1 page summary of article attachedhttps://doi.org/10.1177/10983007221126530

Journal of Positive Behavior
1 –14
© Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2022
Article reuse guidelines:
DOI: 10.1177/10983007221126530

Literature Review

Over the past several decades, the number of students with
disabilities who are educated in inclusive school settings
alongside their same-age peers without disabilities has
increased, with 64.8% spending 80% or more of their school
day in inclusive settings during the 2018–2019 school year
(U.S. Department of Education, 2021). However, the
subgroup of students with intellectual and developmental
disabilities (IDD; e.g., intellectual disability [ID], autism
spectrum disorder [ASD], multiple disabilities) continues to
spend a majority of their day in separate special education
settings (U.S. Department of Education, 2021). Only 17.3%
of students with ID, 40% of students with ASD, and 14.2%
of students with multiple disabilities were included in inclu-
sive school settings for 80% or more of their school day
during the 2018–2019 school year (U.S. Department of
Education, 2021).

Education received primarily in separate special educa-
tion settings is problematic as students with IDD may ben-
efit from inclusive education in a number of ways,
including more time engaged in academic tasks (e.g.,
Kurth & Mastergeorge, 2012), greater academic achieve-
ment (e.g., Gee et al., 2020), improved communication

skills (e.g., Kleinert et al., 2015), and greater access to
opportunities for interaction with peers and social skills
practice (e.g., Feldman et al., 2016). Likewise, students
with IDD may experience improvements in challenging
behavior when behavioral supports are implemented in
inclusive school settings (Lory et al., 2020; Walker,
Chung, & Bonnet, 2018).

Despite these potential benefits, several barriers to
accessing inclusive school settings for students with IDD
have been identified, including negative adult perceptions
of student competency, district policy, disadvantaged socio-
economic status, and race (Agran et al., 2020; Kurth et al.,
2016). In addition, challenging behavior—a factor most

1126530 PBIXXX10.1177/10983007221126530Journal of Positive Behavior InterventionsMasud et al.

1University of North Carolina at Charlotte, Charlotte, USA
2Kansas University Center on Developmental Disabilities, Lawrence,

Corresponding Author:
Andy B. Masud, Department of Special Education and Child
Development, University of North Carolina at Charlotte, 9201
University City Blvd., Charlotte, NC 28223, USA.
Email: [email protected]

Functional Communication Training in
Inclusive School Settings for Students
With Intellectual and Developmental
Disabilities: A Literature Review

Andy B. Masud, MAT1 , Virginia L. Walker, PhD, BCBA-D1 ,
Megan E. Carpenter, PhD, BCBA2, and Ashley Anderson, MEd, NBCT1

Functional communication trainin

Why Choose Us

  • 100% non-plagiarized Papers
  • 24/7 /365 Service Available
  • Affordable Prices
  • Any Paper, Urgency, and Subject
  • Will complete your papers in 6 hours
  • On-time Delivery
  • Money-back and Privacy guarantees
  • Unlimited Amendments upon request
  • Satisfaction guarantee

How it Works

  • Click on the “Place Order” tab at the top menu or “Order Now” icon at the bottom and a new page will appear with an order form to be filled.
  • Fill in your paper’s requirements in the "PAPER DETAILS" section.
  • Fill in your paper’s academic level, deadline, and the required number of pages from the drop-down menus.
  • Click “CREATE ACCOUNT & SIGN IN” to enter your registration details and get an account with us for record-keeping and then, click on “PROCEED TO CHECKOUT” at the bottom of the page.
  • From there, the payment sections will show, follow the guided payment process and your order will be available for our writing team to work on it.