:
Estimating the cost of a project based on previous experiences and necessary resources
Assigning tasks to each team member
Collecting data about production output and quality
Reporting any delays to executive employees and other stakeholders.
Retrieved February 13, 2020, from https://blog.synergysbs.com/role-of-functional-manager-in-projectmanagement/

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