It is important to remember that this is not a report. I’m not looking to see if you read the case or not. You need to take the key issues and think about them within the context of what’s given in the case. The key here is to think about what you would do if you were in this situation. I am looking for your thoughts—with justification. Integrate and synthesize theory and terminology from class and the readings into your case analysis. This is key to producing a superior analysis.How to Prepare the Written Case StudiesUse the following instructions for each part to structure your analysis.Part I. Identify the Key Issues in an Executive SummaryIn this section you should read the case and ask yourself, “What’s happening here right now?” What are the issues that the firm faces within the context of the case? In many cases there are issues that involve more than one business function. For example, are there marketing issues, management issues, organizational issues, competitive issues, financial issues, etc.? Your executive summary should briefly identify the key issue(s) at hand and describe how you will come up with your solution. Briefly, but specifically, mention your key strategies at the end of this section. This section should be one page maximum—preferably half a page. It might help to write this as your last section.For Parts II and beyond, remember: You are not writing a “report.” You are writing an analysis. You should take the information in the case, think about it, and then report your thoughts. You should be comfortable saying “I think….” and be comfortable making bold statements. Think of yourself as a consultant hired by the firm to give them strategic advice. They already know what it’s in the case—they want your take on the situation. The use of outside information may be appropriate to support your claims, thoughts, and ideas.Part II. Identify Internal StrengthsWhat is the firm doing well internally? Why is it doing these things well? And, more importantly, how do the strengths of the firm tie to marketing theory and concepts? What lead to the success of the firm in the past (or present)? What strengths of the firm will lead to future value?Part III. Identify Internal WeaknessesWhat is the firm doing poorly internally? Why is it doing these things poorly? What lead to these poor tactics? How do the weaknesses contradict “good” marketing theory and concepts?Part IV. Identify External OpportunitiesWhat is going on the firm’s external environment that the firm can use to its advantage? For example, if you are analyzing a case on McDonald’s, an external opportunity might be the fact that the Atkins Diet has run its course and people are eating carbs again. These are not strategies here—those will come later (Part VII). In this section, focus on the external variables the firm can take advantage of.Part V. Identify External ThreatsWhat is going on in the firm’s external environment that the firm needs to defend against? Analyze competitors—competition is certainly one external threat. Maybe government regulation is another. Possibly the taste of the target market is another. For example, if you are analyzing a case on Amtrak, one major threat is the growth of Southwest airlines and cheap, national air travel.Part VI. Other Issues / MetricsWhat other issues are going on in the case? How does the firm’s financial situation look? If financial data is given, what are the trends you see? Does anything you see “jump out” at you? Is there a lot of debt? Any expenses seem odd?Are there any other issues out there that didn’t quite fit in Parts II–V? Discuss them here.Part VII. StrategiesBased on all the issues that you identified in Parts II–VI, what do you recommend that the firm do now? Be specific as possible. General strategies like “sell more products” are a gimme and add little to your analysis. You have to think deep here. How can the firm use its strengths to take advantage of external issues? How might the firm have to defend itself against threats? How can the firm shore up weaknesses? Again, think of yourself as someone hired to help this firm. What do you tell them and why? What are the risks and short/long term implications of what you suggest? (Please note that this should be your longest section.)IMPORTANT:I will be attaching a copy of the Jaguar Case study to read and write this report on. Also, I will be attaching a copy of a SAMPLE Case Study so you can see the format to use and how to write. This is not the normal case study, the professor wants our personal opinions. Don’t be scared to write with, “I think that, or I believe.”2 Attachmentsbelow is a sample case study paper, of what should be done and the second doc is the case studyCase Study Sample: Macy’s
Part I- Executive Summary
The North Florida district of Macy’s went from struggling to stay afloat to having the
highest performing stores in the nation in under two years. District Vice President Lee O’Rourke
heavily relied on market research to make informed decisions on how to best run her stores and
maximize profit. She also empowered her employees and leveraged customer feedback to ensure
that consumers were getting the best shopping experience in terms of service and product
availability. Despite her impressive turnaround, Macy’s still faces challenges, notably in
competition from online retail and big box bargain stores. To counteract these obstacles, my
solution is to use the unique demographics of the region to modify sales strategy, fill the vacuum
left by failing competitors, as well as utilize online tools to expand customer feedback.
Part II- Internal Strengths
In 2009, Macy’s North Florida district was struggling to get by, coming in 52nd of 69
districts nationwide based on performance score. Amazingly, Lee O’Rourke manage to change
that around in a little over 18 months. At the heart of O’Rourke’s success was having a firm grasp
of her target audience, utilizing extensive market research and making the most out of each store’s
unique demographics. For example, her stores around Orlando had consumer bases inflated by the
tourist population, with a significant percentage of that number from international backgrounds.
Customers from foreign markets had different tastes and buying trends than the local market, so
strategy had to be adjusted accordingly. Other notable considerations were age, social class, and
culture. Different locations within the North Florida district had to weight each of these factors
when determining inventory. Stores with a heavy retiree population had different preferences than
those of downtown Orlando, and often were seasonal-dependent as the “snowbirds” came down
for the Winter and left in the Summer. Culture was important to consider for two main reasons.
The first was the obvious effect subcultures have on buying trends and consumer preference. The
second was the lesser-known effect on inventory. Different ethnicities tended to require different
sizing of clothing and shoes. For example, a store with a larger Asian population would need to
carry more of the smaller sizes than one with a big Latino or Caucasian population. Another factor
was social class- not every store had the same pricing strategy because not every store was geared
towards the same income bracket. The flagship Millenia store was in a high-end mall in Orlando,
so bargains were rarely used. They had little chance of affecting the consumer decision making
process and ultimately just cut into the profit margin. Conversely, poorer districts needed to be
more aggressive with pricing strategy and discounts to compete with lower priced competitors
such as JC Penney, Sears, or WalMart.
In addition to understanding what her stores needed to cater to their diverse clientele,
O’Rourke also valued her people. She understood the importance of a sales force that was engaged
at all levels when working in a customer service-based firm. By identifying high performers for
mentorship and advancement, she was able to increase both retention and job satisfaction. These
benefits are passed down the service-profit chain to the customers, who in turn increase revenue.
In the long term, this investment in her workforce has a positive effect on overall profitability of
the firm.
Part III- Internal Weaknesses
Looking solely at the North Florida region in relation to Macy’s performance as a whole
nationwide, O’Rourke’s team got a lot right. However, there are some areas where she could have
done better. The first was be less reactionary in terms of decision-making. O’Rourke identified
when a store was underperforming in relation to another Macy’s location, but only after the fact.
For example, one store noticed that they weren’t selling as many designer handbags as another
store with similar demographics because one store kept them in cases while the other had a more
open layout. This could have been gleaned earlier by expanding the scope of her market research.
As opposed to focusing on just Macy’s historical performance, looking into a competitor’s best
practices or petitioning customers directly would enlarge the pool of data and yield valuable
insights as well.
Another pitfall has to do with department stores in general. Since the advent of online retail,
department store traffic has been on the decline across the board (Wahba, 2017). Where O’Rourke
could have gotten ahead of the curve was to be more aggressive when requesting changes from
headquarters. She had built a relationship with HQ that allowed her to deviate from normal
operations, especially when requesting for certain items. She could have taken that one step further
and implemented change that fixes some of the shortcomings associated with department store
shopping. We’ll go into further detail in the Strategy section, but one example would be to leverage
online support to track customer requests and get them items that normally wouldn’t be available.
By placing more emphasis in online resources, this helps counteract some of the drawbacks
associated with department store shopping, namely convenience, availability, and price.
Part IV- External Opportunities
The North Florida region is almost unique in how much of its client base is reliant on
transient customers. Tourists flock to the region year-round, but have a definite uptick in numbers
based on season. For the stores that rely on tourists, they can expect more traffic during peak
season for Orlando’s resorts: summer, spring break, and winter holidays. The retiree demographic
is also somewhat seasonal. While some live in Florida all the time, a significant portion are
“snowbirds” who just come down for the winter.
In addition to seasonal preference, the retiree population is also experiencing a boom due
to increased life expectancy. As people live longer, the amount of people who move down to
Florida for their twilight years increase as well (Miller, 2018). This skews the demographics of
certain locations and allows O’Rourke’s team to plan accordingly. In locations where older
populations are expected, inventory can be adjusted to reflect their spending habits.
Part V- Identify External Threats
Macy’s faces stiff competition in the retail market. In terms of department stores, they have
firms like Neiman Marcus and Saks Fifth Avenue on the higher end as well as JC Penney and
Sears on the lower end. While being a mid-range brand allows Macy’s to reach a broader client
base, it also subjects them to competition from both ends of the price scale. When we expand our
focus to include non-department stores like WalMart and Target, they face even greater
competition, especially for customers looking for a bargain.
The second external threat to consider is consumer shopping trends as a whole. People are
buying from department stores less and less in favor of online retail (Wahba, 2017). The
aforementioned WalMart and Target aren’t as affected because they can provide lower prices to
entice customers, but Macy’s can’t afford to do so. This push towards the online market threatens
overall department store performance.
Part VI- Other Issues and Metrics
Interestingly enough, Macy’s financial performance as whole changed significantly
between 2009 and 2011, not just the North Florida district. By the end of 2009, Macy’s revenue
was $23.5 billion; by the end of 2011, it was $26.5 billion (Macy’s Revenue 2009-2011, 2018).
This is important to note so we understand the North Florida district’s performance in the context
of how the entire company was doing in that timeframe. O’Rourke’s policies made her region
excel in relation to her peers, but the company’s overall growth more than likely facilitated the
region’s turnaround. If O’Rourke tried to implement drastic changes during a company slump, she
would have been less likely to succeed.
Part VII- Strategies
There are three key changes I would make to Macy’s North Florida region. The first is to
tailor Macy’s high-low sales strategy for the region’s unique customer base. Usually, a sale every
week will not generate much traffic due to over-saturation (Wahba, 2017). The idea is that if there
is going to be another door-buster sale in a month, what pressure is there to go out to the store
today? However, given that a large portion of the customer base are tourists, this concept no longer
applies. A customer who is in the region for only a week doesn’t care that there is another sale in
a fortnight; they won’t be there for it. The transient nature of the consumer base drives demand,
allowing Macy’s to run promotions more often then they normally would. Conversely, this needs
to be tailored to the tourist season. Bargains should be throttled in months when there are less
tourists and stores rely more heavily on local customers. To maximize this strategy, Macy’s should
align their promotions with those of Orlando’s main attractions. If Disney is hosting a festival or
SeaWorld is offering discounted admission, those would be good weeks to run larger scale events
in the Orlando stores.
The next step I would take would be to capitalize on the demise of low-end department
stores such as JC Penney and Sears. Both firms are in a downward spiral and have been shuttering
stores across the country (Wahba, 2017). In locations that fall in the median income bracket,
Macy’s can step in as a valid replacement. Stores like WalMart and Target reign supreme in lower
income areas, but Macy’s fills a gap with the slightly more affluent. For locations that have seen
JC Penney or Sears stores go out of business, Macy’s should lower their prices slightly to generate
interest and build up a larger client base. Without another low-end department store to compete,
Macy’s should see an increase in sales that will offset the lower price.
Finally, I would address the issue of rising online retail traffic. One way to tackle this is to
expand upon O’Rourke’s method of customer feedback. She had used in-store look ups by sales
associates to track requested items. By creating an online portal, customers can directly request a
product. If an item is requested enough times, it should be added to the inventory. An email alert
can be sent to everyone who asked for the item once it becomes available. This is a step up from
O’Rourke’s plan because if marketed properly, it solicits customer input before they even show
up in the store. In addition, customers are more likely to shop at Macy’s if they feel their input is
being considered. It should be noted that this is a long-term solution. Management of the online
site is retained at Macy’s headquarters, not the North Florida region. However, given O’Rourke’s
success with tailoring her inventory to suit customer needs, she should make the request to HQ to
expand and improve that process.
Greg W. Marshall, M. W. (2011). Essentials of Marketing Management. New York, NY: McGraw Hill
Macy’s Revenue 2009-2011. (2018, April 30). Retrieved from Macro Trends:
Miller, D. (2018, May 21). Where are Retirees Moving- 2017 Edition. Retrieved from Smart Asset:
Wahba, P. (2017, February 21). Can America’s Department Stores Survive? Retrieved from Fortune:
For the exclusive use of J. Gallardo,
Jaguar Land Rover:
Towards a Customer-Centric
Leveraging Customer Intelligence
and Data Analytics for Sustainable
Jaguar Future Type 2040
This case was written by Joerg Niessing, Affiliate Professor of Marketing, and Brian Henry, Research Fellow, both at
INSEAD, and Kay Peters, Professor of Marketing, University of Hamburg. It is intended to be used as a basis for class
discussion rather than to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of an administrative situation.
Additional material about INSEAD case studies (e.g., videos, spreadsheets, links) can be accessed at
Copyright © 2018 INSEAD
This document is authorized for use only by Julian Gallardo in Marketing Analytics 2020 taught by JEFFREY PODOSHEN, Franklin and Marshall College from Dec 2019 to Jun 2020.
For the exclusive use of J. Gallardo, 2020.
Jens Sulek, Director of Global CRM & Customer Insights at Jaguar Land Rover, was looking
at customer data for the F-Pace, the first SUV ever made by Jaguar in its 95-year-old history.1
The F-Pace had been unveiled at the International Motor Show Germany in Frankfurt in
September 2015, just one month before Sulek had started working at the wholly owned
subsidiary of Tata Motors. It was nice timing for the German executive – the F-Pace turned out
to be hugely popular among Jaguar customers, especially women.
A seasoned executive from the automotive sector, Sulek had worked at Porsche in Germany for
10 years before being hired by the British car brand. His experience made him a good fit with
Jaguar Land Rover. 2 During his last few years at Porsche, revenues had almost doubled thanks
to the popularity of two SUVs, the Cayenne and the Macan, whose combined sales made up
70% of total revenues in 2016. In addition to his experience, Sulek had an MSc in Information
Systems and Marketing. At Jaguar Land Rover he was responsible for 240 employees, including
190 customer relationship management (CRM) specialists and 50 business analysts who made
up one of the largest CRM projects of its kind in the industry. His goal was to improve the
systems and processes driving customer centricity.
Jaguar had seen a transformation since 2008, when Ratan Tata, former CEO of India’s Tata
Group, bought Jaguar and Land Rover from the American automaker Ford for $2.3 billion, and
began investing in the two British brands. Jaguar Land Rover had since become one of the UK’s
largest exporters, generating 80% of sales abroad, and its workforce had grown to 40,000
people. Jaguar Land Rover opened its first overseas plant in China in 2014, and another in
Brazil. It had also contracted with Magna Steyr to produce vehicles in Austria. Its expansion
strategy was designed to strike a balance between diversified geographies and the benefits of
global processes.
Industry Challenges Affecting Customer-Centricity
The automotive industry is one of the
largest and most international in the
world. Some 20 major global
automotive companies currently
produce around 100 million cars per
year. There are over a billion light
vehicles globally. The industry
provides over 7 million jobs in the
United States, and close to 13 million
in Europe. 3
During the global financial crisis in
2008-2009, automotive sales fell at
near-record rates worldwide. Since then, auto sales had rebounded largely driven by the market
in China. Chinese passenger car sales had seen a three-fold increase from 2007 to 2017 from
For pedagogical purposes, this case focuses mainly on Jaguar., accessed 26 September 2017, accessed 4 August 2017
This document is authorized for use only by Julian Gallardo in Marketing Analytics 2020 taught by JEFFREY PODOSHEN, Franklin and Marshall College from Dec 2019 to Jun 2020.
Copyright © INSEAD
For the exclusive use of J. Gallardo, 2020.
3.1 million to 11.3 million. Sales in the other top six markets had only recovered to 2007 levels
a decade later (see chart). 4
But what if the Chinese market suddenly cooled? Indeed, this appeared to be happening.
Passenger car sales in China rose by just 2.7% in the first half of 2017, compared with an 11%
increase in the first half of 2016. Furthermore, price discounts represented up to 4% in the first
half 2017. Meanwhile, the used car market had become more attractive as the quality of vehicles
‘made in China’ improved. The average life of a Chinese-made car rose from three years in
2012 to 4.5 years in 2017. These figures were a cause for concern among western automakers
(like Jaguar Land Rover) which had made China a focus of their growth plans. 5
Sales of traditional cars had also been affected by government policies, as in Norway, where
buyers were incentivized to purchase hybrids and electric vehicles (EVs). As a result, Norway
was the world leader in sales of energy-saving vehicles: 35% of new cars sold were either
hybrids or EVs, and a target date of zero emissions from new cars was set at 2025.
Local government was also pushing to bring air quality under control in cities like Paris and
Beijing. In the UK and France, there was a ban on new petrol and diesel car sales from 2040.
China, India and Norway were considering similar bans that could take effect earlier. 6
Indirectly, the CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) standards made it more expensive for
carmakers to build gas-guzzling cars by introducing penalties. Seven of the world’s 11 largest
carmakers were on course to miss CO² targets by 2021. VW potentially faced a €1.7 billion fine
for exceeding the CO² limit on its cars. According to PA Consulting, only Volvo, Toyota, the
Renault-Nissan Alliance and Jaguar Land Rover were on track to meet requirements, 7 and even
they might miss the target if there was a shift to petrol cars, which emitted more CO² than diesel.
While the global market for pure EVs was still tiny – accounting for less than 1% of sales in
2016 – it had grown so quickly that Volvo Cars was the first to announce plans to switch to EV
production. Owned by Chinese carmaker Geely since 2010, Volvo said it would stop producing
vehicles powered solely by an internal combustion engine in 2019 and equip every model with
an electric motor. 8 Others followed suit. Jaguar Land Rover announced that all new models
would come with the electrified option from 2020. Tesla, which produced only EVs, had
launched its Model 3 with a base price of $35,000, designed for the mass market.
With so much hype about hybrids and EVs, many car owners were concerned about the future
value of their traditional combustion-engine vehicles. 9 Like a computer on wheels, an EV is
simpler and cheaper to produce than an internal combustion engine vehicle because it has far
fewer parts. Employees of traditional carmakers were concerned too, as it was estimated that
the demise of combustion engine cars could result in the loss of millions of jobs. 10
10, accessed 5 August 2017
Ibid., accessed 4 August 2017, accessed 26 September 2017, accessed 4 August 2017, accessed 28 June 2017, accessed 4 August 2017
This document is authorized for use only by Julian Gallardo in Marketing Analytics 2020 taught by JEFFREY PODOSHEN, Franklin and Marshall College from Dec 2019 to Jun 2020.
Copyright © INSEAD
For the exclusive use of J. Gallardo, 2020.
The consumer’s conception of cars and car ownership was changing. Self-driving cars and ridesharing platforms had begun to capture attention. 11 ‘Driverless’ technology promised to reduce
energy costs 12 and traffic fatalities. 13 Likewise mobility platforms had opened up new vistas
where vehicles could be made available to any driver 14 who had a smartphone app to locate a
platform-owned car, drive it for as long as they wanted, and then leave it parked for the next
user. 15 Instead of car brands, drivers could go to their favourite mobility platform.
Digital technologies like virtual reality (VR) and its partner augmented reality (AR) were
expected to change driving habits. When planning shopping trips or on holidays, these
technologies would enable more informed decisions to meet customers’ needs, possibly cutting
down on time spent behind the wheel. Instead of feeling compelled to attend a graduation
ceremony in person, for example, they could “virtually” be in the same place with friends and
family. 16 As VR became more sophisticated and easy-to-use, employees could work from home
rather than drive to the office, which in turn could reduce car ownership. 17 More worryingly, in
a future where cities were increasingly congested, local authorities might crack down on car
ownership. 18 Was the two-cars-per-family model sustainable?
Given the challenges and trends emerging, it was difficult for Sulek to predict what customers
would want. He could only be certain of one thing: disruption. Today’s business models and
manufacturing portfolios would give way to new norms. Forecasting car sales had always been
a challenge, but now it was imperative to move from a product-centric to a customer-centric
Background: Jaguar and Land Rover
Founded in 1922, Jaguar had a history of producing beautifully engineered cars with a
reputation for solid performance and road handling. It took great pride in its sporting heritage,
winning major sports car endurance races such as France’s 24 Heures du Mans, one of the most
prestigious automobile races in the world. Customers who liked its efficient, high-performance
vehicles that competed on the racing circuits had always been attracted to the stylish UK brand.
However, in 2004, Jaguar’s owner Ford restructured its ailing British subsidiary in order to
reduce excess capacity and overheads, and withdrew Jaguar from Formula One racing. 19
19, accessed 18 August 2017, accessed 26 June 2017, accessed 28 June 2017, accessed 28 June 2017, accessed 26 June 2017, accessed 18
September 2017,
accessed 18 September 2017,
September 2017
Jaguar Cars, by Matthias Hild, University of Virginia Darden School Foundation, 2004, business case ref.:
UV3878, p. 1
This document is authorized for use only by Julian Gallardo in Marketing Analytics 2020 taught by JEFFREY PODOSHEN, Franklin and Marshall College from Dec 2019 to Jun 2020.
Copyright © INSEAD
For the exclusive use of J. Gallardo, 2020.
Although Jaguar never returned to F1, it was the first major automaker to launch a new class of
auto racing that used only electric-powered cars, Formula E. Following its lead, other luxury
and premium auto manufacturers announced plans to compete, including Audi, BMW,
Mercedes-Benz and Porsche. Not even Formula One had such a density of respected carmakers
on the racing circuit. Jaguar had decided to support the Formula E calendar with an additional
single-make racing series featuring the I-PACE, a premium EV that combined zero emissions
and stylish design.
While Jaguar had always had a coherent sports narrative, some argued that at its core the brand
personality had not been consistent over the years. Land Rover’s was more grounded. It started
with the four-wheel drive Land Rover One series, launched at the Amsterdam Motor Show in
1948. Built to last, the simple yet rugged Land Rover was a major success with ranchers and
farmers, industrial engineers and military personnel.
In 1970, the company introduced a more expensive version, the Range Rover, which combined
luxury with ruggedness. The Range Rover created a coveted niche for itself – so much so that
in 1990 the original Land Rover model was renamed Defender (to avoid confusion). Production
of the Defender was halted in 2016 as it could not meet modern environmental and safety
standards, 20 but it was expected to return as an all-terrain vehicle in 2019. The Range Rover
continued to be positioned as the leader of the SUV segment.
Jaguar and Land Rover had always been completely separate British brands with little in
common until they were brought together by Ford as part of an ensemble of four European
premium car makers. In 1989, Ford acquired Jaguar. Eleven years later, it bought Land Rover,
then added both brands to its newly created Premier Automotive Group (PAG) which included
Aston Martin and Volvo. 21 Hit by falling profitability in the mid-2000s, Ford ultimately sold
the PAG: Aston Martin in 2007, Jaguar and Land Rover in 2008, and Volvo in 2010.
In 1998, 10 years after Jaguar came under Ford’s ownership, the decision was made to move
production to a factory in the UK that had been making the Ford Escort for the previous 35
years. The integration of the completely different vehicle into the Escort line of production took
two years to complete. “The need of Jaguar was [] to concentrate on delivering the culture
change and really getting through to people…whereas the requirement from Ford was to
produce an Escort every 41 seconds.” 22 The Ford Halewood plant had a rigid product-based
culture that worked against the new arrival, and management eventually called upon a
consulting firm to “help change attitudes, behaviour and values of the employees throughout
the plant.” 23 While it took time and effort to make change happen, the episode revealed the need
for Jaguar to establish a more coherent brand personality and a long-term customer-centric
Return of Jaguar’s Land Rover Defender relished by off-road fans, by Peter Campbell, Financial Times, 4
March 2017
House of Tata: Acquiring a Global Footprint, Tarun Khann A, Krishn A. G. Palepu, and Richard J. Bullock,
Harvard Business School Case Study, Ref. 9-708-446, 30 June 2009, p. 12
This episode in Jaguar’s history is covered in great depth in Jaguar comes to Halewood: The Story of a
Turnaround, by Ramina Samii, under the supervision of Luk N. Van Wassenhove, March 2015, INSEAD
case number: INS838, p. 4
Ibid, p. 8
This document is authorized for use only by Julian Gallardo in Marketing Analytics 2020 taught by JEFFREY PODOSHEN, Franklin and Marshall College from Dec 2019 to Jun 2020.
Copyright © INSEAD
For the exclusive use of J. Gallardo, 2020.
Moving beyond a product-based strategy, however, only began under the ownership of Tata
Motors, which turned Jaguar Land Rover into a carmaker that offered real solutions to both
customers and employees.
A Customer-Centric Approach
While the product-centric approach had served Jaguar well and its reputation for world-class
engineering set the brand apart, Sulek knew that it was vital to remain relevant and engaged
with its customers, particularly given the changes in the industry. Two years after saying
goodbye to Ford, Jaguar Land Rover adopted a new customer-centric approach. Buoyed by
Tata’s growth strategy, it invested heavily in a single global CRM solution to revolutionize the
way the brand interacted with customers. However building the CRM solution was never
perceived as a quick fix but rather a labour-intensive, day-to-day process that would take years
to implement fully.
To take the customer-centric approach to the next level, Sulek built an enterprise management
platform to embrace the entire organization and its processes. For this, he needed to feedback
from, and knowledge about, its customers. He also had to develop analytical techniques and
intelligence methodologies. To do so he put himself in the shoes of a potential Jaguar buyer.
By visualizing the ‘customer journey’ he could pinpoint and perhaps optimize the touchpoints
between the customer and the company.
In the pre-purchase phase, for example, the marketing department often played a vital role in
answering customer questions. Once the purchase was made, the sales department transferred
ownership of the vehicle to the customer. Then, the after-sales department looked after
customer needs in maintaining the vehicle. To create a seamless customer experience, the CRM
teams had to ensure that each department was part of a whole – a joined-up organization greater
than the sum of its parts. By having a holistic approach the organization would also be more
responsive to its evolving customer base.
A typical customer journey would differ by segment or region, but Sulek was confident that his
customer-centric approach could optimize the customer journey at both the brand and product
levels, aware that customers would likely take a different road to car ownership in the future.
Optimising Touchpoints
Keeping in mind the trends in the automotive sector, Sulek developed new touchpoints to keep
communications relevant to customers in a fast-changing environment. Currently, customers
either leased or owned vehicles, with the vast majority committed to the ownership model. If
car-sharing services, for example, were to become more relevant and less risky, future clients
might have less incentive to own a car, be it an EV or internal combustion engine (ICE).
Likewise if urban congestion and inner city pollution were to become more pronounced, local
governments might offer incentives to car owners to share their cars on mobility platforms or
simply rent one when needed.
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Copyright © INSEAD
For the exclusive use of J. Gallardo, 2020.
For now, Sulek’s aim was to optimize the main touchpoints along the customer journey by
leveraging customer intelligence to give Jaguar Land Rover a competitive edge, as in the
following examples:
A customer coming to the end of a leasing contract. As this represented a critical
point in the customer journey, the CRM team could help the customer explore the
options available. The marketing department could be notified that a direct marketing
letter should be sent to the customer (or appropriate retailer) with an invitation to test
drive a successor car. The sales department could be informed about a possible renewal
of the leasing contract or purchase of a successor car.
A customer who had just bought a car and was waiting to take delivery of it. At a
local dealership, customers could customize a vehicle according to their preferences –
the ensuing fabrication process could take up to five months depending on the level of
customization. Delays were subject to local market conditions (e.g., customers in the
United States preferred to buy directly from a dealer and opted for less customization).
Since customers could change their minds during the fabrication process, the CRM team
would inform sales that they could communicate with the customer as the car was
working its way up the line of production (photos of the car could be sent to the
customer, or questions answered about the ongoing production process). By so doing,
they reassured customers that they had made the right purchase decision. Activating
business intelligence allowed the CRM team to convey relevant and timely information
at each touchpoint.
In addition to customer intelligence, Sulek exploited a number of analytical techniques to
understand customer preferences. By ‘embedding’ the customer in the entire business and/or
customer lifecycle, the company could continue to produce cars that outperformed the market
even in the most turbulent times.
Collecting Data through Customer Intelligence during the
Product Lifecycle
When launching a new model, Sulek listened to the ‘voice of the customer’ during the pre- and
post-launch phases so as to consider their suggestions during the launch cycle, be it for minor
product changes or brand repositioning. Co-creation between customers and engineers began
when the idea was still being defined in ‘concept clinics’, about four years before the vehicle’s
actual launch, allowing individual needs to emerge. By listening to customers at ‘pricing
clinics’ (held a year before launch), he could forecast volumes and perform price-demand
Indeed the customer’s voice continued to be heard up to three years after the launch, during
which time surveys were carried out to measure product dependability and to monitor sales and
service satisfaction, with the findings amplified by word-of-mouth feedback. With a typical
model having a lifecycle of seven years, the customer—if engaged throughout—could shape
the evolution of a (more successful) successor model.
Sulek needed to enhance customer profiles for both the Jaguar and Land Rover brands, since
target customers could differ and change over time and across geographies. He used a variety
of analytical tools in conducting market research. Quantitative research told him who the
This document is authorized for use only by Julian Gallardo in Marketing Analytics 2020 taught by JEFFREY PODOSHEN, Franklin and Marshall College from Dec 2019 to Jun 2020.
Copyright © INSEAD
For the exclusive use of J. Gallardo, 2020.
potential buyers in each region were, i.e., age, gender, income, occupation and what other brand
vehicles they owned. He discovered interesting differences in income and age. For example,
average household income for buyers of Land Rovers in the United States was $243,000, but
in the UK it was half that. The average age of buyers in America was 47, but in Britain it was
57. Did this mean that the British saved the money to fund the purchase or that Americans
borrowed more? It required further qualitative research to understand such differences.
Qualitative research yielded better profiles of potential customers that were not just based on
demographics. Thanks to insights on desires and attitudes, he could sub-divide customer
profiles by region. “The data can differ a lot by segment,” Sulek said. “One thing we are always
careful about is using the right research techniques for the right situation. With so many research
techniques, we need to make sure not to use the wrong one.”
He also deployed ethnographic research to study the particular context and lifestyles of
customers, using that information to strengthen the relationship between the target customer
and the brand. Vehicles made by Jaguar Land Rover met basic needs for independence,
freedom, social status and family harmony, but customers varied in their motivation to buy a
particular model according to cultural context and attitudinal influences. By developing
ethnographic profiles, Sulek could bring the right customers closer to the brand. First, desk
research pinpointed the characteristics of the target customer by uncovering the motivations for
purchasing a car and its ‘role’ in their life. Second, focus groups uncovered lifestyle markers
such as leadership qualities, family relationships and social networks.
In addition, social media listening was used to deliver forecasting and future insights on
consumer behaviour that resonated with Jaguar’s marketing department and were aligned with
corporate strategy. Popular social media platforms revealed upcoming trends and uncovered
developments in the fast-changing automotive sector, such as ‘connected’ drivers who used a
cloud-service provider for news and entertainment.
In January 2017, Jaguar Land Rover entered into a long-term partnership with CloudCar, a
leading developer of connected driver experiences. 24 By taking a $15 million minority stake in
the firm, Jaguar Land Rover could use its cloud services platform to keep costs low while
improving customer services. With machine-learning capabilities linked to dozens of electronic
sensors in each car, the platform allowed Jaguar Land Rover to improve voice-activated
applications and improve on-board infotainment, while maintaining its brand identity and
retaining ownership of data. The new cloud services platform would be rolled out in Jaguar IPace.
Finally, the team learned to use tools such as virtual reality equipment, asking participants at
car clinics to wear VR headgear to assess digital models of new cars – thereby cutting expenses
(the production and shipping of full-scale physical models would have cost much more). It was
also easier to show participants variations on the digital model using VR equipment than to
present versions of physical models.
Reflecting on the potential of these traditional and more advanced methodologies, Sulek
wondered how best he could leverage the different data sources and with what techniques so as
24, accessed 21 August 2017
This document is authorized for use only by Julian Gallardo in Marketing Analytics 2020 taught by JEFFREY PODOSHEN, Franklin and Marshall College from Dec 2019 to Jun 2020.
Copyright © INSEAD
For the exclusive use of J. Gallardo, 2020.
to uncover hidden opportunities or enhance existing services so that customer needs were better
Leveraging Data through Smart Data Analytics vs. Big Data
Collecting data was one thing; interpreting it was another. In Sulek’s mind, data should help to
solve a decision problem, so applying the right analytical techniques to the right data was
critical. By increasing the use of electronic systems to improve the performance, safety and
passenger comfort of Jaguar cars, e.g., collecting data from sensors installed in “connected”
cars, he could suggest relevant enhancements – in real-time. Sensors discovered that thousands
of Jaguar customers in big urban areas sat in traffic jams more often and for longer periods than
customers in rural areas. This information translated into marketing and communication around
more comfortable interior designs for urban customers. It sounds simple, but having the facts
to back up proposed modifications can represent a needed boost when resources are limited.
Companies were also starting to analyse GPS data to understand driving behaviour, and use the
data for pro-active maintenance. With GPS data at hand, Sulek could tailor the marketing
campaign for a potential new car that ‘matched’ specific types of driving behaviour.
Sulek also used choice-based conjoint analysis to figure out preferences for particular Jaguar
models at different price points in the pre-production phase. This de-compositional simulation
tool reduced uncertainty for the marketing department when forecasting the output of new
vehicles in particular markets at given price points. By using conjoint analysis, he could define
price elasticity by simulating output volumes against a sliding scale of prices and locate the
‘sweet spot’.
Jaguar Land Rover’s presence on social media platforms also enabled interaction with
customers. Facebook followers of the Jaguar F-Pace, for example, could learn about safety
features to be rolled out in the future. Car owners could book a service online. Having fully
embraced the digital world, Sulek discovered a host of new possibilities to enhance Jaguar Land
Rover’s customer-centre approach.
He was also curious to see whether AI and statistical models could help him fine-tune buying
trends in the car industry. By employing them, he could more accurately forecast consumer
behaviour such as an individual customer’s propensity to buy a new vehicle at any given time.
This allowed Jaguar Land Rover to communicate effectively with customers, sending relevant
marketing messages at the right time.
The Road Ahead
In reflecting on the extraordinary success of the F-Pace, Sulek believed that Jaguar Land Rover
had a bright future. It had recently announced it was hiring an additional 5,000 engineers and
technical staff to prepare for the development of self-driving cars and EVs. The company’s
growth projections had never looked more promising. Putting the customer at the core of the
business was a sure way of turning that vision into a reality.
This document is authorized for use only by Julian Gallardo in Marketing Analytics 2020 taught by JEFFREY PODOSHEN, Franklin and Marshall College from Dec 2019 to Jun 2020.
Copyright © INSEAD

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