Instructions: For this Discussion, use the information from the textbook, website, and the videos from Module 2 to answer the following:
1. How does muscle loss impact functional activities?  Elaborate on the impact of day-to-day living?

2. What cognitive abilities decline with age?  What cognitive abilities improve with age?

3. How can dementia affect day-to-day activities? Discuss cognitive function loss regarding independence, especially driving?
4. Discuss the two Elder Project videos and the age changes noticed in all three participants.  Also, note how they adapted to these age changes.
5. Please add any new,  relevant information to the discussion in the form of a youtube, article or anecdote to earn the 100 possible points.Chapter 5
Old Age and the Welfare State
© McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No
reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter Outline
Social programs of the welfare state
The organization of the American welfare state
The age versus need debate
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Origins of the Welfare State
Welfare refers to all government financed
programs that provide benefits for income,
health, and other social needs
Before 1935, the United States had no national
social welfare programs, only a few poorly
funded state old-age pensions and workers’
compensation programs
• Older people who were unable to work were forced
to depend on their families or local charity
© McGraw-Hill Education.
The Social Security Act of 1935
Created two programs for the elderly
• Social Security for retired workers at age 65
• Old Age Assistance for the aged poor
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Amendments to the Social Security
Act of 1935
Benefits for widows and spouses of retired
workers (1937)
• Workers to retire at age 62 with a reduced benefit
• Disability Insurance for workers who were
unable to work because of illness (1972)
• Medicare: A health insurance program for people
65 and older (1965)
• Medicaid: A health insurance benefit for the poor,
which also pays for nursing home care (1965)
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Definition of the Welfare State (1 of 2)
The term “welfare” includes all programs that
protect people from the risks of loss of income
due to unemployment, disability, divorce, poor
health, or retirement
Welfare means not only cash assistance to the
poor but any social program that enhances wellbeing and provides financial security
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Definition of the Welfare State (2 of 2)
Three types of welfare benefits
• Public assistance programs: Provide minimal
benefits and is mainly paid out of income taxes
• Applicants should take a means test to claim benefits
• Social insurance: Provides economic security and is
an earned entitlement
• People contribute to a common pool and share common
• Paid for through payroll taxes
• Fiscal welfare: Indirect payments to individuals
through the tax system, also called tax expenditures
• Include employee contributions to employer-provided
health insurance and savings for retirement
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Social Security
All who contribute receive benefits as a right
Benefit levels are determined by a formula that
reflects the length of time worked and the
amount of wages earned
Replacement rate
• The amount of preretirement pay that is replaced
by the Social Security retirement benefit
• People with higher lifetime earnings have lower
replacement rates
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 5.1 – Income for the
Population Aged 65 and Over, by
Source, 2010 (percent distribution)
Source: U.S Census Bureau (2014b).
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Supplemental Security Income (SSI)
Income supplement program funded by general
tax revenues
Available to aged, blind, and disabled people who
are very poor
Provides cash to meet basic needs
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Medicare is a national health insurance program
for all people 65 or older who are eligible for
Social Security
It is funded by payroll taxes
• Medicare Part A is for hospital insurance
• Medicare Part B covers physician office visits
• Medicare Part C (Medicare advantage) is a
private insurance option
• Medicare Part D covers prescription drugs
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Medigap Policies (1 of 2)
Because so many expenses are not covered by
Medicare, many older people purchase Medigap
policies from private insurance companies
Nearly three-fourths of people 65 or older have
some form of Medigap coverage
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Medigap Policies (2 of 2)
© Rolf Bruderer/Getty Images RF
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Support for the Disabled (1 of 2)
Disability Insurance (DI)
• Part of the Social Security system
• Insures workers against the loss of income should
they become physically or mentally disabled
SSI disability
• Covers people with disabilities who have never
worked for wages or have not worked long
enough to qualify for DI
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Support for the Disabled (2 of 2)
Work disincentives in disability programs
• Most people who enter the disability programs
never leave
• Two-thirds of working-age persons with disabilities
want to work
• People remain on disability because they fear losing
their jobs
• They also fear that they may not earn enough to
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Long-Term Care
Range of services and supportive living
environments that help the elderly and disabled
live independently
It also refers to institutional care for those who
need more extensive help
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Payment Sources for Long-Term
Care (1 of 2)
Medicare’s long-term care benefits
• Pays a tiny, though rapidly growing, proportion of
long-term-care expenditures
• Provides for a limited amount of home health care
but there are strict rules about who is eligible
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Payment Sources for Long-Term
Care (2 of 2)
Medicaid’s long-term care benefits
• Pays for the long-term custodial care in a nursing
• Benefits are provided only to low-income aged who
sufficiently spend down their assets to qualify
Home and Community-Based Waiver
Services Program (HCBS)
• Allows states to provide the poor and the disabled
with a variety of services
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Private Long-Term-Care Insurance
(1 of 2)
Long-term-care insurance policies cover
everything from home and community-based
care to nursing home care
The cost varies according to the type of policy
purchased, the age of the person at the time it
is purchased, and the person’s health
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Private Long-Term-Care Insurance
(2 of 2)
• Lack of regulation to ensure that the plans are
financially stable and pay the promised benefits
• People with serious health problems are rarely
accepted for long-term-care coverage
• Until 1996 there were no tax incentives to
purchase long-term-care as there are for regular
health insurance
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Social Services (1 of 2)
Older Americans Act
• Provides services to enhance independent living,
including meals, personal care and nursing
services, day care, chore services, and meals-onwheels
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Social Services (2 of 2)
Senior centers
• Community-based facilities that provide meals
and social activities
Source: The George F. Landegger Collection of Alabama Photographs is Carol M.
Highsmith’s America, Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division [LC-DIG-highsm07230]
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Housing Policy
• Tax expenditure component of housing policy
• A mortgage-guarantee program that allows home
owners to deduct mortgage interest from taxable
• Housing subsidy program
• Increases the housing supply for the poor by
encouraging developers to construct low-income
housing and by subsidizing rents for poor people
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Age versus Need Debate
Should eligibility for programs and services be
based on need or age?
Arguments for need-based policy
• Age-based policies create tensions between the young
and the old
• Promoting programs for one age group appears biased
• Stigmatizes an entire group of people as poor, frail,
lonely, or depressed
Arguments for age-based policy
• Social Security and Medicare enjoy strong public
• Has been successful in reducing poverty and improving
health care
© McGraw-Hill Education.
End of Presentation
© McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No
reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 6
Biological Perspectives on Aging
© McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No
reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter Outline
Theories of biological aging
The aging body
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Environmental Theories of Aging:
Wear and Tear Theory
Views the body as similar to a machine, like an
old car or truck, that simply wears out
Difficult to test because we don’t know what
constitutes normal wear and tear
Idea of wear and tear implies that a more active
organism should age more quickly
• Yet, the opposite is true in humans
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Environmental Theories of Aging:
Somatic Mutation Theory
Over a lifetime, a person’s body is exposed to
external insults from air pollution, chemicals in
food and water, and radiation
• These insults cause mutations (genetic damage)
to somatic (body) cells
• Proposes that harmful or deleterious mutations,
that is, genes that are incorrectly copied, will
accumulate with advancing age
• Will lead to an increase in pathological changes in
body systems
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Developmental/Genetic Theories of
Aging: Autoimmune Theory
The basic function of the immune system is
It is the body’s army, constantly on alert,
programmed before birth to recognize and
destroy invaders
Based on two scientific discoveries
• The body’s protective immune reactions decline
with age
• The aging immune system loses its ability to
distinguish between self and nonself
• Instead, the immune system attacks proteins of the
body as if they were invaders
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Developmental/Genetic Theories of
Aging: Cross-Linkage Theory
Our cells are composed mostly of protein
Collagen is a common protein found in tendons,
ligaments, bone, cartilage, and skin
• Collagen is the glue that binds cells together by
cross-links, like the rungs of a ladder that connect
the two side boards
• The accumulation of cross-linked collagen is
responsible for such changes as wrinkling of the
skin, hardening of the arteries, and stiffness of
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Developmental/Genetic Theories of
Aging: Free Radical Theory (1 of 2)
Free radicals are unstable molecules that are
produced when the body transforms food into
chemical energy
• They are a by-product of normal cells
When free radicals try to unite with other
molecules, they can damage the cell or cause cell
Most changes associated with aging result from
damage caused by free radicals
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Developmental/Genetic Theories of
Aging: Free Radical Theory (2 of 2)
Useful for understanding why some individuals
are at greater risk of certain diseases than others
and for describing part of the aging process
• It is not, in itself, a general theory of biological
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Developmental/Genetic Theories of
Aging: Genetic Control Theory
The view that the life span is programmed into
the genes
Genes do not determine whether an individual
gets a specific disease or how long an individual
• Many people with a genetic susceptibility to a
specific disease never get it
© McGraw-Hill Education.
The Aging Body
Biological aging refers to the structural and
functional changes that occur in an organism over
© Lynn Johnston, “For Better of For Worse.” Lynn Johnston Productions, Inc. Distributed by
United Feature Syndicate, Inc. Reprinted with permission.
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Active Life Expectancy (1 of 2)
The measure of the number of years a person
can expect to live without a disability
Men have an active life expectancy of 60 years,
which is 84 percent of their whole life expectancy
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Active Life Expectancy (2 of 2)
Women have active life expectancy of 58 years,
which is 82 percent of their whole life expectancy
• Women have fewer years of active life expectancy
because they are more likely than men to live past
• Risk of becoming disabled from chronic ailments
increases rapidly after the age of 85
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Aging of the Exterior Body: Skin
Wrinkles and sagging skin
• One of the most obvious signs of aging
• Occur when the deeper layers of skin lose their
• Lentigo: Discoloration or spotting that appears on
the face, back of hands, and forearms of older
• Senile purpura: Sites where fragile blood vessels
have ruptured
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Aging of the Exterior Body: Hair
Hair turns gray because active pigment
producing cells decrease
Baldness is more common in males and occurs
when testosterone acts with genes
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Age-Related Illness of the Skin
Skin cancer is the most common form of human
Most common risk factor for skin cancer is
ultraviolet radiation from the sun and tanning beds
• A person’s risk of skin cancer is related to lifetime
exposure to UV radiation
• Refers to three different medical conditions
• Basal cell carcinoma
• Squamous cell carcinoma
• Melanoma
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Aging of the Nervous System (1 of 2)
As people grow older, neurons in the brain die
and are not replaced
• Some areas in the brain lose few cells
• Loss of cells causes decreased flexibility, slowness
of movement, and stooped posture
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Aging of the Nervous System (2 of 2)
Cerebellum is in charge of the body’s
movements and balance
• When damaged, balance and muscular
movements are disrupted, which can increase the
risk of falling
• Strength and balance training can help prevent
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Age-Related Illness: Parkinson’s
Disease (1 of 2)
A neurological disorder that may occur as early
as age 30 but is more often diagnosed in older
In most cases, Parkinson’s develops slowly over
many years
Parkinson’s is caused by the slow death of nerve
cells in the central portion of the brain
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Age-Related Illness: Parkinson’s
Disease (2 of 2)

Trembling or shaking of a limb
Slow movement and rigidity
A temporary inability to move called “freezing”
Chronic constipation
Uncontrollable spasm-like movements
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Aging of the Sensory Organs (1 of 4)
• As we age, changes in various parts of the eye
reduce the ability to receive visual stimulation
• Older people need more light to perceive depth and
to see clearly
• Presbyopia: An inability to focus on near objects
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Aging of the Sensory Organs (2 of 4)
Source: National Eye Institute, National Institutes of Health
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Aging of the Sensory Organs (3 of 4)
• Hearing begins to decline through our middle
• The normal loss of hearing with age is termed
• This makes it hard to hear high-pitched sounds
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Aging of the Sensory Organs (4 of 4)
Smell and taste
• Loss of taste is caused by degeneration of the taste
buds or by a change in the way the brain perceives
the information from the taste buds
• Can lead to poor nutrition
Touch and temperature
• Old people lose some ability to regulate heating
and cooling
• They have problems staying warm because of the
loss of the layer of fatty tissue beneath the skin
that helps insulate the body
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Age-Related Illness: Vision (1 of 2)
A cataract is caused when the lens of the eye
becomes cloudy and light cannot penetrate
• Most cataracts can be removed surgically
• The lens may be replaced by an artificial lens, or
the person may wear a contact lens or special
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Age-Related Illness: Vision (2 of 2)
Glaucoma is a serious condition that can lead
to blindness
• Occurs when fluid cannot leave the anterior
cavity of the eye through the normal channels
• Pressure builds up within the eye, gradually
destroying vision
• Can be treated with eyedrops or laser surgery
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Aging of the Skeletal System:
Bones, Cartilage, and Connective
Tissues (1 of 3)
Bone is a dynamic tissue made up of calcium
and protein
When calcium is needed by the body, old bone is
removed; then new bone is formed as calcium is
added back
• As people grow, older bone is broken down faster
than it is replaced, resulting in bone loss
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Aging of the Skeletal System:
Bones, Cartilage, and Connective
Tissues (2 of 3)
Osteoporosis occurs when outside walls of the
bone become thinner and inner part becomes
• Symptoms include loss of height, back pain, and
curving of upper back or spine
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Aging of the Skeletal System:
Bones, Cartilage, and Connective
Tissues (3 of 3)
• Afflicts more than one-third of men and one-half
of women over 65
• Indications – Joint inflammation and pain,
swelling, and deformity
• Can be treated with ibuprofen if mild
• Causes – Wear and tear at joints and
degeneration of cartilage with age
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 6.3 – The Progression of
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Aging of the Muscular System:
Muscle Mass and Strength
Between 30 and 80, a person can lose 30
percent of muscle mass
Loss of muscle mass and strength is not life
threatening but can make daily activities more
difficult and reduce levels of overall physical
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Aging of the Female Reproductive
Climacteric change in women is referred to as
• This leads to the end of monthly menstrual flow,
the cessation of ovulation, and a decline in the
production of the female hormones estrogen and
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Aging of the Male Reproductive
There is no male menopause
Men may father children well into their 70s and
Erectile dysfunction is a common problem in
older men
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Aging of the Cardiovascular System:
Heart and Blood Vessels (1 of 3)
Many age-related changes occur in the heart
Some of these include muscle atrophy and a
reduction in the amount of blood pumped with
each contraction
Blood vessel changes
• One change that occurs with aging is the loss of
elasticity of the blood vessels
• Since these veins or arteries are not as elastic,
the blood pressure increases
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Aging of the Cardiovascular System:
Heart and Blood Vessels (2 of 3)
Hypertension and heart attacks

Hypertension is high blood pressure

Occurs when arteries are no longer elastic
• Hypertension leading to a heart attack is called
hypertensive cardiovascular disease
• Factors

Genetics, environment, stress, smoking, obesity,
lack of exercise, and low socioeconomic status
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Aging of the Cardiovascular System:
Heart and Blood Vessels (3 of 3)
© Image Source/ Jupiterimages RF
© McGraw-Hill Education.
End of Presentation
© McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No
reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter 7
Psychological Perspectives on Aging
© McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No
reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Chapter Outline
Aging and cognitive change
Mental disorders
Personality and adaptation
Stage theories of adult development
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Aging and Cognitive Change
Cognitive psychology is the study of mental
Psychologists have conducted extensive research
on how mental processes change over the life
Social gerontologists are concerned with
identifying and understanding patterns of change
in mental processes associated with age
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Wisdom (1 of 2)
Ability to reason, to learn from experience, to
use good judgment, and to use information
• With age, we learn to how to make better
decisions by remembering consequences and
outcomes from past decision making
• Wisdom comes with the passage of time and from
different life experiences
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Wisdom (2 of 2)
© Blend Images/Alamy RF
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Fluid Intelligence
Involves the ability to deal with novel situations
and unforeseen problems
• Verbal component focuses on learned knowledge,
such as vocabulary, arithmetic, and
• Performance component measures puzzle-solving
ability involving blocks or pictures
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Research on Fluid Intelligence in Old
The classic aging pattern stated that fluid
intelligence declined with age
• Psychologist Schaie and his colleagues challenged
this idea
Schaie measured intelligence as:

Verbal meaning
Spatial orientation
Inductive reasoning
Number and word fluency
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Longitudinal Change in Primary
Abilities (1 of 3)
On average, the subjects showed a gain in all
components of intelligence until they reached
their late 30s or early 40s
Most subjects showed a modest decline in some
abilities in their early 60s
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Longitudinal Change in Primary
Abilities (2 of 3)
Around age 70, intelligence declined rapidly
• Some subjects declined in one area, but none
declined in all five areas
• Those from higher socioeconomic status were
better able to maintain their intellectual abilities
• Healthier people maintained higher levels of
intellectual functioning than those who were ill
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Figure 7.1 – Longitudinal Change in
Primary Abilities (3 of 3)
Note: From seven-year within-subject data.
Source: Schaie (1994:306).
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Crystallized Intelligence
Based on the information, skills, and strategies that
people have learned through experience
Reflects accumulated past experience and
Refers to the acquisition of practical expertise in
everyday life
© Blend Images/Alamy RF
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Learning and Memory
Learning is the process of acquiring knowledge
and skills
Memory is the retention or storage of knowledge
• Encoding: Information that is learned is placed
into memory and stored for later use
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Working Memory
Ability to temporarily store and manipulate
Declines with age
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Long-Term Memory
Permanent storage site for past experiences
Example – Driving
• Repeated constantly as part of daily living
• Remembered because it is part of long-term
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Mental disorders caused by deterioration of the
Affect memory, personality, social functioning,
cognitive functions, and normal activities
• Impairment of memory, intellect, judgment, and
orientation and excessive or shallow emotions
• May also be accompanied by depression, anxiety,
delusions, and challenging or aggressive
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Alzheimer’s Disease
Common type of dementia
Slow onset and involves subtle changes
• Early sign of Alzheimer’s is the loss of short-term
• Other signs are repetition and confusion
• Patient may exhibit dramatic personality changes
and can be withdrawn and physically aggressive
Alzheimer’s patients forget permanently
© McGraw-Hill Education.
What Causes Alzheimer’s?
Scientists do not know the exact cause for this
Numerous studies show that it appears to be
Some believe that the disease can be an effect
of poor nutrition or stress
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Vascular Dementia
Result of number of small strokes that
eventually impair the brain’s functioning
Brain damage over time is irreversible
• Mini strokes cause aphasia
• Aphasia: Damage to the speech and language
centers in the brain
© McGraw-Hill Education.
What Is Clinical Depression?

Depressed mood
Loss of interest in pleasurable activities
Loss of appetite
Sleep disturbance
Feelings of worthlessness and guilt
Difficulties in thinking and concentration
Psychomotor disturbances
Suicidal notions for at least two weeks
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Depression in the Elderly
Elderly are less likely than younger people to be
Women exhibit more depressive symptoms than
• Sources of gender gap include the loss of a
support network, declining health, and decreased
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Personality and Adaptation (1 of 2)
Personality traits are enduring dispositions
toward thoughts, feelings, and behavior, both
inherited and learned
• Five major factors

© McGraw-Hill Education.
Personality and Adaptation (2 of 2)
Coping: State of compatibility between the
individual and the environment that allows a
person to maintain a sense of well-being and
satisfaction with life
Adaptation: Range of behaviors an individual
uses to meet demands, such as developing
habits to confront problems and to manage
frustration and anxiety
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Erikson’s Theory of Identity
Presumed that there was a pattern inherent in all
human development, one that proceeded in stages
• If a stage is not successfully completed, then individuals
will experience some type of impairment in trying to
complete the subsequent stages
• A person who feels his or her life has been appropriate
and meaningful achieves integrity
• Someone who feels that his or her life has been
unfulfilling, that the time remaining is too short, and
that death is to be feared falls into despair
• Someone who feels that his or her life has been
unfulfilling, that the time remaining is too short, and
that death is to be feared falls into despair
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Table 7.1 – Erikson’s Stages of
Psychosocial Development
Opposing Possibilities
Developmental Tasks
1. Basic trust versus mistrust
Birth to 12 months-Baby develops sense of whether world
is good or bad
2. Autonomy versus shame
18 months to 2 years-Child develops balance of
independence over doubt
3. Initiative versus guilt
3 to 6 years-Child begins to try out new things and is not
overwhelmed by failure
4. Industry versus inferiority
6 years to puberty-Child must learn basic skills of the
culture or develop a sense of incompetence
5. Identity versus identity confusion
Puberty to young adulthood-Adolescent must gain a
sense of self or experience confusion about roles
6. Intimacy versus isolation
Young adulthood-individual attempts to make
commitments to others or suffers from isolation and selfabsorption
7. Generativity versus stagnation
Middle adulthood-Mature adult is concerned with guiding
the next generation or feels a lack of fulfillment
8. Integrity versus despair
Old age-Individual must integrate caring for others with
the need to accept care and the possibility of death
Source: Papalia and Olds (1998:76).
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Men’s Transition through Adulthood Levinson’s Theory (1 of 2)
Age 30 transition
• Men who are satisfied with their life have a
smooth transition
• Others who were not would find conflict and try to
rediscover who they were
In their early forties, men go through midlife
transition where they ask themselves what
have they accomplished in life
• Some who spent more time on their career would
shift priorities and focus more on family
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Types of Women in Midlife – Apter’s
Theory (1 of 2)
Traditional: Typical housewife who fulfilled
social expectations in midlife
• Became tired of meeting the needs of others
Innovative: Pioneers in a man’s world who
modeled their careers as men do
• At midlife, they looked back to see if their career
was worth taking time away from family
© McGraw-Hill Education.
Types of Women in Midlife – Apter’s
Theory (2 of 2)
Expansive: Actions guided by others’
• Lack training and education and seek radical
changes in their lives
Protestors: Forced to mature more quickly due
to early responsibilities
• Try to find a way to gain their early adulthood
© McGraw-Hill Education.
End of Presentation
© McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Authorized only for instructor use in the classroom. No
reproduction or further distribution permitted without the prior written consent of McGraw-Hill Education.
Time Code Burn
John: You ever hear such a pair of hams in your life?
Jack: You lead, I follow.
John: Okay. The way it should be.
Jack: We usually race up and down here once a day.
Jack: My room is next door, and a person was in here passed away, so John took over. And we
hit it off.
John: And we’ve only met each other about 3½ months ago and we have become very, very, very
close friends.
Jack: Yeah.
John: We, we think and act alike and we almost brothers. But that’s the attitude and spirit of this
place. This room is my home now. Not, not my house or my apartment or that I used to
live in. I now, this is my home, I live here and this is, this is where I belong. And when I
get into this room I know I’m home. It’s got pic, couple of pictures on the walls that are
mine, a few doo-daddies on the rail above my bed that remind me of my, my past life. But
this is my life and this is my home now and I think Jack feels the same way.
Jack: And we gotta make the best of it.
John: That’s right.
Jack: And which we do.
John: We go down to the parties, there’s a party once a week and a social once a week. We go to
the odd party, but we go to all the socials because the Legion runs the socials and they very
kindly provide free beer. So naturally we’re found at all the socials.
Jack: He’s a beer drinker.
John: You get one can of beer, you know, this isn’t, this isn’t some debauch, it’s just, it’s just one
can of beer. But when you haven’t had anything to drink for a year, cuz I’ve been, I’ve
been in hospital for a year now, various hospitals, it’s uh, it tastes pretty good.
Jack: Yeah.
John: I’ve always been a happy man, I’ve always been very lucky. I flew for most of my life,
and I owned five printing businesses, which I loved. And I’ve always been, and I had a
wonderful, wonderful wife who lasted, lasted — it sounds horrible — lasted for 60 years but,
and then she left ahead of me.
John: I first came in here, I was put into the Fraser ward. I’d never met Alzheimer’s people
before, just in, you know, an Alzheimer’s here and there. But there I was, only two of us in
there and were, didn’t have a, a mental problem and it’s, an Alzheimer’s wards all right,
but you talk to someone and they can’t talk back. It’s like talking to a plant of flowers or
something. And it’s very, very, very lonely. I talk to everybody here and everybody
answers me. But down there, nobody talked to me. I couldn’t wait to get out of it. I was
there about 14 days, 15 days and this fellow very kindly died in this room and I couldn’t
wait to get up here.
John: You know, I wasn’t cross at them. I began to realize that they had a problem too. They
lived inside a body that they couldn’t operate anymore.
Jack: Yeah.
John: Terrible, but I don’t, hope I don’t get Alzheimer’s.
Jack: I, I went through an episode with my wife. She had Alzheimer’s.
John: Oh dear.
Jack: You know. Five years up in the General and we never had a conversation.
John: Yeah. Terrible.
Jack: You know, she, well I know how it is and uh, it was a miserable, miserable five years far as
I was concerned. You know.
John: Yeah.
Jack: You couldn’t do nothing for her, you know. The only thing I, I did, I give her Tylenol.
Yeah, yeah, she was, she was a wonderful person, but you know, she come up with that
dreadful disease. I couldn’t do a thing.
John: Nothing you can do.
Jack: No, nothing.
John: I bet she didn’t even know you were there.
Jack: She didn’t.
John: No.
Jack: No.
John: Awful.
Jack: No, I’d go in and wave to her, she’d wave back, but — but she, we didn’t have no
conversation whatsoever. It was a miserable life.
John: So after what Jack went through, and then I went through with, with my wife. This is a
pleasant, a pleasant existence. And we are determined to be happy. Even when things turn
sour, like my leg’s gone sour and I can’t, it’s not weight-bearing. I’ll, I’ll, I’ll make it
work. I’ll walk.
Jack: (In hallway). What are you doing, nothing? We need a pusher here. Get behind and push.
Not too fast so they can get it all.
John: Slow down, wait for me.
John: I’ve been here since um, the 24th day of February, which is about eight months. Time goes
by slowly and yet, and yet the days are full because they keep them full here. Like this
party this afternoon, there’s two or three of those every week. They just take an hour, you
go down and you sit at a table and meet people you haven’t met before and you listen to
some music and then you come back to your room, and the afternoon’s gone. Well, I think
if you just sit around like a lump and stare at the wall, I think that you age you about ten
times quicker. You’ve got to keep your grey matter going.
Jack: When I was admitted here from the hospital there, that first day I was in here, I said this is
like a goddamn ward. You know? Nobody, they, some of them wouldn’t talk here, you
know. I, I, I don’t know if it was, I, I was always, always involved with people, eh, you
know. And I like to mingle with them and, you know, if they like me, okay, if they don’t,
well, so what.
John: Friendship is essential in a place like this. You’ve got to be friendly and expect nothing in
return. When I first came into this ward there were 14 other people in here, and I was the
new boy. Nobody talked to me for about three days. I wasn’t, you know, being ignored,
it’s just nobody thought about it.
John: Most of my Air Force buddies are dead or they have Alzheimer’s and they’re tucked away
somewhere. I’ve outlived most of ‘em. That’s the snag of being 85. I’ve got friends and
they say well we’ll come and visit you someday, which means they’re never coming
anywhere near the damn place, and it doesn’t bother me. Jack next door, we, we have a lot
of fun together. He’s a couple years older than me, but he’s a couple years funnier than me
Jack: Anybody can make friends. Got an old joker next door here. You know, I, I, I didn’t even
have a clue who he was when he come in here, you know. And I know, we just hit it off,
you know.
John: Well, we’re still Fric and Frac, we still tease each other and bounce off each other and
make other people laugh. We have a good time here.
Jack: Well my daughter usually comes every day with the Journal. She works at night of course,
you know, but she brings the Journal up every night with her, with her. And the other one,
well she, she’s a little under the weather and all that, you know. She’s got her problems,
but I don’t expect her out or something. But there’s always one, one, one or the other
comes up here every day. I was always like my folks too, you know. I always thought of
them number one. You know, anything I could do for them, I’d do it. There’s people here,
they don’t have — their families don’t come to see ‘em at all. And I don’t think that’s right.
But who am I to judge, eh?
John: The beginning of life and the end of life have an affinity for each other. These little devils
have so much energy, it makes you sick to look at them. They’re jumping up and down
and leaping around and having such a wonderful time being little. You know, I’ve
forgotten what that’s like. I haven’t been little since 1926 for God’s sake. Change is
possible at 85 if you want to do it. If you want to be a lump and sit around, there are
people here who want to be lumps. And they sit around and they just turn up for meals
sometimes and they spend most of their life in bed and quite frequently, I mean after all
why do you come to a place like this? You come to a place like this to have a gracious last
few years and die. I’m going to probably die in this room and I, and I know that. Doesn’t
depress me at all. We, when you’re born, you’re born to die. It’s a dismal thought, but it
isn’t a dismal thought, it’s just the cycle of life.
John: (Coming off elevator). Typical of Jack, rush, rushes out and runs over a girl.
Jack: Are you coming?
John: I’m right behind you.
Jack: Yeah, well here we are.
John: Jack made a very interesting comment to me at lunchtime today. Today’s the 35th
anniversary of his retirement, so he really had a life to enjoy.
Jack: 32 years, John.
John: 32, I’m sorry.
Jack: Yeah.
John: But isn’t that, isn’t that wonderful?
Jack: 32 years.
John: He’s been re — so if you want to retire early, work for the post office.
Jack: In fact, I’m retired longer than I worked. That’s hard to believe, eh?
John: No, no, no, I’m sure you got it figured out. My health? It’s been rather poor for the last
two months. I’ve had um, a bad cold that turned into the flu and that turned, that released
my, that took away my uh, resistance and I finished up with a big bowel infection and I
was, be fouling my bed about six times a day. And it’s a very, very humiliating experience
to have to call a nurse to come and clean you up. I’m, I think, touch wood, that I’m over it
now, but uh, only in the last few days. I’ve lost a lot of weight and I am very weak, I can’t
walk yet. I’ll be able to before long. Next, by next spring maybe, you know. There’s no
screaming panic. But basically my health is good.
Jack: My health? Uh, 90 percent. I’m a diabetic, hey. And I broke my hip, you know. It started
all over again just, just like a baby, you know, you I, I can wheel, wheel around pretty good
with the walker and uh, this thing here and I can stand, but I can’t move myself, you know.
Oh, you take time. It’s just like everything else, it takes time.
John: Well, I still can’t walk and that’s not my fault, that’s because we lost our um, physical
therapy and number one girl and she, I was under her wing. I was in the cat’s whisker
learning to walk and she took another job with Capital Health and we, and we can’t get
another physical training therapist cause they’re almost impossible to find – just
impossible. So I haven’t been doing very much exercise and hence I’m not doing as well
as I should be. Now Jack, who was little better advanced on me and he’s already walking –
and that makes me mad. I mean he’s my buddy, so it doesn’t matter. But he beat me by
about two weeks and that’s all it took, I was that close.
Nurse: Hello John.
John: Come on in, dear. Boy, I’m glad to see you, I’m glad to get back in bed, it’s been a busy
Nurse: You have a good day today, John?
John: I had a wonderful day, very interesting one. Oh, my leg is sore.
Nurse: Take your time, no rush.
John: Thanks, sweetie. I can’t rush if I tried. This is the most interesting gadget that you could
certainly demonstrate for these people. It enables these two little girls to pick me up and
put me in bed. Which is really something.
Nurse: ‘kay, lean forward a bit.
John: Yeah. Don’t do it fast, do it right. I don’t want to get hung up there by one testicle or
Nurse: No, we’ll leave that for uh, for a Tuesday, John — that was yesterday.
John: Well that was Tuesday. Okay, now I hang on here.
Nurse: Bring you up. Now stand with the lift, John.
John: I don’t like it when the machine screams like that, I’m quite a nice fellow, really.
Nurse: (?) scream, not you.
John: My knee is sore, but that’s all right. That, that’s it. Let’s not go any higher.
Jack: There’s a few things I like to do which I can’t do. Can’t do it, can’t do it. Yeah. But I’d
like to get out a little more, but that’s the circumstances. I, I wouldn’t want to be sitting in
one of these things all day. Not for me. I like to be mobile, you know, socialize.
Nurse: Okay?
John: Down we go.
Nurse: Ready?
John: Down we go.
Nurse: Down.
John: Down, down, down. Ladies underwear, sheets, towels. I’m sorry, I laugh at everything,
you know that. That’s me.
Jack: Nurse!
Nurse: Jack, what kind of pills you looking for?
Jack: What?
Nurse: What kind of pills you looking for? Which pills you looking for?
Jack: No, no pills, uh, uh, (?), yeah.
Jack: What I miss? Well, well I miss all the surroundings for one thing, and the neighbours. I
was telling John today I miss driving that old car, you know.
John: Yeah, me too.
Jack: Yeah.
John: Sticking my wife in the right hand seat and just taking off, a couple of hours together, just
Jack: Yeah.
John: I enjoyed being with Barbara and the children — my children and their children. That’s, if I
could have any portion of my life again, that’s what I would take.
John: (Watching footage). That’s right, and we still hit it off.
Jack: That’s in your room, isn’t it?
John: Yeah.
Russ: You should get him to tell the story of the Christmas party, it was a great event.
John: The floor manager here came up to me and said are you having a Christmas party this year,
and this was on a Sunday. And no one had ever mentioned a Christmas party to me, so I
said what do you want? And she says it’s too late now, we haven’t got time. I said oh,
we’ve always got time — time’s the one thing we have in abundance in this place — tell me
what you want. And she said oh, turkey, and I said oh fine, I can arrange that. So I got a
hold of Jack’s uh, daughter, and Russ to provide the music. And when you contributed to a
party, it’s a better party. And uh, Russ was kind enough to do the illegal thing, he brought
a few bottles of beer and a couple of bottles of wine up and we all had a little sip and we all
felt very festive.
Russ: Jack was the best singer, I gotta tell you, he has a voice — you should try him to sing a few,
a few bars, he’s, he’s wonderful. He was the leader.
Jack: Thank you, Russ.
Russ: It was very enthusiastic, they had about 35, 40 people, and I said …
Jack: Mention the fact that we couldn’t get him to sing.
Russ: Yeah, that was a bonus.
John: That’s a plus.
Jack: He was a emcee, of course.
John: Middle class. They gave us a challenge and we picked it up.
Russ: But I don’t think they went through proper channels.
John: We didn’t, we did challenge on, on Sunday and we had the party on Wednesday. There’s
no time to go through red tape and who’s gonna do this. We just did it. That that’s, I’m
afraid, that Jack was in the Army and I was in the Royal Air Force and uh, well, we’re used
to scrounging for a living and, and this is the atmosphere here. We went through the place
and found out where they stored the tables, we wanted 14 tables, we just took ‘em.
Jack: It was a wonderful event, you know?
John: It was a good event.
Jack: Yeah, it was.
Russ: It was the best Christmas party I’ve been to in years. I’m thinking about joining the
military just so I could perhaps get my name in a little bit later, but.
John: You want to be here, you’ve got to be a veteran. And I like it here because I am a veteran
and I’m surrounded by people who at one stage in their life were daft enough to get mixed
up in World War II. This was a very brave soldier but never admit it.
Jack: (?) him.
John: Never admit it, but he was a very brave man.
John: One of the things about Kipnes, it’s one of the, the few really sad things is that the, the
death rate is, is quite high. We’re all very, very old, we’ve all got problems, and usually
we don’t have granny homes and grandfather homes to go into. This is where you, this is
where you wash up. It, it’s a veteran, it’s a centre for veterans and to be a veteran,
particularly in the 2nd World War you uh, you got to be an old man like me. Or a very old
man like Jack.
Jack: Just don’t include me in that, eh?
John: And of course we pass away. It happens. Life and death are brothers. And one of the sad
things is that uh, once or twice a week you’ll see the flag and the, the Canadian flag go into
the half mast and you know that one of your brothers in one of the hospital wards here, or
one of the houses, as we call them, has passed away. An astonishing number of them do
and we’ve lost, Jack, on this floor, we’ve lost what, five or six in the last few months.
Jack: Oh, numerous people. I don’t know how many.
John: There’s 15 of us, 15 to each, into each house, and in this particular house uh, we stay at 15
because of course days after the person’s died, there’s a wait list, in comes the next person
on, on the wait list. But uh, it’s sad, you lose your friends, but that’s the way it is. Jack
will come to my funeral and then someone will go to his. Cuz I, cuz I don’t want to go to
his, I’m gonna miss him too much.
00:22:49:25: Finished.
Time Code Burn
My husband will be giving my mom pills on Sunday morning cuz he takes her to
church. Uh, my mom’s name is Joanna Matejko.
I live by myself and I enjoy living here. I have my garden. I don’t hire anybody,
just to, to have exercise. Not because I cannot afford to hire somebody, I can. But I
do it specially to be able to work. To move.
My mom, when she began to lose her memory she was very, very upset. She called
me and she was crying and she said I know I’m losing my memory and I don’t
know what to do. And that was traumatic for both of us, you know, because I
didn’t know what to do either, I hadn’t looked into any of it, so we were both
Right now she doesn’t know to what extent she is losing her memory. We go out
for, with my daughter for dinner, for example, and my daughter goes to the
bathroom and she very, kind of cheerfully says well, why didn’t, why didn’t Anya
come? And she, but when she shows up she’s very happy to see her. So you see,
it’s not, for her it’s no longer a problem.
In the beginning it was horrible, it was, and I do want to say that to anybody who is
going through it that the beginning is absolutely awful because suddenly your life
changes and suddenly you have to face decisions like going to see, visit senior’s
homes and where do I place my mom?
I didn’t think I’d be able to work again. My blood pressure went up, I had bad
diabetes readings, I was depressed. But after you realize that there’s a lot of help.
You can see the humour in the situation and you, I can see that my mom is — you
can see that she’s absolutely happy — she’s as happy as she’s ever been in her life.
So at this point, while there’s things to be done, but they’re no longer stressful;
they’re no — well, stressful — I mean they’re no longer really horrible.
I have been independent all my life. Even when my husband was alive we were
Where do you see yourself in three years from now?
Joanna:Oh, you know, I don’t think about it. And I am happy not to think about it.
If it weren’t for the fact that I gave up some of my jobs, I probably would be a
basket case. I probably would need Meals on Wheels myself. And home care
nurses because simply taking care of kids and having a mom and going through the
emotional trauma and having to decide, you know, where is she gonna go?
It is surprising how quickly the roles reverse and how quickly you come to accept
it. She still is really bothered by, let’s say if I look in her fridge. She doesn’t know
what date it is so she’ll have soups and things for months and there’s mold growing
on them, and she doesn’t want me to throw them out because she says they’re
perfectly fine. It was only last week that she got them. So some things are a
I’m trying to think of what will happen in another two years and I was struck by my
mom saying — I wasn’t angry, but I was on the verge of being angry that she
doesn’t think about it. If I were to take her to a senior’s home, I would have to tie
her up and drug her because she’s not going. And she doesn’t feel there is a need
for it and I don’t think she ever will. Any decisions we make will have to be made
by myself, or by my husband and myself without really her full knowledge or I
guess her consent. Maybe even not with, with her consent.
You have a good family doctor that looks after you?
Yes, she’s a very good doctor, but I don’t go to her. I don’t need it, so why should
Mom, you went to see a geriatrician who gave you (?) …
… so.
We went twice for the tests and …
Oh, I forgot about that.
That’s right, so that was fairly recently, just a few months ago.
Cuz I think that I’m losing a little bit my memory. But it’s, it’s not unusual at my
What we’re looking at is could we bring my cousin from Poland to come and take
care of her? Could we hire somebody? Could we, you know, we, I mean one
possibility is for her to live with us, but that’s risky, you know, I’m not sure that I
want my kids in that situation where she — it, it’s very, very stressful to be with
somebody who can’t remember, who might leave the house, who you lose in a
shopping mall, you know. I’m not sure that that’s fair to families.
I would like her to stay as happy as she is right now. I just hope she never has to
realize that there is really, things are different. Hopefully even if she has somebody
coming in to live with her she’ll still have that attitude there is no problem, life is
great, isn’t it wonderful, you know, you could be losing your memory, you’ve lost
your driver’s license. But the world is just a glorious place.
I have a lady who comes here to help me. So I’m taking care of.
I come to every week, Monday or Wednesday, and help her to clean her house, and
I’m company for her and speaking with Polish. It’s hard to tell her sometimes you
do this, you do that, because she doesn’t know she’s very sick.
Physically is okay, he, she’s very energetic and she speaks but sometimes she, she,
she sit on the sofa and about 35 minutes she watch wall and do nothing. When I
clean around I see her, what happen.
I do whatever I can to enjoy life. I have so many books. I was always a reader, I
read lots of books. I read more now than I used to because when I was working I
had no time, and now I can spend time reading.
Does she read a lot?
No. No. Maybe she has a problem with her eyes. She’s tired after one hour, she’s
tired. She lie down on the sofa and rest.
But I have also many friends. I was working in some Polish organizations, so
people know me in the Polish community and I, I made quite a few friends, close
friends. So besides my family, my friends visit me from time to time.
When people are sick nobody don’t, don’t want to see her often. Sometimes call to
how are you, (?), but old people are lonely, very lonely.
I, I feel that my memory’s not as good as it used to be, but it is not bad. Oh no, I
can’t complain.
Every year is worst. Every year is worse. Last week it was bad because she put on
the oven and she forgot. She was in the living room and close to her pot was small
paper towel. I was afraid about this and I told Agnieszka block off oven because is
the best for her mother. But this is problem. But she told, she thought oh, I am, I
am healthy, I am okay. She’s angry about family, about everything, what problem
with you? I am okay.
Two weeks ago I saw two guys cleaning vents all on all, all house. It was very
expensive, about over $500. When she wrote a cheque, she was, she start to crying,
this is no fair, I am old woman and what happened, this is too much, and I told her
Joanna, you write on the, on your signature, on the paper you agree with this. But
she doesn’t understand. She was crying, she was crying, she was shaking.
I’m healthy, unbelievably healthy. I spend two years as a child in Siberia in the
Soviet Union, we were deported to the Soviet Union from Poland. I experienced
hard time there, but not any more. I don’t see any hardships.
We decided to switch the mails so that the mail comes to me now. She has some
insurance through the Retired Teacher’s Association but because the bills for the
dues were getting lost, and they said that if we missed one more payment that the
insurance would be lost. And so I called the insurance people and it turned out that
actually my mom had never declared any of her medications, so there were $4,000
worth of bills that were never declared. So it’s kinda funny really, you know, it’s
just …
It’s not so funny. I lost the money.
I am very healthy, I think, for my age, but I don’t need anything except some
vitamins. That’s all. And for, for my body, yes, that is a special medicine for, for
my memory.
Yeah, it’s important that she doesn’t take them too many times a day, so that’s why
their nurses come, health care comes.
I take medicine in her presence so she’s sure everything’s all right. Yes, because I
might forget. And I might forget that I didn’t take it. But I, I think that I’m still
able to be by myself in my house. I would be unhappy being somewhere else. And
this way I’m taken care of and I can be a lady of the house. What do you think
about my memory?
Well, I think it’s a little worse than you describe it, but …
I still remember what is really important.
My mom has had though, a dishonest friend of mine who knew she had
Alzheimer’s, came to borrow $5000 from her. And my mom took her to the bank
and um, fortunately, for whatever reason, they didn’t withdraw it. They were
gonna come the next day. And by then I had taken away all her credit cards and
resigned all the — you know, not that, again, maybe this wasn’t a dishonest person,
but this was somebody knew my mom had Alzheimer’s and $5000 is a lot of money
to be borrowing from an 81-year old person for a business that we had no, we didn’t
even know what it was for. My mom had no idea.
What I’m really dreading, Claire, is moving my mom from her home to some
facility, and how is that done?
It may come to a point that she’s not capable of making her own decision and that
will be decided by the physicians to declare your mom incompetent. But till then,
till she’s not declared competent and she’s capable of making her own decision, we
have to respect her wish. And so (?), definitely it, it’s, it’s an option for us if we
can prevent to go to supportive living.
Yeah, yeah.
Hello. How you doing?
Well, thank you.
I’m Claire, the home care nurse. We talked this morning and there was problem
with your medication. It would be just one bubble pack with just one pill, which is
the important one for your bone, you know, the one you take once a week on
Wednesday morning?
Yeah, that’s really good, (phosomac?). Where, where do they usually keep your
box of medication? Remember we locked into a box?
Where would that be?
(Opening box). Let’s see if it’s in there. And Sunday morning again is missing.
That’s surprising. I don’t know.
And you don’t know, and do you, you don’t remember if you took it or not?
I don’t know.
Okay, you know what, it’s not here. You had it in your hands this morning.
Oh no.
I forget.
Oh that’s okay, you know what, I’ll just help you looking for that, okay?
That’s not okay.
So I’ll put the, the box back in here so we know exactly where it is. When is the
last time you had a bath?
Yesterday in the evening.
Yeah, your, your hair looks really nice and clean. Yeah. And do you do it on your
own or somebody help you?
Oh, no, no, no, no, nobody helps me.
I wouldn’t like anybody to help me.
What do you do for meals? Do you cook a little bit?
Just a little bit, but I have uh, lunches.
They bring my lunches.
Okay, they bring you lunches and that, because I think Meals on Wheels are
coming, aren’t they?
Three times a week. Cuz I know you’re not using your stove anymore.
Yes, that’s right.
How do you feel about that?
Oh, I’m comfortable.
Oh, you’re comfortable with that.
Oh yes.
And do you know why we had to do that? Why your daughter had to get it unplug?
Do you understand why we had to do that?
Because I didn’t do anything wrong with this.
You know what, it’s just because I think it’s really dangerous to leave some food or
anything boiling and forgetting sometime to turn it off. So it’s just really for safety
Yes, I understand, but …
Yeah, oh that’s good.
… it never happened to me.
I know. It’s just we want you to stay at home, but we want you to be safe. And
sometimes it’s one of the things we have to do to keep people safe at home.
What can I do?
Yeah. And is this — do you mind if I have a look in your fridge and see if there’s
good food there or?
Yeah. Oh yeah, so there’s lots of food from Meals on Wheels. When, when was
that deliver? Was that deliver a long time ago?
No, no, it was yesterday.
Yesterday, so you have some rice left. Maybe you can have that for supper
And what about …
Soups — do you enjoy soups?
Of course.
Oh, that looks like it’s a dessert.
Yes it is.
This is dessert and …
Okay, I won’t keep you longer. So if there’s any problems or you feel you want
something or you need to talk to me about something, you don’t hesitate to give me
a call, okay?
All right.
Or you could talk to your daughter Angie about it.
Okay? That’s good.
I hope …
I know.
… I don’t need anything.
That’s fine. Thank you for your time. Okay?
My pleasure.
It’s a pleasure for me.
I know.
Bye now.
Okay, don’t forget to lock your door. ‘kay.
It’s come to the point that I’m concerned that I don’t know how long my mom will
be able to live at, in her own home. We’ve got somebody helping and I will keep
her there as long as, as humanly possible, but at a certain point it might not be safe
for her to stay there. We don’t know if my mom can stay at home for a year, maybe
five years, you know, it’s possible that she’ll never come to a home. But the
waiting list is between one and two years. What happens if in a year it gets a lot
worse? So my husband and I thought that we should register her.
00:23:36:07: Finished.

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  • From there, the payment sections will show, follow the guided payment process and your order will be available for our writing team to work on it.