GEOG 102 Human Geography

Lab – Millennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals (46 marks)

Learning Outcomes:
· Understand the meaning and the indicators used to measure the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
· Knowledge of various resources and data from international organizations
· Identify and evaluate the progress of development in one or more of the developing countries

This lab can be done individually or in a small group of 2 students. All group members will receive the same grade. A different grouping must be formed from other labs.

In September 2000 the world leaders made a pledge to achieve the following MDGs by 2015.
1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
2. Achieve universal primary education
3. Promote gender equality and empower women
4. Reduce child mortality
5. Improve maternal health
6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases
7. Ensure environmental sustainability
8. Develop a global partnership for development

Evaluate the progress of one of the developing countries (a sub-Saharan African country recommended – see list below) in achieving one of the above MDGs by focusing on one of the specific targets.

Details of the MDGs and SDGs can be found in the following sources.

· Background Information
· United Nations Web Services Section.

· United Nations Development Programme. Human Development Report 2003. Available

· UNDP. 2015. “World Leaders Adopt sustainable Development Goals”

· UNDP 2020.

UNDP. The Sustainable Development Goals are Coming to Life. 2016.

· Data
· United Nations Millennium Development Goals Indicators. (country level data)
United Nations MDG Statistical Annex 2015. (regional level data in pdf file)

· MDG Progress reports 

· United Nations. Millennium Development Goals Report 2015.


· Economic Commission for Africa, African Union, African Development Bank Group. Assessing Progress in Africa Toward the Millennium Development Goals: MDG Report 2015.


· Related web links:
· World Health Organization.

· WHO:]
· UN Food and Agriculture Organization.

List of Countries in SubMillennium Development Goals and Sustainable Development Goals


I. Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)

Adopted by world leaders at the Millennium Summit in September 2000

Agenda for reducing poverty and improving lives


MDG Framework
A framework of 8 goals, 18 targets and 48 indicators to measure progress towards the MDGs

Goal 1. Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger
Target 1.
Halve the proportion of people whose income is less than one dollar a day
Target 2. Achieve full and productive employment
Target 3.
Halve the proportion of people who suffer from hunger


People living below $1.25 per day dropped from almost 50% down to 14%
0.8 billion people continued to live under extreme poverty
SS Africa – marginal progress (43% below poverty)

World Hunger – dropped from 23% in 1990 to 13% in 2014-16
Number of hungry people – remained at 800 million
SS Africa – 1/4 severe food insecurity

Hunger 2000-2015

Goal 2. Achieve universal primary education
Target 3.
Ensure that, by 2015, children everywhere, boys and girls alike, will be able to complete a full course of primary schooling
# of children out of school declined by almost half but 57 million remained out of school.
In SS Africa, only 80% school-aged children enrolled leaving 33 million remained out of school (half of the world’s total)

A school in Pietermaritzburg, South Africa with
a bare playground (photo by F. Yee, 2009)


Goal 3. Promote gender equality and empower women
Target 4.
Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education,
In SS Africa, the gap between girls and boys in primary education has narrowed but girls remain at a disadvantage at the secondary level.
In SS Africa, more than half (55%) of out of school children are girls.

A poster board in China assert the importance of “Providing preferential policies for families with girls (photo by F. Yee 2008)


Gender disparities in secondary education
Costs and poverty (65% of girls from low income while 87% from high income attain lower secondary schools)
Girls’ education is less valued & perceived generating lower returns
Early marriage
Security concerns of young girls away from home

Goal 4. Reduce child mortality
Target 5.
Reduce by two thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate
Globally declined from 90 to 43 but in SS Africa, child mortality doubled that of the world average at 86/1000 in 2015 (6 in developed countries).

A group of grandmothers prepares meals for orphans in the Matero Compound in Zambia (photo by F. Yee 2009)


Child Mortality
Dropped by 50%, from 90 to 43 per 1000 (

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