JST204 – Young People and CrimeAssessment 1:Length: 1,500 wordsRationaleThis assessment task will assess the following learning outcome/s: be able to provide a general overview of the statutory frameworksgoverning young people. be able to critically analyse the institutional frameworks and principal sitesof intervention into the lives of children and young people and discuss theeffects of these interventions. be able to articulate their understanding clearly and cogently. be able to use the work of major theorists and authors to inform theirunderstanding. be able to demonstrate a growing professional awareness by beingprofessional in all communications and conduct with academic staff andother students, and through presentation of assignmentsTaskStudents are required to answer both parts, A and B:A. What is the nature and extent of youth offending in Australia, support youranswer with evidence. (10%, 500 words)B.  Discuss theoretical frameworks that enhance our understanding of youthoffending. (15%, 1000 words)
JST204 – Young People and CrimeAssessment 1:Length: 1,500 wordsRationaleThis assessment task will assess the following learning outcome/s: be able to provide a general overview of the statutory frame
Running head: YOUNG PEOPLE AND CRIME IN AUSTRALIA 0 Young People and Crime in Australia Student’s Name Institutional Affiliations Nature and Extent of Youth Offending Over the decades, law and order have been the baseline for a peaceful and stable society. The rule of law has built the social system and interactions of humankind. Generally, the legal system agencies in most countries formed as per the duties and functions to the population. The juvenile system is the birch lane for the most crime committed in the social setting (Shaw & McKay, 1942). However, Australia is one of the establish country system in dealing with crime rates from the young generation. Psychological behavior of young people with criminal activities in this country has been influenced by the social, cultural setting of the Australia people from a different state. Young People and Crime Delinquency in Australia The jurisdictional system in Australia possesses the responsibility of ruling the juvenile fairness to the young ones. Although each state and territory has a different policy of minor ruling, the criminal record has declined over the years. According to the Australia Criminal Justice Statistic Department of the Attorney-General (ACJSD) as of 30 June 1981, the ratio shows 64.9% of 100,000 young people (1352) have been in the juvenile detention (Shaw & McKay, 1942). As a result, the government of Australia established the Young Offenders Act of 1997, to help deal with children under the age of 18 years, committing crimes. Currently, the Juvenile Act is based on pre-cautioning, warning, and conferences from the justice sector. Creating this kind of system to the young generation has substantially helped to reduce crime cases in the states like Queensland, Victoria, and South Australia (Cunneen& White, 2011). In the first quarter of 2018 young detainee were recorded to be 980 less than in 1352 as per the Australia Criminal Justice Statistic Department. The psychodynamic view clearly explains the concept of responsibility of the implemented acts to influence child behavior in the future. Institutional Framework The young justice framework in Australia drafted from ancient laws and history. The justice process has influenced the children court in the Australia legal system. The ruling process conducted varies from one state to another. The Juvenile system of Australia per the Crime Justice Department; in New South Wales, Australia Capital Territory, and Northern Territory range from 10 to 18 years unlike in Victoria, where the age ranges from 10 to 17 years the same case in Tasmania State. However, Aboriginal children are more represented in juvenile justice, unlike non- aboriginal natives. The cultural, psychological behavior under this age act, have shaped the drafted policies by the governing system to the juvenile court system (Cunneen& White, 2011). The social and political reign play a crucial role in managing young people through a different judicial system and educate them on the juvenile Acts. Hence, the aspect provides a clear understanding of the criminal system and the expected social practices. Impact of Juvenile ruling in Australia The decline in crime from young people, according to ACJSD in 1981 from 1352 to 980 in 2018, shows the influence of the Juvenile correction system together with the court system. Moreover, exercising of acts passed by the governing body is the duties are as a result of the legal intervention (Mak, 1993). On the other hand, the children and young people judicial intervention has relatively impacted their social behavior in all spheres; in helping the less represented and the psychologically affected. Theoretical Framework and Youth offending The psychological perspective in most fields has been closely related to ancient or modern theorist. The early scholars set out various researches as the foundation of human behavior concerning social progress and political welfare. The understanding of crimes concerning young people requires the knowledge of this founding father of psychological response. Human behavior in the society consists of three theoretical frameworks as a mental, biological, and sociological framework. Psychological Behavior Perspective Framework The social context of human behavior has a link to early childhood behavior. Typically, the nature surrounding young people like exposure, knowledge, and cultural experiences has influenced the kind of individual one can be. According to Sigmund Freud co-founder of psychodynamic perspective, human behavior and emotions shaped at childhood (Westen, 1998). Freud argued that the psychosexual energy to the complex brain concerning cognitive functioning to criminal activities, influencing social behavior. Between the age of 10 to 18 years and the age of adolescent, most youth experience physic growth and pride; this result in social offensive towards other individuals. Sigmund Freud argues that moral control to social, ration, and logical behavior response to environmental changes. The Freud model explains the characteristics of ego and superego to individual behavior, play a fundamental role in mental and physical defense strategy. The repression process involves the moving of a conscious mind to the unconscious. On the other hand, Kohlberg explains the psychological perspective on moral development from childhood consist of preconvention, convection, and post convection. As at pre convectional, the young people sense of righteous based on authority control. The control based on the teacher or parents, making them be obedience to the superior(Westen, 1998). Convection stage involves the understanding of the social setting and the environment; the child moral control, by the belief of consequent of social order. At this stage, the child is still under the authority control attained in the pre convection. While post convection the moral behavior is expressed from the inner value and principle. Both theories viewed under this perspective is seen as behavior formed as a result of environmental interaction and growth from young people. Biological Framework The biological understanding of the human body to his or her behavior provides the knowledge of offenses committed by most young people. The organic framework explains the individual physically as the link to social dominance in society (Rafter, 2008). The countenance of an individual is characteristically intertwined to the behavior as one feels more superior to the other. This psychological dominance gives young people the courage to criminal activity or offenses. According to Lombroso’s perspective; he argued that criminal behavior inherited from the parents to the offspring at birth (Wolfgang, 1961). The criminal Act could see through the phrenology study of the young ones. Phrenology study involves the understanding of the shape of the individual skull. The behavior observed from two identical twins is close, similar than two siblings. Biologically, the twins tend to take parents feature in terms of biosocial influences. Genetically, the genetic inheritance of parent’s distinctive trait is due to the hormones and other DNA related characteristics. As a result of these genes, the crime or offensive behavior socially built as the child grows since it is not biologically constructed. According Australia Criminal Justice Statistic Department in the 1981 Australia juvenile cases recorded were 1352 declining to 980 in 2018; the negative 372 juvenile cases from those 37 years. The juvenile system creates caution, warning, and minor conferences have insignificantly favored the growth of criminal activity to the young people. Thus, biological motive influences personal behavior, either negative or positive. Sociological Framework A sociological framework is basically, the relationship between criminal activities and the social organization of the people. Society is built up by various economic and political events that influence people behaviors. The integration of commercial success and social life leads to the movement of an individual to urban areas in search of social comfort (Warr, 2002). The psych in urban or city centers increases the population level to a level of group dependency. Group dependency is the situation where young people or the unemployed individual tends to take their comforts from a well-established person in terms of economic level. According to Sutherland, a sociologist; various association in the social setting lead to different social inputs like crime and psychological growth. Sociologically, not every individual is luck after all urban life cannot accommodate everyone (Rosenberg & Turner, 1990). Some people cannot secure financial support from all corners of the city. As a result, urban areas grow in a concentrated model as per the business of the downtown section. Ecological structure in the metropolitan towns pushes young people with no jobs or financial comfort to be involved in the crime activates. Thus, behavior becomes collective efficacy as people either controlled by the rule of law or the crime lords in the streets. Conclusion Interrelationship developed between young people and crime and the environment surrounding, or forces predetermine behavior. The aspect involves psychological, biological, and sociological effects as outlined by most scholars like Sigmund Freud and Sutherland. As a result, these forces the country likes Australia to from Young People Offender Act of 1997, to create a cohesive understanding of criminal activities in all the states. The Act provided the young native with the caution, conference awareness and warning, reducing the juvenile system the burden of multiple cases. The system in the society has spearheaded the juvenile policies has clearly shown law and order largely control community. Therefore, this social and collective motives established in each state in Australia has played a vital role in helping the juniors to learn and stop crime and offenses to their fellow friends or neighbors. References Cunneen, C., & White, R. (2011). Juvenile justice: Youth and crime in Australia. Oxford University Press. Mak, A. S. (1993). A self-report delinquency scale for Australian adolescents. Australian journal of psychology, 45(2), 75-79. Rafter, N. (2008). The criminal brain: understanding biological theories of crime. NYU Press. Rosenberg, M., & Turner, R. H. (Eds.). (1990). Social psychology: Sociological perspectives. Transaction Publishers. Shaw, C. R., & McKay, H. D. (1942). Juvenile delinquency and urban areas. Warr, M. (2002). Companions in crime: The social aspects of criminal conduct. Cambridge University Press. Westen, D. (1998). The scientific legacy of Sigmund Freud: Toward a psychodynamically informed psychological science. Psychological Bulletin, 124(3), 333. Wolfgang, M. E. (1961). Pioneers in Criminology: Cesare Lombroso (1825-1909). J. Crim. L. Criminology & Police Sci., 52, 361.
JST204 – Young People and CrimeAssessment 1:Length: 1,500 wordsRationaleThis assessment task will assess the following learning outcome/s: be able to provide a general overview of the statutory frame
JST204 – Young People and Crime Assessment 1: Length: 1,500 words Rationale This assessment task will assess the following learning outcome/s: be able to provide a general overview of the statutory frameworks governing young people. be able to critically analyse the institutional frameworks and principal sites of intervention into the lives of children and young people and discuss the effects of these interventions. be able to articulate their understanding clearly and cogently. be able to use the work of major theorists and authors to inform their understanding. be able to demonstrate a growing professional awareness by being professional in all communications and conduct with academic staff and other students, and through presentation of assignments Task Students are required to answer both parts, A and B: A. What is the nature and extent of youth offending in Australia, support your answer with evidence. (10%, 500 words) B.  Discuss theoretical frameworks that enhance our understanding of youth offending. (15%, 1000 words) Please see the subject outline for the marking criteria/matrix. Presentation Please write your 1,500 in a two part approach. Please format your work – justifying your document in word and ensuring the font is 12 and there is at least 1.5 line spacing. You should check your work via Turnitin – I WILL SUBMIT DOCUMENT ON TURNITIN. Please ensure you have attached a Turnitin receipt to your submission. Criterion HD DI CR PS FL Use research skills to source youth crime in Australia. Summarise the key findings.  10 marks Clearly focuses on relevant and contemporary data and shows nature & extent. Is able to show patterns in terms of changes to a very high degree. Communicates the data to a very high degree. Clearly focuses on relevant and contemporary data and shows nature & extent. Is able to show patterns in terms of changes to a high degree. Communicates the data to high degree. Focuses on relevant and contemporary data. Is able to show patterns in terms of changes to some degree. Communicates the data to some degree. Relevant data presented, lacks ability in showing patterns and communicating changes. Communication of the data is satisfactory. Data presented is inaccurate/ misrepresented/ confused. Patters in the data and the communication of the data is poor. Discuss relevant theories that offer an understanding for youth crime in Australia. 15 marks Evaluates a broad range of theories and does it to a very high degree. Explains the core components of such to a very high degree. Evaluates a range of theories and does so to a high degree. Explains the core components of such to a high degree. Evaluates some theories and does so to some degree. Explains the core components of such to some degree. Evaluates a limited range of theories and does satisfactorily. Explains the core components of such to a limited standard. Fails to evaluate theories and/or is confused/ inaccurate. Fails to explain the core components and/or is confused/ inaccurate. Presentation follows correct format. Communication is clear and cogent, demonstrating attention to structure, grammar and spelling. APA referencing is used. (mark reflected in mark achieved in part a & b) Correct presentation format is used with clear and cogent expression of ideas, logical and coherent discussion with effective use of terminology. Syntax, spelling and punctuation are accurate. Referencing is comprehensive, demonstrates academic integrity, and conforms exactly to APA 6th ed. style conventions.  applied with no errors. Referencing is comprehensive and conforms to the conventions of APA 6thed. style with one or two minor errors or omissions in style and formatting choices which have no impact on the transparency and traceability of the source, or the demonstration of academic integrity. Correct presentation format is used with clear and cogent expression of ideas. Spelling, grammar and punctuation are mostly accurate. Referencing is comprehensive and mostly accurate according to the conventions of APA 6th ed. style. Between three and five minor errors or omissions in style and formatting choices have no impact on the transparency and traceability of the source, or the demonstration of academic integrity. Required format is used with clear expression of responses with spelling and grammar that do not impede understanding. Referencing is comprehensive and mostly accurate according to the conventions of APA 6th ed. style. More than five minor errors or omissions in style and formatting choices have no impact on the transparency and traceability of the source, or the demonstration of academic integrity. Incorrect presentation format. Poor expression. Large numbers of spelling and or grammar errors. APA referencing not used or incorrectly applied, therefore does not meet the standards required for a Pass
JST204 – Young People and CrimeAssessment 1:Length: 1,500 wordsRationaleThis assessment task will assess the following learning outcome/s: be able to provide a general overview of the statutory frame
1 2 3 F ir s t p ublis h ed i n 2 011 C opyrig ht © C ath erin e M cD onald , C hris tin e C ra ik , L in ette H aw kin s a n d J u dy W illia m s 2 011 A ll r ig hts r e se rv ed . N o p art o f t h is b ook m ay b e r e p ro duced o r t r a n sm itte d i n a n y f o rm o r b y a n y m ean s, e le ctr o nic o r m ech an ic al, i n clu din g p hoto co pyin g, r e co rd in g o r b y a n y i n fo rm atio n s to ra g e a n d r e tr ie v al s y ste m , w ith out p rio r p erm is sio n i n w ritin g f ro m t h e p ublis h er. T he A ustr a lia n Copyrig ht A ct 1 968 ( th e A ct) a llo w s a m ax im um o f o ne c h ap te r o r 1 0 p er c en t o f t h is b ook, w hic h ev er i s t h e g re ate r, t o b e p hoto co pie d b y a n y e d ucatio nal i n stitu tio n f o r i ts e d ucatio nal p urp ose s p ro vid ed t h at t h e e d ucatio nal i n stitu tio n ( o r b ody t h at a d m in is te rs i t) h as g iv en a r e m unera tio n n otic e t o C opyrig ht A gen cy L im ite d ( C A L) u nder t h e A ct. A lle n & U nw in 8 3 A le x an der S tr e et C ro w s N est N SW 2 065 A ustr a lia P hone: ( 6 1 2 ) 8 425 0 100 F ax : ( 6 1 2 ) 9 906 2 218 E m ail: in fo @ alle n an dunw in .c o m W eb : www.a lle n an dunw in .c o m C ata lo guin g-in -P ublic atio n d eta ils a re a v aila b le f ro m t h e N atio nal L ib ra ry o f A ustr a lia w ww.l ib ra rie sa u str a lia .n la .g ov.a u I S B N 9 78 1 7423 7 039 2 e IS B N 9 78 1 7426 9 322 4 I n te rn al d esig n b y E m ily O ’N eill T ypese t b y P ost P re -p re ss G ro up, A ustr a lia 4 W e d ed ic ate t h is b ook f ir s t, t o a ll t h e p ast, p re se n t a n d f u tu re s o cia l w ork a n d h um an s e rv ic e stu den ts w e h av e h ad t h e p riv ile g e t o t e ach ; a n d s e co nd, t o a ll o f t h e w onderfu l s o cia l work ers w ho o ffe r f ie ld -b ase d e d ucatio nal e x perie n ces f o r o ur s tu den ts . 5 C O NTEN TS L is t o f t a b le s I n tr o ductio n C H APT ER O NE U nders ta n din g o rg an is a tio ns C H APT ER T W O L ead ers h ip i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns C H APT ER T H REE S co pin g t h e c o nte x t C H APT ER F O UR R eco rd in g a n d r e p ort- w ritin g C H APT ER F IV E I n fo rm atio n d ev elo pm en t a n d m an ag em en t i n h um an s e rv ic e org an is a tio ns C H APT ER S IX B uild in g a n d m ain ta in in g p ro fe ssio nal r e la tio ns C H APT ER S E V EN S uperv is io n a n d s u pport C H APT ER E IG HT M an ag in g c o nflic t C H APT ER N IN E P ow er a n d a d vocacy C H APT ER T EN A dm in is tr a tiv e e th ic s i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns C H APT ER E LEV EN P re p arin g f o r a n d d ealin g w ith c o m pla in ts C H APT ER T W ELV E P ro fe ssio nal e th ic s a n d e th ic al r e aso nin g R efe re n ces 6 L IS T O F T A BLES T ab le 1 .1 : C hara cte ris tic s o f o rg an is a tio ns T ab le 1 .2 : C ore s ta n dard s s u m mary T ab le 4 .1 : P ro cess r e co rd in g s h eet T ab le 4 .2 : C ase r e co rd s T ab le 5 .1 : I d en tif y in g r e le v an t c ate g orie s o f e x te rn al i n fo rm atio n, p art 1 T ab le 5 .2 : I d en tif y in g r e le v an t c ate g orie s o f i n te rn al i n fo rm atio n, p art 2 T ab le 5 .3 : S erv ic e t y pe T ab le 8 .1 : P hase s o f i n te ra ctio n T ab le 8 .2 : S ourc es o f c o nflic t T ab le 8 .3 : S ta g es i n m ed ia tio n T ab le 1 0.1 : S erv ic e a ctio ns T ab le 1 0.2 : M an ag in g p riv acy b re ach es T ab le 1 1.1 : C en tr a l t h em es i n d ual r e la tio nsh ip s 7 I N TR O DUCTIO N T he h um an s e rv ic es f ie ld c o nstitu te s a l a rg e a n d g ro w in g i n dustr y o f i n cre asin g s ig nif ic an ce i n t h e t w en ty -fir s t c en tu ry . C urre n tly , i t i s t h e s e co nd f a ste st- g ro w in g i n dustr y i n c o nte m pora ry A ustr a lia ( H ealy a n d L onne, 2 009). I t i s a ls o a n i n dustr y w ith a r a n ge o f v ocatio nal r o le s a n d w id ely v ary in g l e v els o f q ualif ic atio ns. I n g en era l, t h e p re -s e rv ic e e d ucatio n o f p eo ple w ork in g i n t h at p art o f t h e h um an s e rv ic es k now n a s t h e ‘ c o m munity s e cto r’ i s m ix ed . O fte n , p eo ple a re w ork in g i n t h e s e cto r w ith out p ost- s c h ool v ocatio nal e d ucatio n o r u niv ers ity q ualif ic atio ns ( M eag her a n d H ealy , 2 006; M cD onald , 1 999). A s s u ch , m an y p eo ple l e arn ( o r f a il t o l e arn ) h ow t o g o a b out h um an s e rv ic e w ork ‘ o n t h e j o b’. In a d ditio n t o m ak in g e m plo yees’ e arly w ork in g c are ers i n t h e f ie ld v ery h ard , t h is s itu atio n c re ate s c o nsid era b le t r a n sa ctio n c o sts f o r e m plo yers . F urth erm ore , l e arn in g ‘ o n t h e j o b’ i n ev ita b ly c re ate s w ork ers a ttu ned t o t h e s p ecif ic p ra ctic es— eith er g ood o r b ad — p re v ailin g i n t h e o rg an is a tio n t h at e m plo ys t h em , i r re sp ectiv e o f w heth er t h ese a re t h e m ost a p pro pria te o r e ffe ctiv e f o rm s o r m odes o f p ra ctic e f o r t h e p re se n tin g i s su es t o w hic h t h e o rg an is a tio n i s a tte m ptin g t o r e sp ond. S om e h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns h av e w ell- d ev elo ped p ra ctic es f o r m an ag in g t h e v olu m e, s c o pe, c h alle n ges a n d v arie ty o f w ork , w hile o th ers d o n ot. O fte n t h is i s a f u nctio n o f s iz e a n d a g e. I n cre asin gly , i t i s a ls o a f u nctio n o f t h e f u ndin g j u ris d ic tio n t o w hic h a n o rg an is a tio n i s o rie n te d . Org an is a tio ns f u nded b y g overn m en ts a re r e q uir e d t o d em onstr a te c o nfo rm ity t o h ig h s ta n dard s o f o pera tio ns i n r e la tio n t o a d m in is tr a tiv e s y ste m s, i n fo rm atio n-m an ag em en t s y ste m s, o rg an is a tio nal p ra ctic es, a n d s o f o rth . I n s o m e A ustr a lia n s ta te s, f u nded o rg an is a tio ns— eith er c u rre n tly o r i n t h e n ear f u tu re — will b e s u bje ct t o f o rm al a u dit o f t h ese b y s ta te g overn m en ts . T his b ook i s d esig ned t o a ssis t f u tu re w ork ers i n p artic u la r t o b oth u nders ta n d t h e i m porta n ce o f p ro fe ssio nalis m i n o rg an is a tio nal p ra ctic es a n d t o d ev elo p e x celle n ce i n p ra ctic e s ta n dard s w ith in h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns e n gag ed i n h um an s e rv ic es d eliv ery . Furth erm ore — partly a s a c o nse q uen ce o f t h e i n cre ase d p re ssu re s o n w ork ers a n d o rg an is a tio ns a ris in g f ro m t h e d esta b ilis a tio n o f t h e w elf a re s ta te a n d t h e i n cre ase d p re ssu re s o n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns a n d t h eir w ork fo rc e t o c o nfo rm t o f u ndin g b odie s’ c o ntr a ctu al r e q uir e m en ts — what w ork ers d o o n a d aily b asis i s i n cre asin gly p re sc rib ed b y d riv es f o r e ffic ie n cy a n d c o nstr a in ed n otio ns o f e ffe ctiv en ess. I n t h ese c o nte x ts , w hat m ig ht o nce h av e b een c o nsid ere d c o re a ctiv itie s i n t h e d eliv ery o f s e rv ic es h av e c o ntr a cte d t o ‘ d eliv era b le s’ c o uch ed i n t e rm s o f k ey p erfo rm an ce i n dic ato rs ( M cD onald , 2 006; H arris , 2 003). Tra n sa ctio n c o sts : T he e x pen se t o a n o rg an is a tio n o r i n div id ual t h at i s i n cu rre d b y u nderta k in g a n activ ity w hic h i s n ot r e co gnis e d o r c o m pen sa te d . Audit: A p ro cess w here in t h e a ctiv itie s o f a n o rg an is a tio n o r a n i n div id ual a re c lo se ly s c ru tin is e d . 8 Deliv era ble s o r k ey p erfo rm an ce i n dic a to rs: N om in ate d o utc o m es o f t h e a ctiv itie s o f a n org an is a tio n o r i n div id ual a s a g re ed i n a c o ntr a ct. In te rv en tio n s k ills : S kills u se d i n h um an s e rv ic e w ork s u ch a s c ase w ork , c o unse llin g, c ase man ag em en t, g ro up w ork , c o m munity w ork a n d s o cia l p la n nin g. Work ers — both q ualif ie d a n d u nqualif ie d — will t h ere fo re b e e n co ura g ed t o a p ply c o re s e ts o f pra ctic es c en tr a lly i m plic ate d i n e ffe ctiv e s e rv ic e d eliv ery — pra ctic es t h at a re b oth q uite pra ctic al i n n atu re a n d t r a n sfe ra b le a cro ss v ir tu ally a ll o rg an is a tio nal c o nte x ts . F urth erm ore , man y e n tr a n ts t o t h e h um an s e rv ic es h av e l ittle e x perie n ce o f w ork in g i n o rg an is a tio nal co nte x ts t h em se lv es. T he f ir s t s e ctio n o f t h e b ook ( C hap te rs 1 a n d 2 ) o rie n ts t h e r e ad er t o th ese c o nte x ts a n d e x plo re s t h e c h ara cte ris tic s a n d p ecu lia ritie s o f w ork in g i n h um an s e rv ic e org an is a tio ns a n d i n n on-p ro fit o rg an is a tio ns. C hap te rs 3 , 4 a n d 5 a d dre ss c o re g en eric pra ctic es t h at a ll w ork ers n eed t o a d opt, s u ch a s s c o pin g t h e c o nte x t, w ritin g a n d r e co rd in g, work in g w ith i n fo rm atio n a n d w ork in g a cro ss c u ltu ra l a n d l in guis tic d if fe re n ces. This b ook a ls o a ck now le d ges t h at h um an s e rv ic e w ork i n volv es w ork in g w ith a n d t h ro ugh in tr a – a n d i n te r-o rg an is a tio nal n etw ork s, w ith in a c o nte x t o f c o m ple x s e rv ic e d eliv ery sy ste m s. E ffe ctiv e w ork w ith in t h ese s y ste m s r e q uir e s a n oth er s e t o f a tte n dan t p ra ctic es t h at are o fte n n ot f u lly a ck now le d ged o r a re o fte n o vers h ad ow ed i n s ta n dard p re -s e rv ic e a n d i n – se rv ic e h um an s e rv ic e e d ucatio n a n d t r a in in g d ev ote d t o d ev elo pin g i n te rv en tio n s k ills . T hese are d is c u sse d i n Chap te r 6 . T his b ook i s d esig ned t o a ssis t f u tu re w ork ers t o d ev elo p a n d main ta in g ood p ra ctic es i n r e la tio n t o t h eir w ork o ver a n d a b ove t h eir i n te rv en tio n k now le d ge an d s k ills — in r e la tio n t o s e rv ic e u se rs , t h eir e m plo yin g o rg an is a tio ns a n d o th er w ork ers a n d org an is a tio ns i n t h e i n dustr y . The r e m ain der o f t h e b ook a ck now le d ges a n d r e sp onds t o t h e n atu re o f w ork i n a ll p arts o f th e i n dustr y , w hic h i n ev ita b ly i n volv es w ork in g w ith v uln era b le p eo ple — fo r e x am ple , w ith ch ild re n , t h e d is a b le d , t h e e ld erly a n d t h e h om ele ss. T here i s a n i m pera tiv e t h at p eo ple en gag ed i n c arin g w ork c arry o ut t h eir d utie s i n a m an ner w hic h i s c o nsta n tly m in dfu l o f t h e ra n ge o f i n here n t r is k s t o t h ese p eo ple , a n d a re a b le t o r e sp ond a p pro pria te ly w ith s o und pra ctic es w ith in o rg an is a tio ns. T he w ork h as i n ev ita b le e th ic al d im en sio ns a n d i m plic atio ns at e v ery p oin t. A cco rd in gly , s k ills i n e th ic al r e aso nin g a n d d ecis io n-m ak in g a re e sse n tia l. Furth er, t h e v uln era b le n atu re o f t h e p eo ple w ith w hom t h e h um an s e rv ic e i n dustr y e n gag es su ggests t h at u nders ta n din g t h e n eed f o r a s w ell a s h av in g t h e c ap acity t o r e sp ond p ositiv ely to t h eir i s su es a n d r ig hts i s p artic u la rly i m porta n t. The t itle e m plo ys t h e a d je ctiv e ‘ p ro fe ssio nal’ i n r e la tio n t o p ra ctic e i n t h e i n dustr y . W e d o not u se t h is w ord t o i m ply t h at t h e b ook c o ntr ib ute s s o le ly t o p ro fe ssio nalis m a s t h at t e rm i s unders to od i n t h e s o cio lo gy o f p ro fe ssio ns. G en era lly , p ro fe ssio nalis m i m plie s a p artic u la r ty pe a n d l e v el o f k now le d ge, s k ills a n d c o m mitm en ts , d if fe re n tly a rtic u la te d i n a n d so m etim es ‘ o w ned ’ b y v ario us f ie ld s s u ch a s s o cia l w ork a n d p sy ch olo gy. I t i s u se d h ere i n a more c o llo quia l s e n se t o s ig nif y t h at t h ere s h ould b e c erta in s ta n dard s t h at b oth s e rv ic e u se rs an d e m plo yers c an e x pect o f a ll e m plo yees w ork in g i n t h e i n dustr y , i r re sp ectiv e o f ed ucatio nal b ack gro und a n d/o r q ualif ic atio ns. A cco rd in gly , w e f o cu s o n t h ose g en eric s k ills th at a p ply acro ss t h e d iv ers ity o f h um an s e rv ic e i n dustr y s e ttin gs. T his b ook i s not d esig ned to d ev elo p s p ecif ic i n te rv en tio n s k ills s u ch a s c o unse llin g o r g ro up w ork . R ath er, i t i s desig ned t o d ev elo p a cco m pan yin g s e ts o f s k ills a n d p ra ctic es t h at a re a ls o n eed ed , b ut t h at are o fte n a d dre sse d i n q uite l im ite d w ay s i n s ta n dard h um an s e rv ic e i n te rv en tio n t e x ts . A s w e hav e d one t o a l im ite d e x te n t i n t h ese i n tr o ducto ry c o m men ts , w e w ill e x pla in w ord s a n d te rm s t h at r e ad ers m ay b e u nfa m ilia r w ith a s t h e b ook p ro gre sse s. F in ally , w e h ope t h at, b y re ad in g t h is b ook a n d t h in kin g a b out t h e i s su es a n d t o pic s w e d is c u ss, r e ad ers ’ c ap acitie s t o work i n w hat i s u ndoubte d ly a f a sc in atin g y et a t t h e s a m e t im e v ery c h alle n gin g f ie ld o f t h e hum an s e rv ic es i s e n han ced . 9 10 C H APT ER O NE Understa n din g o rg an is a tio n s S U M MARY T his c h ap te r i s d esig ned t o a ssis t s tu den ts a n d n ew w ork ers t o u nders ta n d t h e n atu re , d ynam ic s a n d f u nctio nin g o f h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns. A fte r e sta b lis h in g w hy t h e c o nte x t o f o rg an is a tio ns i s i m porta n t t o t h e c o nduct o f h um an s e rv ic e w ork , w e e x plo re k ey c o ncep ts r e la te d t o o rg an is a tio ns a n d k ey c h alle n ges o f w ork in g i n o rg an is a tio ns, p artic u la rly b ut n ot w holly e m erg in g f ro m t h e c o nte m pora ry c o nte x t. F in ally , t h e c h ap te r d is c u sse s a n um ber o f i m porta n t i s su es i n volv ed i n b ein g a n e m plo yee, a n d h en ce b ein g m an ag ed , b efo re b rie fly d is c u ssin g s e v era l i s su es r e la te d t o m an ag in g o urs e lv es. T H E I M PO RTA NCE O F C O NTEX T W hile e v ery one h as s o m e e x perie n ce o f o rg an is a tio ns— fo r e x am ple , t h ro ugh a tte n din g s c h ool o r u niv ers ity — most o f u s t a k e t h em v ery m uch f o r g ra n te d . W e r a re ly s to p t o c o nsid er t h e i m plic atio ns o f a n o rg an is a tio n f o r t h e r a n ge o f p eo ple — fo r e x am ple , s ta ff a n d s e rv ic e u se rs — en gag in g w ith i t. T his i s a v ery i m porta n t i s su e f o r h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers b ecau se t h e o rg an is a tio nal c o nte x t i ts e lf s h ap es h ow w ork ers u nderta k e t h eir w ork , a n d u ltim ate ly t h e i m pact o f t h eir w ork o n d is a d van ta g ed o r t r o uble d s e rv ic e u se rs w ho a re o fte n h eav ily d ep en den t o n t h e o rg an is a tio n t o w hic h t h ey h av e c o m e f o r h elp . T hin k, f o r e x am ple , a b out t h e r e la tio nsh ip t h at a p ers o n w ho h as b een h om ele ss h as w ith a n e m erg en cy h ousin g s e rv ic e, o r t h at a p ers o n w ith a p sy ch ia tr ic d is a b ility h as w ith a m en ta l h ealth s e rv ic e. I t i s a ls o v ery i m porta n t t o r e m em ber t h at m ost p eo ple w ho b eco m e s e rv ic e u se rs o f h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns d o s o b ecau se t h ey h av e l ittle c h oic e. A s a c o nse q uen ce, h ow t h e o rg an is a tio n f u nctio ns— esp ecia lly a t t h e f ro nt l in e— is i m porta n t n ot o nly f o r o urs e lv es a s w ork ers , b ut a ls o f o r t h e p eo ple w e w an t t o a ssis t. Unlik e m an y o th er f o rm s o f w ork , s u ch a s t h at d one b y b uild ers , p lu m bers o r e le ctr ic ia n s, h um an s e rv ic e w ork i s n early a lw ay s u nderta k en i n o rg an is a tio nal c o nte x ts . T hese c o nte x ts a re n ot u nif o rm , h ow ev er— th ey r a n ge f ro m h uge s ta te -b ase d b ure au cra cie s t o s m all n on- p ro fit o r c o m munity -b ase d o rg an is a tio ns— each w ith i ts o w n u niq ue s e ts o f i s su es a n d e x perie n ces. W hile p ro fe ssio ns s u ch a s s o cia l w ork t h at o pera te w ith in t h e h um an s e rv ic es f ie ld d ra w t h eir l e g itim acy f ro m t h eir p ro fe ssio n, t h ey a ls o d ra w i t— perh ap s e v en m ore s o — f ro m t h eir e m plo yin g o rg an is a tio n. V ery o fte n , t h ose o rg an is a tio ns ( p artic u la rly i f t h ey a re 11 opera te d b y a g overn m en t) a re e sta b lis h ed b y s ta tu te a n d h av e a n a sso cia te d b ody o f le g is la tio n t h at s e ts o ut t h eir p urp ose a n d t h eir p ow ers . A h um an s e rv ic e w ork er w ork in g f o r a s ta te g overn m en t c h ild p ro te ctio n s e rv ic e, f o r e x am ple , h as q uite s ig nif ic an t p ow ers i n re la tio n t o c h ild re n c o nsid ere d t o b e a t r is k , a n d a s o cia l w ork er w ork in g f o r C en tr e lin k h as su bsta n tia l p ow er i n d ete rm in in g t h e e lig ib ility o f y oung p eo ple f o r i n co m e s e cu rity . Man y n ew ly g ra d uate d p ro fe ssio nals h av e b een t a u ght t h e n otio n t h at t h ey r e ta in sig nif ic an t p ro fe ssio nal a u to nom y. T his i s n ot e n tir e ly t r u e a n d, a s w e w ill d is c u ss l a te r, i t i s ev en l e ss t r u e i n t h e c o nte m pora ry c o nte x t t h an i t w as 3 0 y ears a g o. O rg an is a tio ns l a rg ely cre ate t h e r u le s o f t h e g am e— fo r e x am ple , t h e a ctu al i n te rv en tio n p ra ctic es a w ork er m ig ht underta k e, a s w ell a s t h e s p ecif ic d utie s a n d r e sp onsib ilitie s o f e m plo yees. B ein g e m plo yed i n an o rg an is a tio n i n ev ita b ly m ean s b ein g s u bord in ate t o s o m eo ne, a n d f o r b eg in nin g w ork ers i t ofte n m ean s w ork in g i n a p ositio n a l o ng w ay d ow n a d au ntin g h ie ra rc h y. T hese p ositio ns im ply t h at e m plo yees h av e t o o bey s e ts o f r u le s e sta b lis h ed b y t h e o rg an is a tio n. I t i s a ls o im porta n t t o r e fle ct t h at e m plo yees d ra w t h e m ean s o f d aily s u ste n an ce f ro m t h eir e m plo yers in t h e f o rm o f t h eir s a la rie s; f u rth erm ore , t h ey s p en d a c o nsid era b le p art o f t h eir l iv es w ith in th e o rg an is a tio n. Mostly , o rg an is a tio ns o pera te i n p hysic al l o catio ns, d em arc ate d f ro m t h e s u rro undin g co m munity i n w hic h t h ey a re e m bed ded b y s u ch d ev ic es a s b uild in gs, d oors a n d c o unte rs . Som e h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns d ep lo y d eg re es o f s e cu rity r a re ly s e en o r e x perie n ced i n oth er c o nte x ts , a n d i n d oin g s o t h ey s e n d c le ar m essa g es t o b oth t h eir s ta ff a n d t h eir s e rv ic e use rs . F in ally , o rg an is a tio ns g ra n t i d en titie s t o t h eir e m plo yees, o fte n r e p re se n te d a n d pro je cte d v ia p hysic al m ean s s u ch a s I D c ard s, n am e b ad ges o r c o rp ora te c lo th in g. I n a ll, hum an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns a re s ig nif ic an t c o nte x ts f o r h um an s e rv ic es p ra ctic e, a n d a ll hum an s e rv ic e w ork ers n eed t o d ev elo p t h e c ap acity t o u nders ta n d t h e c o nte x ts w ith in w hic h th ey p ly t h eir s k ills , a n d t h e i m plic atio ns f o r t h eir p ra ctic e. Non -p ro fit o rg an is a tio n : A n o rg an is a tio n t h at m ay n ot l e g ally r e d is tr ib ute a n y s u rp lu s m oney i t mak es t o i n div id ual s h are h old ers . A ny s u ch s u rp lu s m ust b e r e in veste d i n t h e l e g ally a ccep te d g oals an d a ctiv itie s o f t h e o rg an is a tio n. Sta tu te : A n a ct p asse d b y a p arlia m en t o r o th er l e g is la tu re t h at i s f o rm ally r e co rd ed . Pro fe ssio n al a u to n om y: T he r ig hts o f s o m e p ro fe ssio ns, i n div id ually a n d c o lle ctiv ely , t o m an ag e an d g overn t h eir o w n w ork . KEY C O NCEPT S I N H UM AN S E R VIC E O RG ANIS A TIO NS Dis tin gu is h in g c h ara cte ris tic s o f h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio n s It i s g en era lly a ccep te d b y k ey t h eo ris ts t h at h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns a re s o m ew hat dif fe re n t f ro m o th er o rg an is a tio ns ( s e e H ase n fe ld , 1 983 f o r a s e m in al a cco unt) . J o nes a n d May ( 1 992) s u ggest t h at t h is g ro up o f o rg an is a tio ns c an ( m ore o r l e ss) b e d is tin guis h ed b y th eir p urp ose , t h eir t e ch nolo gy a n d t h eir a u sp ic e. W e b eg in w ith p urp ose . U su ally , h um an se rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns a re c o ntr a ste d w ith f o r-p ro fit o rg an is a tio ns e n gag ed i n p ro ductio n o r busin ess. T he p rim ary p urp ose o f t h at l a tte r g ro up, i t i s s u ggeste d , i s t o p ro duce p ro fit f o r ow ners a n d s h are h old ers . F or t h e m ost p art ( th ough t h ere a re e x cep tio ns, a n d t h ese a re gro w in g i n n um ber), h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns n om in ate a s t h eir p rim ary p urp ose t h e pro m otio n o f t h e c are a n d w ellb ein g o f p eo ple e x perie n cin g d if fic u ltie s i n t h eir l iv es b ecau se of p overty , d is a b ility , i lln ess o r s o m e o th er l if e h azard . W hile t h is m ig ht s e em str a ig htf o rw ard , d is tin guis h in g a h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio n b y p urp ose c an h av e i ts 12 dif fic u ltie s, e sp ecia lly i n w hat i s k now n a s a mix ed e co nom y o f w elfa re . B y t h is , w e m ean t h e en tir e r a n ge o f o rg an is a tio ns c au ght u p i n t h e o ver-a rc h in g b usin ess o f t h e w elf a re s ta te ( a te rm c h ara cte ris in g a n d d esc rib in g t h e a ctiv itie s o f t h ose a d van ced i n dustr ia lis e d c o untr ie s th at h av e a ctiv ely p ro m ote d a n d p ro vid ed m an y f o rm s o f w elf a re s in ce t h e e n d o f W orld W ar II). I n A ustr a lia , f o r e x am ple , t h ese c an b e p ublic s e cto r o rg an is a tio ns, n on-p ro fit org an is a tio ns o r b usin esse s. C onsid er t h e e m plo ym en t s e rv ic es s e cto r, w here a n um ber o f busin esse s s u ch a s S arin a R usso a n d M ax im us a re c o ntr a cte d b y t h e C om monw ealth govern m en t t o p ro vid e s e rv ic es t o t h e u nem plo yed . C le arly , t h ese o rg an is a tio ns c o uld c la im th at t h eir p urp ose i s t o h elp t h e u nem plo yed . H ow ev er, t h eir o th er v ery i m porta n t p urp ose i s to m ak e a p ro fit f o r t h eir o w ners a n d s h are h old ers . O th er e x am ple s i n clu de b usin esse s pro vid in g n urs in g h om e c are a n d c h ild c are . S om e o f t h ese a re v ery c o ntr o vers ia l— su ch a s board in g o r r o om in g h ouse s— becau se t h e p oor c o nditio ns o fte n f o und i n t h em i llu str a te o nly to o w ell t h at t h e m ain p urp ose i s p ro fit g en era tio n, o fte n t o t h e d etr im en t o f t h eir h ap le ss re sid en ts . Anoth er m ean s o f d is tin guis h in g h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns i s t h ro ugh t h e ‘ te ch nolo gie s’ th ey e m plo y. ‘ T ech nolo gy’ h ere i s r e ally a m eta p hor f o r t h e t y pes o f a ctiv itie s a n d in te rv en tio ns d ep lo yed — fo r e x am ple , c o unse llin g o r e m erg en cy r e lie f. H ase n fe ld ( 1 983) i s one o f t h e m ain t h eo ris ts s u ggestin g t h is . H e a rg ues t h at w e c an d is tin guis h b etw een p eo ple – pro cessin g, p eo ple -s u sta in in g a n d p eo ple -c h an gin g o rg an is a tio ns. P eo ple -p ro cessin g te ch nolo gie s a re f o und i n t h ose o rg an is a tio ns t h at a sse ss p eo ple a n d p ro vid e a p artic u la r la b el, w hic h t h en c au se s t h em t o b e t r e ate d i n s p ecif ic w ay s. I n t h e A ustr a lia n c o nte x t, o ne o f th e m ain p eo ple -p ro cessin g o rg an is a tio ns i s C en tr e lin k. C le arly , w hen a p ers o n g oes t o a Cen tr e lin k c u sto m er-s e rv ic e o ffic e, h is o r h er s ta tu s i s a sse sse d a n d l a b elle d a s u nem plo yed , so le p are n t, d is a b le d o r a g ed . E ach o f t h ese c ate g orie s a ttr a cts a p artic u la r p ay m en t w ith sp ecif ic c o nditio ns a tta ch ed t o i t. H ase n fe ld o rig in ally t h ought t h at s u ch o rg an is a tio ns w ere not p artic u la rly i n te re ste d i n c h an gin g t h e a ttr ib ute s o f t h eir s e rv ic e u se rs , a v ie w h e ex pre sse d i n a n e ra b efo re ‘ w elf a re r e fo rm ’ ( a d ev elo pm en t i n p olic y b y w hic h i n co m e se cu rity p ay m en ts b ecam e c o nditio nal o n r e cip ie n ts b eh av in g i n r e q uir e d w ay s). I n cre asin gly , an d c erta in ly i n t h e c ase o f C en tr e lin k, t h e c o nditio ns a tta ch ed t o p ay m en ts f o r unem plo ym en t r e q uir e c erta in a ctiv itie s, w hic h i t i s b elie v ed w ill c h an ge t h e d is p ositio ns o f th e u nem plo yed f ro m p assiv e b en efic ia rie s t o a ctiv e j o b-s e ek ers . Peo ple -s u sta in in g o rg an is a tio ns a re t h ose t h at p ro vid e s o m e s o rt o f s e rv ic e w hic h a llo w s peo ple t o l iv e t h eir l iv es, b ut w hic h a g ain i s n ot i n te re ste d i n c h an gin g t h em . S om e e x am ple s of t h ese a re a g ed c are ( fo r e x am ple , i n -h om e c are t h at i s d esig ned t o a llo w p eo ple t o ‘ a g e i n pla ce’ o r s ta y i n t h eir o w n h om es), c h ild c are a n d m an y d is a b ility -s u pport s e rv ic es. In -h om e c a re : D om estic s u pport o r c are s e rv ic es p ro vid ed t o t h e a g ed i n t h eir o w n h om es. Age i n p la ce: A p rin cip le o f g ood p ra ctic e i n a g ed c are t h at s u ggests p eo ple a re h ap pie r i n t h eir o w n hom es t h an i n i n stitu tio nal s e ttin gs. Fin ally , p eo ple -c h an gin g o rg an is a tio ns a re t h ose t h at a re s p ecif ic ally s e t u p t o c h an ge t h e dis p ositio ns o r p ers o nal a ttr ib ute s o f t h e p eo ple w ho e n gag e w ith t h em . T here a re m an y ex am ple s o f t h ese , i n clu din g c o unse llin g s e rv ic es, e d ucatio nal s e rv ic es, f a m ily -s u pport se rv ic es a n d c h ild -p ro te ctio n s e rv ic es. J o nes a n d M ay ( 1 992) a rg ue t h at t h ere i s a f o urth t y pe of h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio n: p eo ple -c o ntr o llin g o rg an is a tio ns— th e m ain p urp ose o f w hic h is c o ntr o l o r r e str a in t. E xam ple s o f t h ese a re c o rre ctiv e s e rv ic es a n d s o m e m en ta l h ealth se rv ic es ( e .g . p sy ch ia tr ic h osp ita ls ). The t h ir d f e atu re s a id t o c h ara cte ris e d is tin ctiv en ess i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns i s au sp ic e. B y a u sp ic e, w e m ean t h e m an date o r m ech an is m t h at a u th oris e s a n o rg an is a tio n’s ex is te n ce. U su ally , t h is i s d ra w n f ro m t h e l e g al f o rm o f t h e o rg an is a tio n. T here a re s e v era l o f 13 th ese i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es: s ta tu to ry o rg an is a tio ns o r C om monw ealth a n d s ta te g overn m en t dep artm en ts ; f o r-p ro fit b usin ess e n titie s; a n d n on-p ro fit o rg an is a tio ns. T he l a st g ro up i s a ls o sp lit i n to f o ur t y pes: r e lig io us c h aritie s, s e cu la r c h aritie s, i n co rp ora te d a sso cia tio ns a n d co m pan ie s l im ite d b y g uara n te e. Relig io u s c h arity : A n o rg an is a tio n e n gag ed i n h um an s e rv ic es d eliv ery s p onso re d b y a l e g ally re co gnis e d c h urc h , w hic h i s r e co gnis e d a s s u ch b y t h e T ax atio n D ep artm en t. Secu la r c h arity : A n o rg an is a tio n e n gag ed i n h um an s e rv ic e d eliv ery not s p onso re d b y a l e g ally re co gnis e d c h urc h , b ut a ccep te d a s a c h arity b y t h e T ax atio n D ep artm en t. In co rp ora te d a sso cia tio n : A n on-p ro fit s e cu la r o rg an is a tio n g iv en l e g al i d en tity t h ro ugh s ta te Asso cia tio ns I n co rp ora tio ns A cts . Com pan y l im ite d b y g u ara n te e: A n on-p ro fit s e cu la r o rg an is a tio n g iv en l e g al i d en tity b y t h e Austr a lia n S ecu ritie s a n d I n vestm en t C om mis sio n ( A SIC ). The c o m mon f e atu re o f t h e n on-p ro fit g ro up i s t h at t h ey a re a ll b ound b y w hat i s k now n a s th e ‘ n on-d is tr ib utio n c o nstr a in t’ ( H an sm an , 1 980: 8 35), b y w hic h t h ey a re l e g ally b arre d f ro m dis tr ib utin g a n y o rg an is a tio nal s u rp lu s a s p ro fit a n d m ust r e in vest a n y s u ch s u rp lu s i n to t h e aim s a n d o bje ctiv es o f t h e o rg an is a tio n. Tab le 1 .1 : C hara cte ris tic s o f o rg an is a tio n s Ausp ic e Tech nolo gy Purp ose Unitin g C are n urs in g h om e Sta te c h ild p ro te ctio n s e rv ic e Neig hbourh ood c en tr e For-p ro fit e m plo ym en t s e rv ic e Welf a re r ig hts c en tr e Priv ate p ris o n Sm ith F am ily c h arity EX ER CIS E Id en tif y t h e c h ara cte ris tic s o f t h e o rg an is a tio ns i n Tab le 1 .1 . Org an is a tio n al s tr u ctu re Org an is a tio ns a re c h ara cte ris e d b y s tr u ctu re , b y w hic h w e m ean t h e p atte rn o f r e la tio nsh ip s— both h oriz o nta l a n d v ertic al— th at e x is t i n a n y o rg an is a tio ns. W e a ll u nders ta n d t h e v ertic al str u ctu re o f a n o rg an is a tio n. A t t h e t o p i s t h e b oss— th e c h ie f e x ecu tiv e o ffic er o f a p riv ate o r non-p ro fit o rg an is a tio n, t h e D ir e cto r-G en era l o f a s ta te o r C om monw ealth d ep artm en t, t h e prin cip al o f a s e co ndary s c h ool, o r t h e v ic e-c h an cello r o f a u niv ers ity . F allin g o ut i n r o w s belo w t h e b oss i s a s e rie s o f l e v els a n d r o le s, e ach c h arg ed w ith a p art o f i m ple m en tin g t h e obje ctiv es o f t h e o rg an is a tio n, c u lm in atin g i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns— th e p eo ple w ho deliv er s e rv ic es— in t h e f ro nt l in e. Buch an an a n d H yczy nsk i ( 2 004: 5 ) s ta te t h at o rg an is a tio nal s tr u ctu re i s a ‘ s o cia l arra n gem en t f o r a ch ie v in g c o ntr o lle d p erfo rm an ce i n p urs u it o f c o lle ctiv e g oals ’. I n t h e pre v io us p ara g ra p h, w e i n voked o ne t y pe o f s tr u ctu re — th e t y pic al b ure au cra tic o r 14 hie ra rc h ic al s tr u ctu re — but t h ere a re o th er m odels i n w hic h t h e d eg re e o f h ie ra rc h y i s co nsid era b ly r e d uced . A noth er f a m ous t h eo ris t, M in tz b erg ( 1 989) s u ggeste d f iv e d im en sio ns th at i n fo rm t h e t y pe o f s tr u ctu re i n a n o rg an is a tio n: 1. t h e d eg re e o f j o b s p ecia lis a tio n i n clu din g t h e v ertic al a n d h oriz o nta l d iv is io n o f r e sp onsib ility a n d acco unta b ility 2. t h e c rite ria b y w hic h j o bs a re g ro uped t o geth er 3. t h e d eg re e o f f o rm alis a tio n o f r u le s a n d r e g ula tio ns a n d t h e e x te n t t o w hic h t h ese a re w ritte n dow n 4. t y pes o f i n te g ra tiv e m ech an is m s 5. t h e c en tr a lis a tio n o f d ecis io n-m ak in g a n d t h e d eg re e o f d ele g atio n d ow nw ard s. EX ER CIS E Dis c u ss t h e o rg an is a tio nal s tr u ctu re s l ik ely t o b e f o und i n a n eig hbourh ood c en tr e , A nglic are a n d Cen tr e lin k. Org an is a tio n al c u lt u re All o rg an is a tio ns h av e c u ltu re s, a n d a n o rg an is a tio n’s c u ltu re p la y s a n i n te g ra l p art i n s h ap in g how i t f u nctio ns, a s w ell a s h ow i t i s e x perie n ced b y w ork ers a n d s e rv ic e u se rs . B y c u ltu re , we m ean t h e b asic a ssu m ptio ns a n d b elie fs — ofte n h id den a n d u nco nsc io us— th at r e p re se n t th e n atu re o f t h e o rg an is a tio n a n d i ts r e la tio nsh ip w ith t h e e n vir o nm en t. C ultu re c an b e ex pre sse d i n s u ch p ra ctic es a s r itu als , f o rm al w ritte n s ta te m en ts , s ta n dard s, r u le s a n d p olic ie s, arte fa cts , a n d f o rm al a n d i n fo rm al s to rie s t o ld a b out t h e o rg an is a tio n b y i ts m em bers . Em plo yees r a p id ly l e arn a n o rg an is a tio n’s c u ltu re , a s m ost o rg an is a tio ns a ctiv ely d is se m in ate th eir f o rm al c u ltu re a t i n ductio n. T he R ed C ro ss, f o r e x am ple , h as a v id eo i t s h ow s s ta ff a n d volu nte ers a b out i ts u niq ue h is to ry . S ee, f o r e x am ple , t h at o rg an is a tio n’s h is to ry d ra w n f ro m its w eb p ag e: The R ed C ro ss a nd R ed C re sc en t M ovem en t b eg an a lm ost 1 50 y ea rs a go w hen o n a h ot J u ne d ay i n 1859 H en ry D unant, a S w is s b anker t r a vellin g o n b usin ess i n n orth ern I ta ly , w itn esse d t h e a fte rm ath of t h e B attle o f S olfe rin o a h orrify in g a nd b lo ody c o nflic t b etw een 3 00,0 00 s o ld ie rs f r o m I m peria l Austr ia a nd t h e F ra nco -S ard in ia n A llia nce. I n 1 862 D unant p ublis h ed h is r e co lle ctio n o f t h is exp erie n ce a s A M em ory o f S olfe rin o a nd r e m ain ed c o nvin ced t h at t h e p ow er o f h um anity c o uld b e en gaged t o a lle via te s u ffe rin g o n a g lo bal s c a le . V uln era ble p eo ple e xis t i n a ll s o cie tie s, h e a rg ued , and s h ould b e a ffo rd ed t h e s a m e c a re a nd c o nsid era tio n. Som e o f t h e m en w ounded i n b attle l a y w here t h ey f e ll f o r d ays b le ed in g a nd t o rm en te d b y t h ir st, hunger, f lie s a nd b urn in g h ea t. T he d ea d w ere t h ro w n i n to h uge p its , a lo ng w ith o th ers s e rio usly in ju re d b ut a liv e n oneth ele ss. A m id t h e s te n ch a nd s o unds o f p ain a nd a nguis h , t h ie ves m oved f r o m perso n t o p erso n, r o bbin g b oth t h e w ounded a nd t h e d ea d. M oved b y t h e s ig ht o f t h e a ppallin g in ju rie s s u ffe re d b y t h ese y o ung m en , D unant r a llie d v illa gers f r o m t h e t o w n o f C astig lio ne d ella Pie ve t o a ssis t a nd t e n d t h e w ounded . T hese t o w nsfo lk w ere t o b eco m e t h e f ir st v o lu nte ers o f t h e R ed Cro ss. Would t h ere n ot b e s o m e m ea ns, d urin g a p erio d o f p ea ce a nd c a lm , o f f o rm in g r e lie f S ocie tie s whose o bje ct w ould b e t o h ave t h e w ounded c a re d f o r i n t im e o f w ar b y e n th usia stic d evo te d vo lu nte ers f u lly q ualifie d f o r t h e t a sk ? S uch S ocie tie s c o uld e ven r e n der g re a t s e rv ic e d urin g ep id em ic s o r a t t im es o f d is a ste r o f f lo od a nd f ir e ; t h e p hila nth ro pic m otiv es u nderly in g t h eir vo ca tio n w ould b rin g t h em i n to a ctio n i m med ia te ly w here ver a nd w hen ever t h ey c o uld u se fu lly in te rv en e. His m atte r-o f- fa ct a cco unt, w ith i ts u nderly in g m essa ge o f h ope a nd i n sp ir a tio n d re w w id esp re a d 15 su pport a cro ss E uro pe, b rin gin g w ith i t t h e s a lie n t r e m in der t h at s u ffe rin g d oes n ot e n d o nce t h e battle h as c ea se d . I n Gen eva i n O cto ber 1 863 u nder t h e l e a dersh ip o f H en ry D unant, G usta ve Moyn ie r, G en era l G uilla um e-H en ri D ufo ur, D r L ouis A ppia a nd D r T heo dore M aunoir s e t u p t h e In te rn atio nal C om mitte e f o r R elie f t o t h e W ounded . T he C om mitte e, l a te r t o b eco m e t h e In te rn atio nal C om mitte e o f t h e R ed C ro ss, c h ose a s t h eir e m ble m a p erfe ctly f o rm ed r e d c ro ss o n a white b ackg ro und t h e s im ple i n verse o f t h e S w is s f la g. < www.r e d cro ss.o rg .a u /a b outu s_ his to ry _in te rn atio nal_ defa u lt.h tm > In s o m e o rg an is a tio ns— partic u la rly r e lig io us c h arita b le o rg an is a tio ns— th e c u ltu re i s dra w n d ir e ctly f ro m t h e s p ir itu al o rie n ta tio n o f t h e r e lig io us g ro up o r o rd er a u sp ic in g t h e org an is a tio n. EX ER CIS E Dis c u ss w hat y ou k now a b out t h e c u ltu re o f t h e S alv atio n A rm y. As w ell a s f o rm al c u ltu re s, m an y o rg an is a tio ns a ls o h av e i n fo rm al o r c o vert c u ltu re s, whic h a re m ore p ow erfu l b ecau se t h ey a re u nsp oken a n d u nch alle n ged . I n o ne l a rg e n on- pro fit o rg an is a tio n s tu die d b y M cD onald a n d W arb urto n ( 2 004), t h ere w as a n eg ativ e a n d unack now le d ged c u ltu ra l u nders ta n din g o f t h e r e la tio nsh ip b etw een t h e c en tr e a n d t h e perip hery , w hic h l e d t o c o nsid era b le b itte rn ess a n d c o nflic t. U nfo rtu nate ly , i t i s n ot unco m mon f o r h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns t o h av e c u ltu re s t h at a re n eg ativ e a n d d is m is siv e ab out t h eir s e rv ic e u se rs . M cD onald a n d M ars to n ( 2 008b) f o und, f o r e x am ple , t h at m an y c ase man ag ers a t t h e f ro nt l in e o f A ustr a lia ’s e m plo ym en t s e rv ic es h av e v ery n eg ativ e a ttitu des to w ard s t h e u nem plo yed , e sp ecia lly t h e l o ng-te rm u nem plo yed . T his o rie n ta tio n t o s e rv ic e use rs m ore g en era lly w as a ls o n ote d b y W earin g ( 1 998) i n h is s tu dy o f t h e n on-p ro fit s e cto r in N ew S outh W ale s. EX ER CIS E Fro m a s e rv ic e u se r’s p oin t o f v ie w , w hat i s t h e d om in an t c o vert c u ltu ra l o rie n ta tio n o f C en tr e lin k cu sto m er s e rv ic e o ffic ers ? Str eet-le v el o r f r o n t-lin e w ork ers In 1 980, M ic h ael L ip sk y w ro te a v ery f a m ous b ook c alle d Str e et- L evel B ure a ucra cy , i n whic h h e a d van ced t h e p ro positio n t h at w ork ers a t t h e f ro nt l in e o f h um an s e rv ic e org an is a tio ns— partic u la rly s ta te -ru n o rg an is a tio ns— were t h e u ltim ate s h ap ers o f s o cia l polic y . H ow a s e rv ic e u se r a ctu ally e x perie n ced a p artic u la r p olic y o rie n ta tio n a n d a sso cia te d pro gra m w as m ed ia te d t h ro ugh a f ro nt- lin e w ork er’s u nders ta n din g o f t h e p olic y a n d h is o r her p ers o nal o rie n ta tio n t o t h e w ork a n d t o t h e s e rv ic e u se rs . T his w as t h e c ase , h e s u ggeste d , becau se f ro nt- lin e w ork ers i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns h ad c o nsid era b le a u to nom y i n t h e way t h ey w en t a b out t h eir w ork . I n 1 993, S m ith a n d L ip sk y r e v is ite d t h e n otio n o f s tr e et- le v el b ure au cra ts i n t h e c o nte x t o f d ev elo pm en ts s in ce t h e o rig in al b ook w as p ublis h ed . I n t h e la te r b ook, t h ey n ote d t h at w ork ers a t t h e f ro nt l in e i n t h e n on-p ro fit s e cto r w ere t h e n ew str e et- le v el b ure au cra ts . T o a c erta in e x te n t t h is i s t r u e, i n t h e s e n se t h at m uch s e rv ic e deliv ery t h at o nce w as u nderta k en b y t h e s ta te i s n ow u nderta k en b y t h e n on-p ro fit o r co m munity s e cto r. T hat s a id , a n d a s w e w ill d is c u ss s h ortly , d ev elo pm en ts i n g overn m en t 16 hav e c h an ged t h e w ay b ure au cra ts m onito r a n d o vers e e t h e w ork o f c o ntr a cte d c o m munity org an is a tio ns. N ev erth ele ss, f ro nt- lin e w ork ers s till b ear m uch o f t h e r e sp onsib ility f o r a n d ris k s i n here n t i n h um an s e rv ic e d eliv ery . I n o th er w ord s, f ro nt- lin e w ork ers a re v ita l. KEY C H ALLEN G ES I N H UM AN S E R VIC E O RG ANIS A TIO NS Cle arly t h ere a re m an y c h alle n ges f a cin g p eo ple w ork in g i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns, so m e o f w hic h w e d is c u ss h ere . T he i s su es d is c u sse d l a rg ely a ris e f ro m t h e c o nte m pora ry en vir o nm en t i n w hic h h um an s e rv ic es o pera te . New p ublic m an agem en t In 1 992 a n e x tr e m ely i n flu en tia l b ook, Rein ven tin g G overn m en t b y O sb orn e a n d G aeb le r, was p ublis h ed , s e ttin g t h e t o ne f o r g overn m en ts t h ro ughout t h e a d van ced i n dustr ia lis e d world . I ts c en tr a l a rg um en t w as t h at g overn m en ts s h ould r u n t h e p ublic s e cto r i n m uch t h e sa m e m an ner a s p riv ate c o rp ora tio ns. S ubse q uen tly , a n e n tir e m ovem en t i n p ublic s e cto r ad m in is tr a tio n— New P ublic M an ag em en t ( N PM )— gre w u p. T his m ovem en t h as r e sh ap ed th e p ublic s e cto r, a n d i n t h e p ro cess t h e r e la tio nsh ip s b etw een t h e s ta te a n d t h ose n on-s ta te org an is a tio ns c o ntr a cte d t o f u lf il s ta te f u nctio ns. W ith r e g ard t o t h e l a tte r, t h e c o nditio ns o f co ntr a cts n ow r o utin ely s p ecif y w hat o rg an is a tio ns w ill d o, h ow t h ey w ill d o i t a n d h ow t h ey will o rg an is e t h em se lv es. S om e o f t h e m ajo r r e fo rm s i n clu de p ra ctic es s u ch a s: • i n cre ase d u se o f p urc h ase -o f-s e rv ic e c o ntr a cts ( w here b y t h e s ta te h ir e s n on-s ta te o rg an is a tio ns t o underta k e t h eir w ork ), t r a n sfe rrin g s ig nif ic an t s w ath es o f s e rv ic e d eliv ery o ut o f t h e s ta te ’s d ir e ct co ntr o l • i n tr o ductio n o f p erfo rm an ce t a rg ets ( k ey p erfo rm an ce i n dic ato rs ) f o r o rg an is a tio ns a n d e m plo yees • t h e p rio ritis a tio n o f e ffic ie n cy a s a n o pera tio nal p rin cip le • t h e u se o f g en eric s e n io r m an ag ers a s o ppose d t o p eo ple w ho a re e x perts i n t h e f ie ld . Curre n tly , a ll h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns— public s e cto r a n d n onpro fit— are a ffe cte d . One o f t h e b ig gest i m plic atio ns f o r w ork ers i s t h e d ecre ase d t r u st o f a d vocate s o f N PM i n pro fe ssio nals , a n d t h e s u bse q uen t d ete rio ra tio n o f t h eir a u to nom y. C ouple d w ith t h e i n cre ase d use o f i n fo rm atio n t e ch nolo gy, t h e f ro nt l in e o f w elf a re i s n ow m uch m ore t ig htly c o ntr o lle d th an i t w as i n t h e p ast, a n d w hat a u to nom y a n d d is c re tio n w ork ers o nce h ad i s n ow in cre asin gly d esig ned o ut. Qualit y a ssu ra n ce Acco m pan yin g t h e r is e o f N PM a n d i ts a sso cia te d d is tr u st o f p ro fe ssio nals , a n ew m eth od o f man ag in g t h e q uality o f s e rv ic e d eliv ery h as d ev elo ped — quality a ssu ra n ce, a c o m pre h en siv e an d q uite i n vasiv e m eth od o f a sse ssin g ‘ q uality ’ i n o rg an is a tio nal f u nctio nin g. C urre n tly , a ll org an is a tio ns— in clu din g h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns— are u sin g f o rm al q uality a ssu ra n ce sy ste m s. N atio nally , t h e Q uality I m pro vem en t C ouncil ( Q IC ) u nderta k es q uality a sse ssm en ts of h ealth a n d c o m munity s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns a ro und a w hole r a n ge o f m atte rs . I n cre asin gly , su ch a ccre d ita tio n i s a r e q uir e m en t f o r f u ndin g. S ee Tab le 1 .2 f o r t h e c o re s ta n dard s u se d b y QIC w hen a ccre d itin g o rg an is a tio ns. Tab le 1 .2 : C ore s ta n dard s s u m mary 17 Sectio n 1 Build in g q ualit y o rg an is a tio n s Sta n dard 1 .1 Lead ers h ip a n d m an ag em en t Sta n dard 1 .2 Hum an r e so urc es Sta n dard 1 .3 Physic al r e so urc es Sta n dard 1 .4 Fin an cia l m an ag em en t Sta n dard 1 .5 Know le d ge m an ag em en t Sta n dard 1 .6 Ris k a sse ssm en t a n d m an ag em en t Sta n dard 1 .7 Leg al a n d r e g ula to ry c o m plia n ce Sectio n 2 Pro vid in g q ualit y s e rv ic es a n d p ro gra m s Sta n dard 2 .1 Id en tif y in g a n d m eetin g c o m munity n eed s Sta n dard 2 .2 Focu sin g o n p ositiv e o utc o m es Sta n dard 2 .3 Ensu rin g c u ltu ra l s a fe ty a n d a p pro pria te n ess Sta n dard 2 .4 Confir m in g c o nsu m er r ig hts Sta n dard 2 .5 Em pow erin g c o nsu m ers Sta n dard 2 .6 Coord in atin g s e rv ic es a n d p ro gra m s Sectio n 3 Susta in in g q ualit y e x te rn al r ela tio n sh ip s Sta n dard 3 .1 Serv ic e a g re em en ts a n d p artn ers h ip s Sta n dard 3 .2 Colla b ora tio n a n d s tr a te g ic p ositio nin g Sta n dard 3 .3 In co rp ora tio n a n d c o ntr ib utio n t o g ood p ra ctic e Sta n dard 3 .4 Com munity a n d p ro fe ssio nal c ap acity b uild in g Sourc e: < www.q ic .o rg .a u > Each o rg an is a tio n t h at a p plie s f o r a ccre d ita tio n h as t o u nderta k e a f o rm al e x te rn al r e v ie w of i ts s y ste m s, a n d i f t h ey m eet t h e s ta n dard s t h e o rg an is a tio n i s a ccre d ite d f o r a n um ber o f years . I n s o m e s ta te s, q uality a ccre d ita tio n i s a c o nditio n o f r e ceiv in g g overn m en t f u nds. The r is e o f r is k As P ow er ( 1 997) s o e lo quen tly s u ggests , r is k h as b eco m e a c en tr a l c o ncep t e m plo yed i n unders ta n din g t h e c o nte m pora ry o pera tin g e n vir o nm en ts o f o rg an is a tio ns. A cco m pan yin g i t is a m an ag em en t i m pera tiv e t o m an ag e r is k . T his t a k es s e v era l f o rm s. A ll o rg an is a tio ns, in clu din g h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns, i n te rro gate t h eir o rg an is a tio nal p ra ctic es i n t e rm s o f pote n tia l r is k in ess, a n d d ev elo p p ro to co ls a n d p ro ced ure s t o m in im is e i t. T hese a ffe ct vir tu ally a ll a sp ects o f a n o rg an is a tio n’s f u nctio nin g, a n d o fte n i n volv e d efle ctin g co nsid era b le r e so urc es a w ay f ro m d ir e ct s e rv ic e d eliv ery . T here a re s e v era l t y pes o f r is k — fin an cia l r is k s ( e .g . u nan tic ip ate d e x pen ditu re ), l e g al r is k s ( w here o rg an is a tio ns a re h eld lia b le f o r s o m eth in g), p olitic al r is k s ( w here in g overn m en ts o r o rg an is a tio ns a re h eld re sp onsib le f o r f a ilu re o r f o r p oor o utc o m es) a n d r e p uta tio nal r is k ( w here a n o rg an is a tio n’s re p uta tio n i s p ut a t j e o pard y). I n cre asin gly , g overn m en ts m an ag e r is k a sso cia te d w ith h um an se rv ic e d eliv ery b y c o ntr a ctin g i t o ut. L ook, f o r e x am ple , a t t h e V ic to ria n g overn m en t’ s re cen tly i m ple m en te d C hild F ir s t s y ste m o f r e sp ondin g t o a n d m an ag in g c h ild p ro te ctio n ( s e e case s tu dy). 18 Obvio usly , t h is h as i m plic atio ns f o r t h e c o m munity -b ase d f a m ily s u pport a g en cie s pro vid in g s u pport t o ‘ ris k y’ f a m ilie s. A s a c o nse q uen ce, t h ose o rg an is a tio ns a re v ery co ncern ed w ith m ak in g s u re t h eir f ro nt- lin e s ta ff c an m an ag e t h e w ork . In volv in g s e rv ic e u se rs In cre asin gly , i t i s a ccep te d t h at g ood p ra ctic e i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns i s p ra ctic e t h at ta k es s e rio usly t h e i s su e o f l is te n in g t o a n d i n volv in g s e rv ic e u se rs . T he d eg re e o f in volv em en t c an v ary f ro m o rg an is a tio n t o o rg an is a tio n, d ep en din g o n t h e v alu es o rie n ta tio n of t h e m an ag em en t. I n s o m e o rg an is a tio ns, i n volv em en t o f s e rv ic e u se rs i s l a rg ely c o nfin ed to p ro vid in g i n fo rm atio n— eith er r o utin ely h an din g o ut i n fo rm atio n i n w ritte n f o rm o r re sp ondin g t o s p ecif ic r e q uests f o r i n fo rm atio n. A m ore i n -d ep th a p pro ach w ould b e f o rm s o f co nsu lta tio n w ith s e rv ic e u se rs — su rv ey s, f o cu s g ro ups o r c o nsu lta tio n m eetin gs. I n s o m e org an is a tio ns, t h e r e la tio nsh ip b etw een t h e o rg an is a tio n a n d t h e s e rv ic e u se rs i s m ore l ik e a partn ers h ip , w here b y u se rs a re f o rm ally i n volv ed o n a d vis o ry o r p la n nin g c o m mitte es. Fin ally — an d a s i s b eco m in g m ore c o m mon i n d is a b ility s e rv ic es— so m e o rg an is a tio ns dele g ate c o ntr o l t o s e rv ic e u se rs , w ho m ay b e i n volv ed i n s e le ctin g s ta ff. Case s tu dy: C hild F ir st In tr o duced i n 2 007, t h e V ic to ria n g overn m en t h as l e g is la te d t h at t h e p rim ary a re n a o f i n te rv en tio n in to f a m ilie s c o nsid ere d t o b e ‘ a t r is k ’ i s n on-p ro fit f a m ily s u pport s e rv ic es o rg an is e d i n to r e g io ns. Chara cte ris e d a s s e co ndary s p ecia lis t s e rv ic es, a n d b ecau se o f t h e C hild F ir s t m odel, g overn m en t- fu nded n on-p ro fit f a m ily s e rv ic es a g en cie s h av e i n cre asin gly t a rg ete d t h e m ost v uln era b le f a m ilie s with t h e m ost c o m ple x p ro ble m s. T he C hild re n , Y outh a n d F am ilie s A ct 2 006 a u th oris e s t h ese org an is a tio ns t o a ccep t r e fe rra ls f ro m t h e D ep artm en t o f H um an S erv ic es’ C hild P ro te ctio n Serv ic e a s w ell a s f ro m o th er s o urc es. C hild P ro te ctio n i ts e lf a sse sse s c ase s, m ak es f o rm al notif ic atio ns a n d u nderta k es a n y c o urt p ro ceed in gs d eem ed n ecessa ry . A fte r i n vestig atio n, a n d when n o a p plic atio n t o t h e C hild re n ’s C ourt f o r a p ro te ctio n o rd er i s m ad e, t h e c ase i s t r a n sfe rre d to a n on-p ro fit f a m ily s e rv ic es o rg an is a tio n. I n V ic to ria , 6 p er c en t o f n otif ic atio ns r e su lt i n a pro te ctio n o rd er, s o i n te rv en tio n b y C hild P ro te ctio n i n t h e b ulk o f c ase s i s t im e-lim ite d a n d ep is o dic . F or m ost f a m ilie s a t r is k o f h arm in g t h eir c h ild re n ( th at i s , e x perie n cin g s ig nif ic an t dif fic u ltie s), t h era p eu tic i n te rv en tio n a n d f a m ily s u pport a re u nderta k en b y t h e n on-p ro fit s e cto r. Furth erm ore , t h e d ep artm en t h as, t h ro ugh t h e p ro vis io ns o f f u ndin g c o ntr a cts , e n jo in ed a g en cie s t o co nnect w ith e ach o th er i n l o calis e d s e rv ic e d eliv ery s y ste m s. O ne a g en cy i s n om in ate d a s l e ad ag en cy , w hic h t a k es r e fe rra ls f ro m C hild P ro te ctio n, a sse sse s t h eir n eed s a n d m an ag es f u rth er re fe rra l f o r i n te rv en tio n t o o ne o f t h e o th er p artn er a g en cie s. I f t h ere i s n o ‘ s p ace’ i n t h e s y ste m , th e l e ad a g en cy ( o r a n oth er c o ntr a cte d f o r t h e t a sk ) h as t h e r o le o f ‘ m an ag in g’ t h e c ase u ntil in te rv en tio n i s a b le t o c o m men ce. F ro m a r is k p ers p ectiv e, t h e a g en cy c h arg ed w ith t h at man ag em en t h as a v ery t r ic k y j o b t o d o. B y d efin itio n, t h ese a re h ig h-ris k c ase s, y et a s t h ey w ait fo r a ssis ta n ce t o l o w er t h at r is k , t h e n on-p ro fit o rg an is a tio n ‘ m an ag in g’ t h ese f a m ilie s i n ev ita b ly fa ces w hat m ay w ell b e a n e sc ala tin g r is k o f h arm o ccu rrin g t o t h e n otif ie d c h ild re n b ecau se t h ere is n o i n te rv en tio n. Hard in a ( 2 005) o utlin es t e n c h ara cte ris tic s o f w hat s h e c alls a n ‘ e m pow erm en t o rie n te d org an is a tio n’, a n um ber o f w hic h r e la te t o t h e i n volv em en t o f s e rv ic e u se rs . T hese a re t h at a n org an is a tio n: 1. i n clu des s e rv ic e u se rs /c o nsu m ers i n o rg an is a tio n d ecis io n-m ak in g 2. c re ate s p artn ers h ip s t o d esig n a n d e v alu ate p ro gra m s 19 3. d eliv ers c u ltu ra lly a p pro pria te s e rv ic es 4. m in im is e s p ow er d if fe re n tia ls b etw een s e rv ic e u se rs a n d s ta ff 5. p ro m ote s t e am -b uild in g a n d c o lla b ora tio n 6. p ro m ote s p sy ch olo gic al e m pow erm en t o f w ork ers b y g iv in g t h em m ore a u to nom y t o m ak e decis io ns t h at a ffe ct t h eir w ork 7. c re ate s a n a d m in is tr a tiv e l e ad ers h ip s tr u ctu re t h at i s i d eo lo gic ally c o m mitte d t o e m pow erin g se rv ic e u se rs a n d s ta ff m em bers 8. i n cre ase s e m plo yee j o b s a tis fa ctio n t h ro ugh t h e p ro vis io n o f f rin ge b en efits a n d o th er i n cen tiv es 9. e n co ura g es s ta ff t o a d vocate f o r i m pro vem en ts i n s e rv ic e d eliv ery a n d s e rv ic e u se r r e so urc es 10. i n cre ase s t h e p olitic al p ow er o f o rg an is a tio n c o nstitu en ts . Even t h ough t h ere m ay b e f o rm al s y ste m s i n p la ce t o m ax im is e s e rv ic e u se rs ’ i n volv em en t, it m ay s till b e d if fic u lt t o p ut i n to p ra ctic e. T his c an b e t h e c ase i f a n o rg an is a tio n d oes n ot delib era te ly t r y t o a cco m plis h t h e f o urth p oin t o n t h e l is t a b ove. W e a d dre ss t h is i s su e i n co nsid era b le d ep th i n Chap te r 9 . BEIN G M ANAG ED A ND M ANAG IN G O URSE LV ES Superv is io n a n d a cco u nta b ilit y There a re a t l e ast t w o t y pes o f s u perv is io n o pera tin g i n h um an s e rv ic e w ork . O ne i s pro fe ssio nal s u perv is io n, w here a p ro fe ssio nal s u perv is o r w ork s w ith a p ers o n t o d is c u ss t h eir ap pro ach t o c ase s a n d t o d ev elo p t h eir p ro fe ssio nal c ap acitie s. W e d is c u ss t h is t y pe o f su perv is io n i n m ore d ep th i n Chap te r 7 . O f m ore i n te re st i n t h is c h ap te r i s t h e f o rm al su perv is io n a l in e m an ag er u nderta k es i n r e la tio n t o h is o r h er s ta ff. T his s u perv is io n i s co ncern ed p rim arily w ith a cco unta b ility . E ven t h ough a d m in is tr a tiv e s u perv is io n i s esse n tia lly a b out w ork in g w ith e m plo yees t o m eet t h e o rg an is a tio n’s g oals a n d t a rg ets , i t nev erth ele ss s h ould s till b e c en tr a lly c o ncern ed w ith h elp in g p eo ple a ch ie v e t h eir p ote n tia l. Couls h ed a n d M ulle n der ( 2 001: 1 65) l is t w hat a n e m plo yee s h ould e x pect f ro m ad m in is tr a tiv e s u perv is io n. A cco rd in g t o t h em , a s u perv is o r w ill: • h elp t h em w ith t h eir w ork lo ad a n d c ase lo ad m an ag em en t, b ala n cin g t h e o vera ll w ork lo ad f a ir ly am ong e m plo yees i n t h e u nit • m onito r a ll t h e w ork u nderta k en i n t h e u nit t o e n su re i t c o m plie s w ith t h e o rg an is a tio n’s p olic ie s an d p ro ced ure s • p ro vid e a s o undin g b oard f o r a w ork er t o t h in k t h ro ugh i s su es o r w orrie s • k eep e m plo yees i n t o uch w ith d ev elo pm en ts i n t h e o rg an is a tio n • g iv e f e ed back a b out a n e m plo yee’s p erfo rm an ce • e n su re t h at e m plo yees k eep u p t o d ate w ith t h e m an ag em en t o f i n fo rm atio n. It i s w ell k now n t h at p oor s u perv is io n a n d p oor l e ad ers h ip a t t h e f ro nt l in e l e ad t o p oor perfo rm an ce, l o w j o b s a tis fa ctio n, l o w l e v els o f o rg an is a tio nal c o m mitm en t a n d h ig h d eg re es of t u rn over ( E lp ers a n d W esth uis , 2 008; M ary , 2 005). F in ally , a n e m plo yee c an e x pect t h at th eir e x perie n ce o f s u perv is io n i s p ositiv e a n d i f ( fo r w hate v er r e aso n) i t i s n ot, t h en a n em plo yee a n d h is o r h er c o lle ag ues h av e e v ery r ig ht t o m ak e t h at k now n t o t h e o rg an is a tio n. Case s tu dy: S uperv is io n Mario i s a n ew r e cru it t o t h e s ta te C hild W elf a re D ep artm en t. H e h as u nderta k en a s ix -w eek in ductio n a n d t r a in in g c o urs e a n d i s n ow o n t h e j o b i n a n i n ner-c ity l o cal o ffic e. O ver t h e c o urs e of t h e f ir s t e ig ht w eek s, s e v era l i s su es a ris e , l a rg ely t o d o w ith h im b ein g g iv en a n um ber o f v ery 20 co m ple x a n d s e rio us c ase s t o m an ag e. O n f iv e o ccasio ns h e h as g one t o h is s u perv is o r f o r a d vic e an d h as b een b ru sh ed o ff. H e f e els i n cre asin gly f rig hte n ed a n d d em ora lis e d . H e a sk s h is co lle ag ues w heth er t h is i s n orm al a n d t h ey s a y i t i s . O ne d ay , h e g oes o ut f o r l u nch a n d c o m es back t o f in d h is s u perv is o r a t h is d esk . S he d re sse s h im d ow n f o r n ot f illin g o ut t h e r e co rd s pro perly a n d f o r n ot c o nta ctin g a s c h ool a b out o ne c h ild . H e e x pla in s t h at h e ( a ) d id n’t k now h e had t o , ( b ) t h at t h e f ile d id n ot i n dic ate h e s h ould b e d oin g t h ese t h in gs, a n d ( c ) h e’s u nsu re o f t h e pro to co ls o f c o nta ctin g a s c h ool. S he t e lls h im t h at h e w ill d o p oorly a t h is f ir s t p erfo rm an ce ap pra is a l w ith h er a n d s h e w ill b e r e co m men din g t h at h e b e p ut o n p erfo rm an ce m an ag em en t f o r th re e m onth s b efo re r e v ie w . M ario f e els d esp era te , a n d a fte r t a lk in g i t o ver w ith h is p artn er h e fo rm ally r e sig ns. U nfo rtu nate ly , t h e w hole e p is o de h as u pse t h im s o m uch t h at h e t h in ks h e w ill nev er b e a g ood w ork er. Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s • W hat i s t h e p ro ble m h ere ? • W hat a p pro ach s h ould M ario ’s s u perv is o r h av e t a k en ? • W as r e sig nin g t h e b est o ptio n? • W hat o th er o ptio n s h ould M ario h av e p urs u ed ? Perfo rm an ce a p pra is a l All e m plo yees i n a ll o rg an is a tio ns a re a cco unta b le t o t h eir e m plo yers . O vera ll, t h is i s a g ood th in g b ecau se i t i s o ne o f t h e m ean s b y w hic h h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns m ain ta in q uality in s e rv ic e d eliv ery . I n cre asin gly , f o rm al p erfo rm an ce a p pra is a l i s t h e m ech an is m u se d t o asse ss a w ork er’s p erfo rm an ce. I f i t i s d one w ell, p erfo rm an ce a p pra is a l i s a u se fu l t o ol f o r help in g a w ork er t o t h in k a b out h is o r h er g oals , a n d t o t h in k t h ro ugh w ay s o f a ch ie v in g t h ese th ro ugh, f o r e x am ple , t a rg ete d s ta ff d ev elo pm en t. I n m an y h um an s e rv ic e s e ttin gs— fo r ex am ple , t h ose w here o bse rv ab le c h an ge i n t h e s e rv ic e u se r g ro up i s s lo w — perfo rm an ce ap pra is a l c an b e u se d a s a p ro fe ssio nal t o ol t o r e fle ct o n w hat i s g oin g w ell, w hat i s n ot, a n d how p ro gre ss i s d efin ed a n d e v alu ate d . U su ally , p erfo rm an ce a p pra is a l t a k es p la ce o n a n an nual b asis , i n volv es a n i n te n siv e s e ssio n w ith a s u perv is o r a n d r e su lts i n a w ritte n r e co rd o f decis io ns m ad e, g oals i d en tif ie d a n d s u pports n om in ate d . Couls h ed a n d M ulle n der ( 2 001: 1 75) s u ggest t h at p erfo rm an ce a p pra is a l i n h um an s e rv ic e org an is a tio ns s h ould : • r e fle ct a p artn ers h ip a p pro ach • b e s y ste m atic • b e t a sk -fo cu se d • s o lv e p ro ble m s • b e r e sp ectf u l, v alu in g t h e e m plo yees’ s tr e n gth s • b e e m pow erin g t h ro ugh g iv in g t h e e m plo yee a v oic e • b e b ase d o n a w ritte n a g re em en t. Sta ff d ev elo p m en t Sta ff d ev elo pm en t i s a n i m porta n t p art o f a n y h um an s e rv ic e w ork er’s d ev elo pm en t p la n . Most w ork ers , w hen g ra d uatin g, a re n ot y et f u lly f o rm ed a s p ro fe ssio nals a n d w ill n eed ad ditio nal l e arn in g t o r e ach t h eir f u ll p ote n tia l. F urth erm ore , i n t h e f a st- c h an gin g co nte m pora ry e n vir o nm en t, t h e n otio n o f l if e lo ng l e arn in g h as b eco m e i n cre asin gly im porta n t. L if e lo ng l e arn in g i s a c o ncep t t h at h as b eco m e v ery p opula r o ver t h e p ast t w o decad es, e sp ecia lly w ith g overn m en ts . I t r e co gnis e s t h at t h e c o nte m pora ry c o nte x ts i n w hic h 21 peo ple w ork a re b eco m in g m ore c o m ple x , a n d t h at c o nte m pora ry w ork ers i n cre asin gly a re know le d ge w ork ers . E m plo yees w ork in g a s p ro fe ssio nals i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns a re ex am ple s o f k now le d ge w ork ers . E ngag in g i n p ro fe ssio nal p ra ctic e i n volv es s ig nif ic an t an aly tic al s k ills , a s w ell a s t h e a b ility t o d ra w o n d if fe re n t b odie s o f k now le d ge, i n te rp re t th ese i n c o nte x t a n d d ev elo p a p la n o f a ctio n. E ngag in g i n s ta ff-d ev elo pm en t a ctiv itie s a s a n activ e l e arn er h elp s e m plo yees t o b eco m e l if e lo ng l e arn ers . Cle arly , s u perv is o rs p la y a n i m porta n t p art i n d ev elo pin g, p ro m otin g a n d m atc h in g p eo ple to s ta ff d ev elo pm en t o pportu nitie s a n d p ro cesse s. S uperv is o rs s h ould n ot o nly h elp p eo ple t o id en tif y a n d e n gag e i n l e arn in g a ctiv itie s; t h ey s h ould p ro vid e p eo ple w ith t h e m ean s o f dem onstr a tin g t h e a p plic atio n o f t h eir l e arn in g i n t h e w ork pla ce. It i s a ls o i m porta n t t o u nders ta n d t h at m ost h um an s e rv ic e p ro fe ssio nal g ro ups a re r e q uir e d to u nderta k e c o ntin ued p ro fe ssio nal e d ucatio n t o r e m ain a ccre d ite d b y t h e p ro fe ssio nal b ody. The A ustr a lia n A sso cia tio n o f S ocia l W ork ers , f o r e x am ple , s a y s t h at: Contin uin g p ro fe ssio nal e d uca tio n i s a c o m mitm en t e a ch m em ber m akes t o p ro fe ssio nal d evelo pm en t as a n a cco unta ble s o cia l w ork er. T he p urp ose o f t h e A ASW C PE p olic y i s t o p ro m ote c o ntin ued le a rn in g b y s o cia l w ork p ra ctitio ners t h at m ay b e i n te g ra te d i n to p ro fe ssio nal p ra ctic e. T he g oal i s t o en su re t h at s o cia l w ork ers m ain ta in u p t o d ate k n ow le d ge a nd s k ills a s t h e f o undatio n f o r pro fe ssio nal e n dea vo ur i n a ll f ie ld s o f p ra ctic e. ( A ASW , 2 006) Sta ff c a re a n d s e lf -h elp Again , w e a d dre ss t h is i s su e i n c o nsid era b ly m ore d eta il i n Chap te r 7 . N ev erth ele ss, i t i s im porta n t t o a ck now le d ge i n t h is i n tr o ducto ry c h ap te r o n u nders ta n din g o rg an is a tio ns t h at work in g i n a h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio n c an b e b oth d em an din g a n d s tr e ssfu l. R ead , f o r ex am ple , t h e f o llo w in g e x cerp t: in adeq uate c o m pen sa tio n, l a rg e c a se lo ads, l o ng h ours a nd o n-c a ll r e sp onsib ilitie s, v o lu m in ous paperw ork , f r e q uen t p olic y c h ange c o uple d w ith s tr in gen t s ta te a nd f e d era l p olic y r e q uir e m en ts , is su es o f p erso nal s a fe ty , i n adeq uate t r a in in g a nd s u perv is io n, i n vo lu nta ry s e rv ic e u se rs f a cin g co m ple x p ro ble m s, l a ck o f a deq uate r e so urc es t o s e rv e s e rv ic e u se rs . . . ( W estb ro ok e t a l., 2 006: 3 8) While t h is q uota tio n i s r e fe rrin g t o w ork in g i n c h ild p ro te ctio n, m an y o f t h e s a m e i s su es a re ex perie n ced i n o th er t y pes o f h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns. P rio r t o a d dre ssin g t h e i s su es o f man ag in g y our o w n h ealth a n d s tr e ss, i t w ould b e h elp fu l t o i d en tif y w hat f a cto rs y ou t h in k would b e i m porta n t t o s e lf -c are i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es. EX ER CIS E Id en tif y a t l e ast f o ur f a cto rs t h at y ou t h in k w ill b e c en tr a l t o y our s e lf -c are w hen w ork in g i n a hum an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio n. The i m porta n ce o f c rit ic a l r efle ctio n When w ork in g i n t h e h um an s e rv ic e f ie ld , i t h as b een c le arly d em onstr a te d o ver a n d o ver ag ain t h at i t i s t h e r e la tio nsh ip y ou d ev elo p w ith t h e s e rv ic e u se r t h at m atte rs a b ove a lm ost ev ery th in g e ls e . W ork ers i n t h is f ie ld n eed t o u nders ta n d t h at, u ndern eath i t a ll, i t i s h ow t h ey re la te t o a n d t r e at t h e h um an b ein g i n f ro nt o f t h em t h at c o unts . I f, a s a w ork er, y ou c an not re co gnis e a n d u nders ta n d t h e i m pact o f y our o w n e x perie n ces o n t h e w ay s i n w hic h y ou 22 in te rp re t i s su es ( a n d t h e w ay s i n w hic h t h ese e x perie n ces h av e i m pacte d o n y our l if e opportu nitie s a n d l if e c h oic es), t h en y ou h av e l ittle h ope o f b ein g a b le t o c u t t h ro ugh t h e dom in an t d is c o urs e s o f o ur s o cie ty . S im ila rly , y ou w ill h av e l ittle c ap acity t o r e co gnis e a n d unders ta n d w hat s h ap es t h e l if e o pportu nitie s a n d l if e c h oic es o f y our s e rv ic e u se rs . This i s w hy w e v alu e a n d u se c ritic al r e fle ctio n i n o ur d ay -to -d ay p ra ctic e. C ritic al re fle ctio n i s a n e ffe ctiv e w ay t o l e arn t o u nders ta n d h ow a n d w hy y ou r e act t h e w ay y ou d o t o certa in i s su es. I t w ill a ssis t y ou a s a w ork er t o d ev elo p a d eep er u nders ta n din g o f w hat i s goin g o n w ith y our s e rv ic e u se rs — whic h b asic ally m ean s a ssis tin g y ou i n d ev elo pin g unders ta n din g a n d e m path y. C ritic al r e fle ctio n c o ntr ib ute s t o a n a tm osp here o f i n quir y , t h e re alis a tio n o f t h e i m porta n ce o f l if e lo ng l e arn in g a n d t h e ‘ w an tin g t o k now ’ a m ong h um an se rv ic e w ork ers a n d t h eir o rg an is a tio ns. Y ou n eed t o b e a b le t o d ev elo p c ritic al r e fle ctio n a s a hab it t h at i s p art o f e v ery day p ra ctic e. What d o w e m ea n b y c rit ic a l r efle ctio n ? At d if fe re n t t im es t h ro ughout t h is b ook, w e w ill t a lk a b out critic a l r e fle ctio n a n d critic a lly re fle ctiv e p ra ctic e . W hen w e d o s o , w e a re t a lk in g a b out a l e n s t h ro ugh w hic h g ood w ork ers ev alu ate t h eir r e actio ns, u nders ta n din gs a n d t h e w ork t h ey d o. U nders ta n din g w hat yo u h av e done, a n d w hy, a n d d ev elo pin g i n sig ht i n to w here y our t h oughts a n d a ctio ns c o m e f ro m a n d how e ffe ctiv e y our p ro cesse s a re i s e sse n tia l w hen w ork in g i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es a re a. Y our ev alu atio n o f t h e ‘ w here ’ a n d ‘ w hy’ w ill a ls o g uid e y our i d eas a b out h ow y ou m ig ht u se t h is ex perie n ce f o r f u tu re w ork . A s a w ork er i n t h e h um an s e rv ic e f ie ld , y ou n eed t o b e a b le t o ev alu ate y our t h ought p ro cesse s a n d f o llo w y our ‘ jo urn ey o f l e arn in g’ a ro und t h ese t h ought pro cesse s. T o d o t h is , y ou n eed t o b e a b le t o r e fle ct o n y our o w n e x perie n ces i n l if e , a s w ell as y our f e elin gs a n d v alu es, a n d i d en tif y a sp ects o f y our s o cia l l o catio n t h at h av e c o ntr ib ute d to t h e p ositio n y ou h old o n a n y i s su e o r s itu atio n. A fte r a ll, w e a sk o ur s e rv ic e u se rs t o r e fle ct in s u ch a w ay o n t h e h ow a n d w hy o f w here t h ey a re , a n d w e k now c ritic al r e fle ctio n w ork s fo r t h em . S o w hy s h ould n’t w e b e f o llo w in g t h e s a m e p ro cesse s a s w ork ers ? With r e g ard t o c ritic al r e fle ctio n, h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers n eed t o : • b e a b le t o d em onstr a te t h eir b eg in nin g u nders ta n din gs o f a s itu atio n o r i s su e a n d t o b eg in t o t e ase out t h e m ean in g o f t h e i s su e o r i n cid en t f o r t h em • d eco nstr u ct t h eir f ir s t i n te rp re ta tio ns o f a s itu atio n— what i t i s t h at l e d t o y our i n itia l u nders ta n din g an d t o y our w ay o f t h in kin g, y our v alu es, a ssu m ptio ns, b eh av io urs ( w hat r o le d oes t h e i m pact o f your s o cia l l o catio n— fo r e x am ple y our a g e, g en der, c la ss, r a ce, c u ltu re , r e lig io n, a b ility , s e x uality —hav e o n t h e w ay s i n w hic h y ou t h in k, b eh av e a n d u nders ta n d) • u nders ta n d t h e c o ntr ib utio n o f t h e n ew e x perie n ce ( w heth er t h at b e a r e ad in g, a w ork sh op, dis c u ssio n, w ork w ith a s e rv ic e u se r, a t e am m eetin g, s u perv is io n o r a n o rg an is a tio nal i s su e) • a fte r r e fle ctin g, c h alle n gin g a n d e v alu atin g ( th ro ugh d is c u ssio n, o fte n i n s u perv is io n), t o dem onstr a te w here t h ey s it n ow w ith a p artic u la r i s su e o r s itu atio n. In s h ort, a w ork er n eed s t o b e a b le t o ‘ re co nstr u ct’ t h e m ean in g f o r h im o r h er t h at h as c o m e out o f t h is i s su e o r e x perie n ce. We o fte n t e ll o ur s tu den ts t h at u nders ta n din g c ritic al r e fle ctio n i s a b it l ik e l o okin g a t a math s e q uatio n. W e d on’t w an t t o g iv e y ou t h e e q uatio n ( o r t h e i s su e, p ro ble m , s itu atio n) a n d ju st h ear t h e a n sw er; w e w an t y ou t o b e a b le t o d em onstr a te a n d u nders ta n d t h e p ro cess o f work in g i t o ut. W e l ik e t o s e e t h e ‘ jo urn ey ’ o f l e arn in g, a n d w an t y ou t o b e a b le t o a rtic u la te your u nders ta n din g o f t h is j o urn ey . CO NCLU SIO N 23 As w e i n dic ate d i n t h e I n tr o ductio n, h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns f o rm t h e c o nte x t o f pro fe ssio nals ’ e x perie n ce a n d t h at o f t h e p eo ple t h ey s e rv e. I n m an y w ay s, t h is c h ap te r s e rv es as t h e f o undatio n f o r o th er t h em es t h at w ill e m erg e i n s u bse q uen t c h ap te rs . A nd a s w ill beco m e c le ar, m an y o f t h e i s su es w e t o uch ed o n h ere w ill b e t a k en u p i n m ore d ep th i n su bse q uen t c h ap te rs . Chap te r r ev ie w q uestio n s 1.1 I d en tif y t h re e r e aso ns w hy t h e o rg an is a tio nal c o nte x t i s i m porta n t. 1.2 W hat a re p eo ple -p ro cessin g, p eo ple -s u sta in in g, p eo ple -c h an gin g a n d p eo ple -c o ntr o llin g org an is a tio ns? 1.3 W hat i s a n o rg an is a tio n’s a u sp ic e? 1.4 W hat d o w e m ean b y o rg an is a tio nal c u ltu re ? 1.5 W hat i s N ew P ublic M an ag em en t? 1.6 W hy d o o rg an is a tio ns u nderg o q uality a ssu ra n ce? 1.7 W hat c h ara cte ris tic s s h ould a n e m plo yee e x pect o f a g ood p erfo rm an ce a p pra is a l? 1.8 W hy i s c ritic al r e fle ctio n i m porta n t? OTH ER R ESO URCES ‘O ur C om munity ’, d ev elo pm en t m ate ria l f o r C om munity O rg an is a tio ns, < www.o urc o m munity .c o m .a u /in dex .j s p >. Quality I m pro vem en t a n d C om munity S erv ic es A ccre d ita tio n, < www.l a tr o be.e d u.a u /a ip c/q ic sa >. AASW , 2 006, C ontin uin g P ro fe ssio nal D ev elo pm en t, < www.a asw .a sn .a u /d ocu m en t/ite m /8 9 >. KEY R EA DIN G S Ja ck so n, A .C . a n d D onovan , F .D . 1 999, ‘ M ax im is in g P eo ple ’s C ontr ib utio n’, i n Managin g t o Surv iv e: M anageria l P ra ctic e i n N ot- fo r-p ro fit O rg anis a tio ns , A lle n & U nw in , S ydney . Gard ner, F . 2 006, i n Work in g w ith H um an S erv ic e O rg anis a tio ns , O xfo rd U niv ers ity P re ss, Melb ourn e. Hughes, M . a n d W earin g, M . 2 007, Org anis a tio ns a nd M anagem en t i n S ocia l W ork , S ag e, London. 24 C H APT ER T W O Lea d ersh ip i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio n s S U M MARY T his c h ap te r e x plo re s l e ad ers h ip i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns. W e s ta rt w ith a d is c u ssio n o f w hy l e ad ers h ip i s i m porta n t t o n ew h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers . W e t h en p ro vid e a n o verv ie w o f b ro ad er i s su es o f m an ag em en t i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es. T his i n clu des a n o verv ie w o f t h e c o ncep t o f l e ad ers h ip a n d s o m e t h eo rie s a n d m odels t h at h av e b een u se d t o u nders ta n d i t. W e t h en l o ok a t d if fe re n t w ay s o f u nders ta n din g t h e r o le h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers c an p la y i n m an ag in g h um an s e rv ic es a n d i n e x erc is in g l e ad ers h ip . E xam ple s o f h ow w ork ers c an e x erc is e l e ad ers h ip a n d i n flu en ce t h e d ev elo pm en t a n d d eliv ery o f s e rv ic es i n t h eir o rg an is a tio n a re d is c u sse d . F in ally a n d i m porta n tly , t h e c h ap te r l o oks a t h ow r e cen t i d eas o f g ood l e ad ers h ip h av e a l o t i n c o m mon w ith c o re p ro fe ssio nal v alu es. T hro ughout t h e c h ap te r, w ork ers a re e n co ura g ed t o t h in k a b out h ow t h ey c an l e arn f ro m t h e l e ad ers h ip o f c o lle ag ues a s w ell a s u ltim ate ly e x erc is e l e ad ers h ip t h em se lv es— ev en i f t h ey d o n ot h old m an ag em en t p ositio ns. W HY I S L EA DER SH IP I M PO RTA NT? A s a n ew w ork er s ta rtin g o ut i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es f ie ld , y ou m ay w onder ‘ W hy i s l e ad ers h ip i m porta n t t o m e?’ M an y n ew g ra d uate s e n te r p ra ctic e w ith a s tr o ng c o m mitm en t t o w ork w ith i n div id uals o r f a m ilie s a n d n o r e al i n te re st i n d ealin g w ith b ure au cra cy o r a lig nin g t h em se lv es w ith ‘ m an ag em en t’ . O th ers m ay f e el t h at, a s a n ew , i n ex perie n ced w ork er i n t h e o rg an is a tio n, t h ey w ill j u st h av e t o f it i n , f o llo w t h e p ro ced ure s s e t a n d c erta in ly h av e n o r o le i n l e ad ers h ip — ev en i f t h ey w an t t o . This c an l e ad t o a f e elin g o f h elp le ssn ess o r a b elie f t h at t h ey h av e n o p ow er o r i n flu en ce o n t h eir r o le a n d t h e d utie s t h ey p erfo rm . I t c an a ls o l e ad t o w ork ers b ein g i n a p ositio n w here t h ey f e el t h ey h av e n o r ig hts a n d a re p ote n tia lly o pen t o b ully in g o r e x plo ita tio n b y m an ag ers . W e d is c u ss t h e i m porta n ce o f p ow er a n d h ow y ou c an c o ncep tu alis e a n d e x erc is e p ow er a s a w ork er i n m ore d eta il i n Chap te r 9 ; f o r n ow , t h ough, i t i s i m porta n t t o n ote t h at a n u nders ta n din g o f t h e m an ag er’s r o le a n d o f h ow l e ad ers h ip c an b e e x erc is e d i s c en tr a l t o b ein g a b le t o d eal w ith t h e i n ev ita b le t e n sio ns t h at c an a ris e i n h um an s e rv ic e w ork . Lead ers h ip i s i m porta n t t o a ll h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers i n s e v era l w ay s. F ir s t, a s o utlin ed i n 25 Chap te r 1 , i f y ou a re t o w ork i n a n o rg an is a tio n, t h e w ay i t i s m an ag ed a n d h ow o th ers ex erc is e l e ad ers h ip w ill h av e a d ir e ct i m pact o n t h e q uality o f y our w ork a n d y our j o b sa tis fa ctio n. I f y ou u nders ta n d m ore a b out m an ag em en t a n d l e ad ers h ip , i t m ay h elp y ou t o work c o nstr u ctiv ely ; i t m ay a ls o h elp y ou t o i d en tif y w hen t h in gs a re n ot g oin g w ell a n d w ork out s tr a te g ie s y ou c an u se t o r a is e c o ncern s. A s e co nd a n d v ery i m porta n t a sp ect i s t h at y ou can p la y a l e ad ers h ip r o le i n m an y w ay s w ith in y our w ork s e ttin g, a n d t h ro ugh t h is y ou m ay be a b le t o i n flu en ce t h e q uality o f s e rv ic e o ffe re d t o t h e u se rs o f t h e o rg an is a tio n. E xam ple s of t h is w ill b e p ro vid ed t h ro ughout t h e c h ap te r. A t h ir d r e aso n i s t h at y ou a re l ik ely , a t s o m e poin t, t o b e a sk ed t o c o m men t o n y our e m plo yin g o rg an is a tio n’s l e ad ers h ip . F in ally , t h ough i t may n ot s e em l ik ely n ow , y ou w ill a lm ost c erta in ly m ove i n to t e am l e ad ers h ip p ositio ns, perh ap s e v en m ore s e n io r p ositio ns. In t h e e arly y ears o f h um an s e rv ic e a ctiv ity , p ro fe ssio nals t e n ded t o b e l e ft l a rg ely a lo ne t o underta k e t h eir s e rv ic e u se r-b ase d w ork . F ro m t h e 1 980s o nw ard s, t h ere w as a s h if t t o w ard s a str o nger r o le f o r m an ag ers w ith in h um an s e rv ic es a n d p ublic s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns ( L aw le r 2007). W hile t h is m an ag eria lis m m ay h av e b ro ught i n cre ase d e ffic ie n cy a n d a cco unta b ility , i t als o c am e a t a c o st t o p ro fe ssio nal s ta ff i n t e rm s o f m ore c o ntr o l a n d s tr u ctu re f o r h um an se rv ic e w ork ers . T his r e su lte d i n a r e d uctio n i n t h eir j o b s a tis fa ctio n a n d u ltim ate ly a re d uctio n i n t h e q uality o f t h eir w ork , a s s ta ff b ecam e d is e n gag ed a n d c o nstr a in ed d ue t o lim ite d o pportu nitie s t o e x erc is e p ro fe ssio nal j u dgem en t. I n t h is c o nte x t, l e ad ers h ip ( a s oppose d t o m an ag em en t) c an b e s e en a s a w ay t o i n cre ase e ffe ctiv en ess a n d i m pro ve s e rv ic es while a llo w in g f o r m ore c re ativ ity , j o b s a tis fa ctio n a n d i n div id ual r e sp onsiv en ess i n a w ay th at r e co gnis e s p ro fe ssio nal t r a in in g a n d t h e c o m ple x s itu atio ns i n w hic h h um an s e rv ic e work ers o pera te . Man ageria lis m : A u niq uely A ustr a lia n t e rm u se d t o s ig nif y t h at N ew P ublic M an ag em en t- in sp ir e d re fo rm s a re o pera tiv e. It h as b een a rg ued t h at a s h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns b eco m e m ore c o m ple x w ith ch an ges i n f u ndin g f o r a n d f ra g m en ta tio n o f s e rv ic es, i t h as b eco m e m ore i m porta n t f o r s ta ff mem bers t o b e a b le t o u nders ta n d h ow t h e o rg an is a tio n w ork s ( C ouls h ed a n d M ulle n der, 2001). I n t h eir b ook Managem en t i n S ocia l W ork , t h ese a u th ors p ro vid e a n o verv ie w o f org an is a tio nal t h eo ry a n d f ra m ew ork s f o r u nderta k in g m an ag em en t f u nctio ns w ith in h um an se rv ic e a g en cie s, a n d t h e p oin ts t h ey r a is e a re v alu ab le f o r n ew h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers . T hey are a ls o s im ple t o u nders ta n d. C ouls h ed a n d M ulle n der ( 2 001: 1 1) a rg ue t h at w ork ers n eed t o ‘th in k l ik e a m an ag er’ a n d b e a b le t o l o ok c ritic ally a t t h eir o rg an is a tio n, t h e w ork t h ey underta k e a n d t h e s ta n dard s t o w hic h t h ey t h em se lv es w ork . T his ‘ c ritic al e y e’ p ro vid es t h e opportu nity t o s e e t h e s e rv ic e t h at t h ey a n d t h eir a g en cy p ro vid e f ro m t h e p ers p ectiv e o f se rv ic e u se rs . I t a ls o p ro m ote s a n aly sis o f t h e q uality o f s e rv ic e a n d i s su es t h at m ay n ot oth erw is e b e c o nsid ere d d ue t o a p re o ccu patio n w ith o ne’s o w n r o le . It i s a ls o i m porta n t t o n ote t h at, t h ro ugh u nders ta n din g m an ag em en t p rin cip le s a n d pro cesse s, h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers c an b ette r u nders ta n d h ow t h ey f it w ith in t h e s y ste m a n d when c h an ges a re n eed ed t o e n su re q uality s e rv ic e. T he f o llo w in g q uote s u m maris e s t h is poin t w ell: ‘ T he r e le v an ce o f m an ag em en t s tu die s t o s o cia l w ork m ig ht l ie i n h elp in g u s t o se e w hen i t i s t h e s y ste m , n ot o urs e lv es, w hic h i s a t f a u lt a n d w hen s ta n dard s a re n ot g ood en ough a n d n eed c h an gin g.’ ( C ouls h ed a n d M ulle n der, 2 001: 1 2) E xam ple s o f h ow w ork ers can i n flu en ce t h e q uality o f t h eir s e rv ic e w ill b e c o nsid ere d l a te r i n t h e c h ap te r. While h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers m ay n ot i m med ia te ly s e e t h at m an ag em en t o r l e ad ers h ip a re co re p arts o f t h eir r o le , a c lo se r e x am in atio n w ill s h ow t h at i n f a ct t h ey a re c en tr a l. Chen ow eth a n d M cA ulif fe ( 2 008: 1 5), i n t h eir i n tr o ducto ry t e x t f o r s o cia l w ork a n d h um an se rv ic e p ra ctic e, i d en tif y e ig ht d om ain s o f p ra ctic e i n w hic h t h ey b elie v e s o cia l w ork ers a n d hum an s e rv ic e p ra ctitio ners h av e a l e g itim ate p la ce. O rg an is a tio nal p ra ctic e, m an ag em en t a n d 26 le ad ers h ip i s o ne o f t h ese d om ain s. T he o th ers a re : w ork w ith i n div id uals ; w ork w ith f a m ilie s an d p artn ers h ip s; g ro up w ork ; c o m munity w ork ; s o cia l p olic y ; r e se arc h a n d e v alu atio n; a n d ed ucatio n a n d t r a in in g. C hen ow eth a n d M cA ulif fe m ak e t h e i m porta n t p oin t t h at s o cia l work ers a n d h um an s e rv ic e p ra ctitio ners a re n ot t h e o nly w ork ers / p ro fe ssio nals w ho h av e le g itim acy i n t h ese d om ain s; t h ey d o, h ow ev er, h av e a k ey r o le t o p la y a n d a u niq ue opportu nity f o r i n flu en ce, g iv en t h e b re ad th o f t h eir t r a in in g. While h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers o fte n m ove i n to p ositio ns o f l e ad ers h ip a fte r t h ey h av e work ed i n t h e f ie ld f o r a n um ber o f y ears , t h ere a re a ls o e x am ple s o f h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers ta k in g u p t h is r o le e arly i n t h eir w ork in g c are ers . T he f ir s t p ositio n o ne o f t h e a u th ors underto ok i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es f ie ld w as c o ord in ato r f o r a s m all, n ew ly f u nded c o m munity org an is a tio n. W hile s h e h ad a c o m munity -b ase d m an ag em en t c o m mitte e t o p ro vid e o vera ll dir e ctio n a n d t o h elp i d en tif y c o m munity i s su es a n d c o ncern s, a n d a c o -w ork er w ith e x celle n t know le d ge o f t h e c o m munity ( b ut n o t r a in in g i n h um an s e rv ic e w ork ), m ost o f t h e d ay -to -d ay pla n nin g a n d m an ag em en t f u nctio ns f e ll t o h er. T he b ro ad t r a in in g p ro vid ed b y h er s o cia l work e d ucatio n— partic u la rly i n a re as s u ch a s p olic y , c o m munity w ork , g ro up w ork a n d man ag em en t i s su es— pro vid ed a n e x celle n t f o undatio n t o h elp h er u nders ta n d h ow t o esta b lis h n ew s e rv ic es a n d t o w ork w ith a w id e r a n ge o f f u ndin g b odie s, c o m munity g ro ups, hum an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns a n d g overn m en t d ep artm en ts . MANAG EM EN T I N H UM AN S E R VIC E O RG ANIS A TIO NS A l o t h as b een w ritte n a b out m an ag em en t i n o rg an is a tio ns. A s s u ggeste d i n Chap te r 1 , a k ey dif fe re n ce w hen c o nsid erin g m an ag em en t o f h um an s e rv ic es i s t h at m ost d o n ot h av e p ro fit a s th eir p rim ary m otiv e— unlik e b usin ess, w here m an ag em en t t h eo ry f ir s t w as d ev elo ped . M uch of t h e r e se arc h o n l e ad ers h ip h as a ls o b een i n f o r-p ro fit o rg an is a tio ns ( P ack ard , 2 009). T hat sa id , a s a ls o o utlin ed i n Chap te r 1 , a n i n cre asin g n um ber o f f o r-p ro fit o rg an is a tio ns a re n ow opera tin g i n t h e h um an s e rv ic e a re a. F or t h e p urp ose o f t h is c h ap te r, w e w ill f o cu s o n unders ta n din g t h eo rie s o f l e ad ers h ip a n d m an ag em en t a s t h ey a re a p plie d t o h um an s e rv ic e org an is a tio ns. T his w ill a ssis t y ou t o d ev elo p a n u nders ta n din g o f y our e m plo yin g org an is a tio n a n d t h e c h alle n ges i t f a ces i n p ro vid in g s o cia l a n d c o m munity s e rv ic es. In The H andbook o f H um an S erv ic es M anagem en t , P atti ( 2 009) p ro vid es a c o m pre h en siv e overv ie w o f m an ag em en t a n d o rg an is a tio nal t h eo ry a n d p ra ctic e a s t h ey a re a p plie d t o h um an se rv ic es. T he b ook i s a k ey r e so urc e f o r h um an s e rv ic e m an ag em en t a n d h as c o ntr ib utio ns fro m a w id e r a n ge o f p ra ctitio ners a n d a cad em ic s. T he c en tr a l t h em e o f t h e b ook, i n P atti’ s word s, i s ‘ h ow t o m an ag e h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns i n w ay s t h at l e ad t o t h e p ro vis io n o f hig h q uality , e ffe ctiv e s e rv ic es t o c o nsu m ers ’ ( 2 009: i x ). T he b ook h as a s tr o ng f o cu s o n is su es a n d a p pro ach es i m porta n t f o r m an ag ers . H ow ev er, t h e w ay t h e o rg an is a tio n i s r u n w ill affe ct n ot o nly t h e q uality o f s e rv ic e t o c o nsu m ers b ut a ls o t h e s a tis fa ctio n o f w ork ers w ith in it a n d t h eir c ap acity t o a ch ie v e t h eir g oals . P atti ( 2 009: 3 ) d efin es m an ag em en t— als o r e fe rre d to a s adm in is tr a tio n —as ‘ o ne o f t h e m eth ods o f p ra ctic e e m plo yed b y h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers to a ch ie v e t h eir p ro fe ssio nal a n d o rg an is a tio nal o bje ctiv es’. H e s e es m an ag em en t a n d le ad ers h ip a s c o re t o h um an s e rv ic e w ork . T his v ie w m ay n ot b e s h are d b y w ork ers n ew t o th e f ie ld , b ut a l o t c an b e g ain ed b y t h in kin g a b out o pportu nitie s f o r l e ad ers h ip a n d t h is i s what w e h ope t o g iv e y ou a f e elin g f o r i n t h is c h ap te r. I t i s a ls o i m porta n t t o u nders ta n d h ow man ag em en t r e q uir e m en ts m ay i m pact o n y our c ap acity t o w ork i n t h e o rg an is a tio n. Patti s e es m an ag em en t a s e sse n tia l t o t h e o ptim um f u nctio nin g o f h um an s e rv ic e org an is a tio ns. H e d is c u sse s t h e r a n ge o f m an ag eria l r o le s i n h um an s e rv ic es a n d o utlin es k ey ro le s. F or t h e p urp ose o f t h is c h ap te r, w e w ill n ot d is c u ss t h ese r o le s; h ow ev er, b y l is tin g th em w e c an g et a n i d ea o f t h e h uge r a n ge o f r o le s a m an ag er c an u nderta k e. T hese a re : 27 co m munic ato r, b oundary s p an ner, f u tu ris t- in novato r, o rg an is e r, r e so urc e e v alu ato r, p olic y pra ctitio ner, a d vocate , s u perv is o r, f a cilita to r a n d t e am -b uild er/le ad er ( P atti, 2 009: 1 0–11). Patti ( 2 009: 1 3) i d en tif ie s t h re e l e v els o f m an ag em en t a u th ority : t h e e x ecu tiv e l e v el ( e .g . CEO ); t h e m id dle l e v el ( p ro gra m d ir e cto rs ); a n d t h e s u perv is o ry o r t e ch nic al l e v el ( e .g . t e am le ad ers ). H e n ote s t h at w ork ers w ho d o n ot h av e a s p ecif ic m an ag em en t f u nctio n c an a ls o co ntr ib ute t o t h e ‘ m an ag eria l p ro cesse s’, p artic u la rly a s f a cilita to rs a n d t e am -b uild ers . Activ itie s s u ch a s m em bers h ip o n a g en cy o r i n te r-a g en cy c o m mitte es a n d p ro vid in g f e ed back on t h e i m pact o f p olic ie s a n d p ro ced ure s a t t h e g ra ss-ro ots l e v el a re e x am ple s o f t h is . The r o le o f y our m an ag ers w ill b e s e t o ut w ith in t h e o rg an is a tio nal s tr u ctu re . T he d eg re e o f au to nom y a n d s u pport y ou h av e i n y our p ositio n w ill b e a p pare n t f ro m y our j o b d esc rip tio n or d uty s ta te m en t. I t i s i m porta n t f o r y ou t o h av e a c le ar u nders ta n din g o f w hat i s e x pecte d o f your m an ag er a n d h ow m uch a u to nom y y ou w ill h av e. D o t a k e t h e t im e t o f a m ilia ris e yours e lf w ith w hat i s e x pecte d . T his s h ould b e d one t h ro ugh r e ad in g t h e a g en cy f o rm al docu m en ta tio n a n d b y s p eak in g w ith y our m an ag er a n d w ith c o lle ag ues. I f t h ere i s s o m eth in g you d o n ot u nders ta n d— ask . D o n ot l e av e i t u ntil a n i s su e a ris e s t o f in d o ut t h at c erta in t h in gs are e x pecte d o f y ou, o r c o nvers e ly , s h ould h av e b een p ro vid ed b y y our m an ag er. If y ou d o n ot f e el t h at y our n eed s o r r ig hts a re b ein g p ro perly c o nsid ere d , d o n ot i g nore t h is an d p ote n tia lly e n d u p f e elin g s tr e sse d o r t r a p ped ; r a th er, s p en d s o m e t im e r e fle ctin g o n t h e situ atio n, e x plo re p ossib le a ctio n y ou c an t a k e a n d s e ek a d vic e f ro m o th er w ork ers o r man ag ers . I f t h is d oes n ot h elp , c o nsid er s e ek in g i n put f ro m p ro fe ssio nal b odie s o r y our unio n. T he i m porta n ce o f m ain ta in in g p ro fe ssio nal r e la tio nsh ip s a n d s tr a te g ie s f o r d ealin g with c o nflic t i s a d dre sse d l a te r i n t h is b ook ( C hap te rs 6 a n d 8 ) a n d w ill h elp y ou i n unders ta n din g c o nstr u ctiv e w ay s o f d ealin g w ith p oor m an ag em en t. T he r o le o f t h eir m an ag er is a v ery s ig nif ic an t o ne f o r a n y h um an s e rv ic e w ork er, b ut p artic u la rly s o f o r s o m eo ne n ew to t h e f ie ld . I t i s w orth s p en din g a s h ort w hile c o nsid erin g w hat y ou d o o r c an e x pect f ro m your m an ag er. EX ER CIS E Tak e a f e w m in ute s t o t h in k a b out m an ag ers w ith w hom y ou h av e w ork ed , p erh ap s a t a p la cem en t ag en cy o r i n a h um an s e rv ic e s e ttin g. • W rite d ow n t h e t h re e k ey s t h in gs y ou s e e a s b ein g i n te g ra l t o t h e m an ag er’s r o le . • T hin k o f a n e x am ple o f w here a m an ag er p erfo rm ed h is o r h er m an ag em en t r o le w ell. • T hin k o f a n oth er e x am ple w here y ou f e el a m an ag er d id n ot p erfo rm w ell. W hat m ad e t h e dif fe re n ce? W as i t p ers o nal q ualitie s? T he s tr u ctu re o f t h e s e ttin g? S om eth in g e ls e ? D is c u ss your e x am ple s i n p air s /g ro ups a n d s e e w heth er t h ere i s s h are d u nders ta n din g a b out w hat was/w asn ’t d one w ell a n d w hy. A ls o s e e w heth er y ou c an r e ach a g re em en t a b out w hat t h e ro le o f t h e m an ag er s h ould b e i n t h e s itu atio ns y ou d is c u sse d a n d w hat i s n eed ed f o r i t t o work w ell. What w ill y ou e x pect f ro m m an ag ers ? F acto rs t h at m ay i n flu en ce t h is w ill b e: • y our p re v io us e x perie n ces, b oth g ood a n d b ad • y our c o lle ag ues’ p erc ep tio ns • y our p ers o nality • y our u nders ta n din g o f t h e o rg an is a tio n a n d i ts f o cu s a n d a im s. LEA DER SH IP I N H UM AN S E R VIC E O RG ANIS A TIO NS 28 While m ost h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers a re a b le t o u nders ta n d t h e r o le o f m an ag ers , l e ad ers h ip i s more d if fic u lt t o d efin e, a n d t h ere a re w id e-ra n gin g v ie w s a b out h ow i t d oes a n d d oes n ot dif fe r f ro m m an ag em en t ( L aw le r, 2 007; G ard ner, 2 006; P atti, 2 009; J a ck so n a n d D onovan , 1999). M an y w rite rs c o nsid er— as d o w e— th at m an ag em en t i n volv es a l in e r e sp onsib ility f o r th e d ay -to -d ay w ork o f a g ro up o f s ta ff, w here as l e ad ers h ip c an b oth b e a c o m ponen t o f man ag em en t a n d a ls o b e e x erc is e d b y o th ers w ith in t h e o rg an is a tio n. I n h is a rtic le o n le ad ers h ip i n s o cia l w ork , L aw le r ( 2 007: 1 26) c le arly s ta te s t h at t h e l ite ra tu re o n l e ad ers h ip i s now o f t h e v ie w t h at ‘ th ey d o c o nstitu te d if fe re n t p hen om en a, w ith m an ag em en t f o cu sin g more o n e ffic ie n cy a n d r e g ula tio n, a s l e ad ers h ip f o cu se s m ore o n c h an ge a n d m otiv atio n’. Pack ard ( 2 009) p ro vid es a c o m pre h en siv e o verv ie w o f h is to ric al a n d c u rre n t v ie w s o f le ad ers h ip , a n d n ote s t h at a w id e r a n ge a n d m ix o f a p pro ach es h av e b een a n d c o ntin ue t o b e use d i n o rg an is a tio ns. T his i s q uite a c o m ple x a re a, a n d i t i s u se fu l t o q uote P ack ard f o r a n overv ie w o f t h ese a p pro ach es: The e a rlie st r e se a rc h o n l e a dersh ip f o cu se d o n t r a its , w hic h w ere o rig in ally s e en a s i n nate ch ara cte ris tic s o f l e a ders. T his a re a o f s tu dy h as b ro aden ed t o i n clu de s k ills a nd c o m pete n cie s a s well a s m ore i n nate t r a its . N ext, r e se a rc h i n t o g ro up d yn am ic s e xa m in ed i n te rp erso nal a nd t a sk beh avio urs a s t h ey i m pacte d g ro up e ffe ctiv en ess. T he n otio n o f l e a dersh ip s ty le e vo lv ed f r o m t h is work , o fte n u se d i n a c o ntin uum f r o m a uto cra tic o r d ir e ctiv e s ty le s t o p artic ip ato ry a ppro ach es. Even tu ally , r e se a rc h ers e xp lo re d t h e n otio n t h at t h ere i s n o o ne ‘ b est w ay’ o f l e a din g a nd i d en tifie d co ntin gen cie s t h at w ould s u ggest t h e b est a ppro ach . C urre n t t h eo rie s c o m monly i n clu de e le m en ts o f se vera l o f t h ese e a rlie r m odels . ( 2 009: 1 46) Hum an s e rv ic e w ork ers k een t o u nders ta n d m ore a b out t h eo rie s o f l e ad ers h ip ( a n d man ag em en t) c o uld r e ad P ack ard ’s c h ap te r i n f u ll a n d r e ad t h e Handbook o f H um an S erv ic es Managem en t m ore w id ely ( P atti, 2 009). T hose w ith a p artic u la r i n te re st i n t h e m an ag em en t of s m alle r n on-p ro fit o rg an is a tio ns w ill f in d a l o t o f p ra ctic al a n d l o cal i n fo rm atio n i n Ja ck so n a n d D onovan ’s b ook Managin g t o S urv iv e ( 1 999), w hic h i s w ritte n p rim arily f o r man ag ers a n d b oard m em bers o f s m alle r o rg an is a tio ns w ith in t h e h um an s e rv ic e s e cto r. T heir earlie r b ook, Managin g H um an S erv ic e O rg anis a tio ns ( D onovan a n d J a ck so n, 1 991) i s a more d eta ile d a cco unt t h at p ro vid es s o m e v alu ab le i n fo rm atio n t o h elp r e ad ers u nders ta n d an d s u pport m an ag em en t o f h um an s e rv ic es f ro m a n A ustr a lia n p ers p ectiv e. C ouls h ed a n d Mulle n der ( 2 001) a ls o p ro vid e s o m e p ra ctic al a n d v ery a ccessib le g uid an ce o n m an ag em en t with in s o cia l w ork ; w hile w ritte n f ro m a B ritis h p ers p ectiv e, t h is b ook i s s till v ery r e le v an t t o hum an s e rv ic e p ra ctic e a n d m an ag em en t i n A ustr a lia . With in t h e h um an s e rv ic es, t h ere a re m an y d efin itio ns o f l e ad ers h ip . P ack ard u se s North ouse ’s d efin itio n o f l e ad ers h ip a s ‘ a p ro cess b y w hic h a n i n div id ual i n flu en ces a g ro up of i n div id uals t o a ch ie v e c o m mon g oals ’ ( 2 009: 1 44). T his f a ir ly s tr a ig htf o rw ard d efin itio n mak es s e n se t o u s. P ack ard f o cu se s o n p ro gra m a n d a g en cy l e ad ers h ip ; h ow ev er, h e a ls o note s t h at l e ad ers h ip c an t a k e p la ce a t o th er l e v els , i n clu din g g ro ups, t e am s a n d m ore b ro ad ly co m munitie s a n d c o untr ie s. F or t h e n ew w ork er, i t i s a t t h e g ro up o r t e am l e v el t h at t h ey h av e th e p ote n tia l t o e x erc is e l e ad ers h ip . More r e cen t w ritin gs o n l e ad ers h ip h av e s h if te d a w ay f ro m a c o ncern w ith t h e p ers o nal qualitie s o f a l e ad er t o a n u nders ta n din g o f d im en sio ns o f l e ad ers h ip a n d h ow i m porta n t ch ara cte ris tic s c an b e d ev elo ped ( L aw le r, 2 007; J a ck so n a n d D onovan , 1 999). A noth er im porta n t w ay o f u nders ta n din g m an ag em en t a n d l e ad ers h ip i s p ro vid ed b y c o nsid erin g t h e co ncep ts o f t r a n sa ctio nal a n d t r a n sfo rm atio nal l e ad ers h ip . L aw le r ( 2 007: 1 26) d esc rib es t h ese as f o llo w s: ‘ T ra n sa ctio nal l e ad ers h ip ( o r “ m an ag em en t” ) h as a f o cu s o n s ta b ility , e ffic ie n cy , fo rm al a u th ority , c o ord in atio n, r e su lts a n d c o ntr o l. T ra n sfo rm atio nal l e ad ers h ip h as a f o cu s on e ffe ctiv en ess, c h an ge a n d t h e d ev elo pm en t o f c o -o pera tio n, m otiv atio n a n d v alu es.’ The i n tr o ductio n o f v alu es i s w here l e ad ers h ip s ta rts t o s h ow a c le ar c o nnectio n w ith 29 hum an s e rv ic e w ork ers , a n d s o cia l w ork i n p artic u la r. V alu es a re c en tr a l t o p ro fe ssio nal pra ctic e— as a rtic u la te d , f o r e x am ple , t h ro ugh a C ode o f E th ic s ( A ASW ). H ughes a n d Wearin g ( 2 007: 7 9) r e fe r t o m ore r e cen t t h eo rie s o f l e ad ers h ip a s ‘ n ew l e ad ers h ip ’, w here t h e le ad er i s s e en a s i n flu en cin g o rg an is a tio nal c u ltu re a n d a rtic u la tin g s h are d v alu es a n d purp ose . T hro ughout t h eir c h ap te r o n l e ad ers h ip , H ughes a n d W earin g ( 2 007) i d en tif y a str o ng p ote n tia l r o le f o r s o cia l w ork i n p artic u la r i n l e ad ers h ip w ith in h um an s e rv ic e org an is a tio ns. W e w ill r e v is it t h e q uestio n o f l e ad ers h ip a n d h um an s e rv ic es v alu es a n d pra ctic e s ta n dard s a t t h e e n d o f t h is c h ap te r. Opin io ns a b out h ow a m an ag er s h ould e x erc is e l e ad ers h ip a n d a b out w hat m ak es a g ood man ag er o r l e ad er v ary g re atly . I t i s i n te re stin g t o n ote t h at r e se arc h h as s h ow n w hen w ork ers are a sk ed a b out l e ad ers h ip t h ey o fte n s e e l e ad ers h ip a s w hat m an ag ers d o o r s h ould d o (G ard ner, 2 006). D onovan a n d J a ck so n ( 1 991) a ls o s ta te t h at i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns th ere i s a t e n den cy t o f o cu s o n w hat s h ould b e d one w ith out c o nsid erin g f a cto rs t h at m ay im pact o n d ecis io n-m ak in g. H ughes a n d W earin g ( 2 007: 7 8) s ta te t h at w hile t h e c o m mon im ag e o f a l e ad er i n a n o rg an is a tio n i s a ‘ p urp ose fu l, a ctiv e c h an ge a g en t’ , t h ey s e e t h is a s a co nstr u ctio n t h at d oes n ot m atc h p eo ple ’s l iv ed e x perie n ce i n o rg an is a tio ns. T hey m ak e t h e fo llo w in g o bse rv atio n a b out h ow d ecis io ns c an b e m ad e i n o rg an is a tio ns: n ot a ll d ecis io ns a re han ded d ow n t o s o cia l w ork ers f ro m ‘ o n h ig h’ a n d a s a fa it a cco m pli . M an y a re e x perie n ced by f ro nt- lin e w ork ers a s b ein g n eg otia te d i n p ro cess, w ith r e al a n d s o m etim es u nin te n ded co nse q uen ces. This s u pports o ur v ie w t h at h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers d o h av e m ore o pportu nitie s t o in flu en ce d ecis io ns t h an t h ey r e alis e . I t i s a m atte r o f l o okin g f o r t h ese o pportu nitie s a n d build in g y our o w n c o nfid en ce a n d c ap acity t o m ak e a c o ntr ib utio n. I t i s a ls o u se fu l t o unders ta n d t h at n ot a ll a ctio ns a n d d ecis io ns o f m an ag ers a re m ad e i n p erfe ct, p la n ned cir c u m sta n ces. C onsid er t h e f o llo w in g c ase s tu dy, w hic h i llu str a te s b oth t h e c ap acity f o r work ers t o i n flu en ce s e rv ic e d eliv ery a n d t h e d if fic u ltie s m an ag ers c an h av e w hen s e ek in g t o im ple m en t c h an ge. Case s tu dy: G ath erin g s ta tis tic s Lis a i s a n ew w ork er i n a f a m ily s u pport a g en cy . W hen s h e j o in s s h e i s t o ld b y h er m an ag er, Maria , t h at h er e m plo ym en t i s p art o f a n e x pan sio n o f s e rv ic es f o r t h e a g en cy , b ro ught a b out b y new f u ndin g f ro m t h e s ta te g overn m en t. S he i s t o ld t h at i t w ill b e i m porta n t f o r c o ntin ued f u ndin g of h er p ositio n t h at s ta tis tic s a re a ccu ra te ly k ep t. L is a i s h ap py w ith t h is a s s h e i s k een t o k eep work in g i n t h e p ro gra m a n d i s i n te re ste d i n s e ein g d eta ils o n t h e t y pes o f s e rv ic e u se rs /s itu atio ns th e p ro gra m e n co unte rs a n d t h e r a n ge a n d n um ber o f o utc o m es. When L is a m eets h er c o -w ork ers , s h e s ta rts t o h ear m an y c o m pla in ts a b out t h e man ag er. W ork ers a re u nhap py w ith t h e c h an ges s h e h as i n tr o duced a n d p artic u la rly unhap py a b out t h e n eed t o k eep l o ts o f d eta ile d s ta tis tic s, w hic h t h ey s e e a s i r re le v an t. Sev era l o f h er c o -w ork ers t e ll h er t h at M aria h as c h an ged s in ce s h e t o ok o n t h e man ag em en t r o le , a n d t h at t h e s ta tis tic s s h e h as t o ld t h em t o k eep d o n ot m ak e s e n se f o r th e n ew p ro gra m , i n w hic h M aria h as n ev er w ork ed . T hey t e ll h er t h at t h ey a re n ’t r e ally both erin g t o k eep t h e s ta tis tic s a n d w ill m ak e u p e n tr ie s w hen t h ey a re f o rc ed t o p ut i n th eir m onth ly r e p orts . Lis a b eco m es m ore a n d m ore w orrie d , a s s h e k now s t h at h er c o ntin uin g e m plo ym en t dep en ds o n t h e e x tr a f u ndin g a n d t h at t h e s ta tis tic s a re n eed ed t o p ro ve t h e a m ount a n d ty pe o f w ork t h ey a re d oin g. S he i s a ls o c o ncern ed b ecau se s h e a g re es w ith t h e o th er work ers t h at t h e s ta tis tic s k ep t d o n ot m ak e s e n se a n d d o n ot r e fle ct a ll o f t h e w ork d one. She s ta rts t o w orry t h at s h e w ill n ot h av e a j o b f o r l o ng, s o a lth ough s h e i s r e ally en jo yin g t h e w ork a n d i t i s i n h er a re a o f i n te re st, s h e d ecid es t o l o ok f o r a n ew p ositio n in a n oth er a g en cy . 30 Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s • W hat d o y ou t h in k h as h ap pen ed h ere ? • I s t h ere s o m eth in g L is a c o uld h av e d one t o t r y t o i m pro ve h er s itu atio n? • W hat d o y ou t h in k m ay b e h ap pen in g b etw een M aria a n d t h e o th er s ta ff? • I f y ou w ere a sk ed b y M aria t o h elp i n t h is s itu atio n, w hat w ould y ou s u ggest? • W hat c o uld t h e o th er w ork ers d o i f t h ey w ere u nhap py w ith t h e c h an ges? EX ER CIS IN G L EA DER SH IP A T T H E F R O NT L IN E Now t h at w e h av e g iv en a n o verv ie w o f m an ag em en t a n d l e ad ers h ip i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es an d s p en t s o m e t im e t h in kin g a b out w hat a m an ag er ‘ s h ould d o’, o r w hat m ay i m pact o n t h eir ab ility t o m an ag e, i t i s t im e t o t h in k a b out w hat r o le y ou m ig ht p la y a s a w ork er i n a h um an se rv ic e a g en cy . W e s ta rt b y c o nsid erin g s o m e o f t h e r o le s w ork ers c an u nderta k e i n t h e man ag em en t o f t h eir o rg an is a tio ns a n d t h en m ove o n t o d is c u ss e x am ple s o f h ow h um an se rv ic e w ork ers c an c o ntr ib ute t o m an ag em en t a n d l e ad ers h ip i n t h eir o rg an is a tio n. W e w an t you t o t h in k a b out h ow y ou c an e x erc is e l e ad ers h ip ; w hat y ou c an d o t o i m pro ve t h e q uality of s e rv ic e t o y our c o nsu m ers a n d w hat y ou c an d o t o i m pro ve y our o w n a n d o th ers ’ j o b sa tis fa ctio n. As o utlin ed a t t h e s ta rt o f t h e c h ap te r, w e b elie v e t h at i t i s p ossib le f o r f ro nt- lin e w ork ers t o ex erc is e l e ad ers h ip a n d t h at t h is i s a c o re p art o f t h eir r o le /d om ain o f p ra ctic e w ith in t h e hum an s e rv ic es f ie ld . J a ck so n a n d D onovan ( 1 999: 9 ) d is c u ss t h e r e la tio nsh ip b etw een man ag em en t a n d l e ad ers h ip ; t h eir v ie w i s t h at v ery f e w a ctiv itie s a re p ure ly l e ad ers h ip o r pure ly m an ag em en t, b ut m ost a ctiv itie s a re b oth . F or n ew h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers , a u se fu l dis tin ctio n m ay b e m ad e b etw een r o le s w here w ork ers h av e a f o rm al r e sp onsib ility f o r o th er sta ff o r a ctiv itie s, a n d b ro ad er l e ad ers h ip f u nctio ns t h at c an b e e x erc is e d a p art f ro m t h ese fo rm al r o le s. The r o le o f f r o n t-lin e w ork ers i n m an agem en t Chen ow eth a n d M cA ulif fe ( 2 008: 1 9) p ro vid e a c le ar o verv ie w o f m an ag em en t re sp onsib ilitie s. T hey s ta te : Managem en t r e sp onsib ilitie s, w hic h a re o fte n a dm in is tr a tiv e i n n atu re , i n clu de r e cru itin g a nd em plo yin g s ta ff, t r a in in g v o lu nte ers, n eg otia tin g f u ndin g a rra ngem en ts a nd b udgets , e va lu atin g se rv ic es, d evelo pin g p olic y, p ublic s p ea kin g a nd c o ord in atin g s e rv ic es. They p ro vid e t h e f o llo w in g e x am ple s o f m an ag em en t r e sp onsib ilitie s: • b ein g r e sp onsib le , a s a s e n io r s o cia l w ork er, f o r a s ta ff t e am i n a m ajo r h osp ita l a n d c o ord in atin g org an is a tio nal r e sp onse s t o s ta ffin g i s su es • m an ag in g a c o m munity a g en cy r e sp onsib le f o r c o ord in atin g w om en ’s h ealth s e rv ic es a cro ss a re g io n • m an ag in g a g overn m en t f u ndin g p ro gra m f o r c o m munity a g en cie s t h at p ro vid es g am blin g s u pport se rv ic es i n r u ra l a re as • m an ag in g a m ultic u ltu ra l c o m munity a g en cy r e sp onsib le f o r p ro vid in g l a n guag e p ro gra m s t o lin guis tic ally d iv ers e c o m munitie s • p ro vid in g c lin ic al s u perv is io n w ith in a c h ild p ro te ctio n a g en cy ( C hen ow eth a n d M cA ulif fe , 2 008: 19). While m an y p ositio ns r e q uir in g m an ag em en t a n d l e ad ers h ip s k ills a re o fte n a d m in is tr a tiv e, 31 le ad ers h ip s k ills a re a ls o i m porta n t i n n on-a d m in is tr a tiv e p ositio ns. H um an s e rv ic e w ork ers can m ove t o m an ag em en t p ositio ns— most t y pic ally a s s e n io r w ork ers /p ra ctitio ners — an d th ey c an a ls o b e a d m in is tr a tiv ely a cco unta b le t o o r f o r w ork ers f ro m d if fe re n t d is c ip lin es oth er t h an t h eir o w n. O rg an is a tio nal s k ills a n d t h e a b ility t o w ork c o nstr u ctiv ely w ith o th er dis c ip lin es a re i d en tif ie d a s s o m e o f t h e k ey f a cto rs i m porta n t t o h um an s e rv ic e m an ag em en t. It i s i m porta n t t o u nders ta n d t h at w hile l e ad ers h ip o pportu nitie s m ay c o m e w ith l in e man ag em en t o r a d m in is tr a tiv e a cco unta b ility , t h ey d o n ot a lw ay s h av e t o g o t o geth er a n d i n so m e c ase s a d m in is tr a tiv e r e sp onsib ly c an i n f a ct d etr a ct f ro m t h e c ap acity t o e x erc is e g ood le ad ers h ip . I t i s i m porta n t t o s tr ik e a b ala n ce b etw een a d m in is tr a tiv e r e sp onsib ility a n d t h e opportu nity t o e x erc is e l e ad ers h ip . S om etim es t h e a d m in is tr a tiv e r e sp onsib ility c an g iv e le g itim acy t o y our r o le i n a re as y ou c an i n flu en ce, b ut i n o th er s itu atio ns i t c an t a k e t h e f o cu s aw ay f ro m a re as i n w hic h h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers c an m ak e a r e al c o ntr ib utio n, a n d t ie u p th eir t im e a n d r e so urc es w ith b ure au cra tic p ro ced ure s a n d p ro cesse s. Case s tu dy: C en tr elin k A g ood e x am ple o f t h is i s t h e h is to ry o f s o cia l w ork ers w ork in g w ith a d m in is tr a tiv e s ta ff i n se ttin gs s u ch a s C en tr e lin k. A s a n ew a n d t h e s o le s o cia l w ork er i n a n ew C en tr e lin k o ffic e, S ue was k een t o f in d b ette r w ay s t o s u pport t h e s ta ff w ho w ork ed a t t h e f ro nt c o unte r, d ealin g w ith myria d i n quir ie s a n d c o ncern s f ro m t h e p ublic , s o m etim es h av in g t o d eal w ith p eo ple w ho w ere eith er v ery d is tr e sse d o r a t t im es v ery a n gry . T he o pportu nity t o t a k e o n t h e t e am l e ad ers h ip o f t h is gro up o f s ta ff p re se n te d a n d s h e g la d ly a ccep te d , s e ein g t h is a s a w ay o f b oth s u pportin g t h e s ta ff an d o f i n flu en cin g t h e q uality o f s e rv ic e o ffe re d t o p eo ple a tte n din g t h e o ffic e. T he p ro ble m w as th at t h e t e am l e ad er r o le c arrie d a r a n ge o f o th er r e sp onsib ilitie s w ith i t, i n clu din g m onito rin g atte n dan ce, d ra w in g u p r o ste rs a n d e n su rin g t h at s ta ff w ere u p t o d ate w ith p olic y a n d p ro ced ura l ch an ges. A ll t h is d etr a cte d f ro m S ue’s c ap acity t o p ro vid e a s o cia l w ork s e rv ic e t o p eo ple atte n din g t h e o ffic e. A s t h ere w ere n o s o cia l w ork ers a m ongst t h e o th er s ta ff, t h is m ean t t h at t h ere was l e ss t im e t o s e e s e rv ic e u se rs o r t o u nderta k e o th er s o cia l w ork a ctiv itie s s u ch a s s e rv ic e dev elo pm en t, m onito rin g o f p olic y o r l ia is in g w ith o th er s e rv ic e p ro vid ers i n t h e c o m munity . Even tu ally S ue d ecid ed t h at t h ere w ere o th er w ay s t o p ro vid e s u pport t o t h e f ro nt- lin e s ta ff a n d t o in flu en ce t h e q uality o f s e rv ic e p ro vid ed f o r s e rv ic e u se rs . A n e x perie n ced a d m in is tr a tiv e s ta ff mem ber w as a p poin te d a s t e am l e ad er a n d S ue a cte d a s m en to r f o r n ew f ro nt- lin e s ta ff a n d atte n ded t e am m eetin gs. S he a ls o p ro vid ed i n put o n s e rv ic e u se r n eed s, i n te r-p ers o nal s k ills tr a in in g a n d c o m munity n eed s a w are n ess. A ccep ta n ce o f S ue i n t h is c o nsu lta tiv e r o le w as certa in ly a ssis te d b y h er t im e a s t e am l e ad er, w here s h e e sta b lis h ed h er l e g itim acy a n d d ev elo ped a s tr o ng a p pre cia tio n o f t h e i s su es f a cin g f ro nt- lin e s ta ff a n d t h e c o m petin g d em an ds p la ced o n th em . The r o le o f f r o n t-lin e w ork ers i n l e a d ersh ip Lead ers h ip i n s o cia l w ork i n p artic u la r c an o fte n b e e x erc is e d l a te ra lly , n ot o nly f ro m a b ove, as i llu str a te d b y t h e C en tr e lin k c ase s tu dy. A c o m mon s itu atio n w here l in e m an ag em en t o r te am l e ad ers h ip i s n ot a n i s su e i s w hen a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er i n flu en ces h is o r h er f e llo w work ers t o e n gag e i n a p pro pria te p ra ctic e t h ro ugh e x am ple , o r b y d is c u ssin g h ow t h ey w ould work i n a p artic u la r s itu atio n. ( S ee t h e M ig ra n t R eso urc e C en tr e c ase s tu dy l a te r i n t h is se ctio n f o r a n e x am ple o f t h is ). Couls h ed a n d M ulle n der ( 2 001) a rg ue t h at a ll w ork ers a re m an ag ers ; t h ey a ls o e x plo re sim ila ritie s b etw een t h e s k ills i n volv ed i n d ir e ct p ra ctic e a n d i n m an ag em en t. C en tr a l t o t h is are i n te rp ers o nal s k ills , w ork in g t o w ard s c h an ge a n d a n u nders ta n din g o f g ro up w ork t h eo ry an d p ra ctic e. T he r o le o f c ase m an ag er i s u se d t o i llu str a te c o re a sp ects o f h um an s e rv ic e 32 work p ra ctic e t h at p ro vid e g ood p re p ara tio n f o r m an ag em en t b ecau se t h ey r e q uir e w ork ers t o utilis e s k ills i n a re as s u ch a s n eg otia tin g, l ia is o n a n d a d vocacy , a s w ell a s w ork in g w ith in a budget. F ro m t h is i t s h ould f o llo w t h at w ork ers i n t h e h um an s e rv ic e f ie ld a lr e ad y p osse ss t h e sk ills t o e x erc is e g ood l e ad ers h ip . Exam ple s o f h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers e x erc is in g l e ad ers h ip i n clu de: • m onito rin g t h e q uality o f t h e s e rv ic e o ffe re d b y t h e a g en cy , e ith er t h ro ugh a f o rm al r o le i n ev alu atio n o r b y i n fo rm al o bse rv atio n a n d f e ed back • m ax im is in g s e rv ic e u se r o rie n ta tio n/f o cu s t h ro ugh r a is in g i s su es, s ta ff t r a in in g o r c o m men tin g o n pro pose d c h an ges • h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers p artic ip atin g i n m an ag em en t t e am o f o rg an is a tio ns ( e .g . t h e s e n io r s o cia l work r o le i n C en tr e lin k a t t h e l o cal l e v el a n d i n a re a m an ag em en t f o ru m s) • p artic ip atin g i n p ro fe ssio nal o rg an is a tio ns s u ch a s t h e A ASW • p artic ip atin g i n o rg an is a tio nal w ork in g p artie s • p artic ip atin g i n u nio ns ( e .g . t h e A ustr a lia n S erv ic es U nio n) • s e rv in g o n b oard s o f o th er o rg an is a tio ns ( e .g . o n t h e m an ag em en t c o m mitte e o f t h e l o cal co m munity c en tr e o r y outh h ousin g s e rv ic e). The a b ility t o a p pre cia te t h e s k ills a n d k now le d ge o f o th ers a s w ell a s e x erc is e l e ad ers h ip in a m ultid is c ip lin ary s e ttin g i s c ritic al t o s u ccessfu l w ork i n h um an s e rv ic es. L aw le r s e es t h e co ncep t o f ‘ in te r-p ro fe ssio nal l e ad ers h ip ’ a s a k ey w ay t h at h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers c an ex erc is e l e ad ers h ip i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es ( 2 007: 1 31). A n um ber o f a u th ors h av e d is c u sse d t h e i m porta n ce o f w ork in g t o w ard s c h an ge i n a n org an is a tio n ( e .g . G ard ner 2 006; C ouls h ed a n d M ulle n der, 2 001). W e b elie v e t h at t h is f o cu s on o rg an is a tio nal c h an ge a n d o n i m pro vem en t i n t h e q uality o f s e rv ic e p ro vis io n c an b e acco m plis h ed b y h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers e x erc is in g l e ad ers h ip . C ouls h ed a n d M ulle n der (2 001: 1 6) s ta te t h at w ork ers w ith in a n o rg an is a tio n c an c o ntr ib ute t o c h an ge o r i n novatio n. They n ote : ‘ T hese d o n ot a lw ay s h av e t o c o m e f ro m t h e o uts id e; c h an gin g t h e a g en cy f ro m with in o ccu rs q uite f re q uen tly a n d o ne n eed n ot b e i n a p ositio n o f p ow er t o i n flu en ce a g en cy pra ctic e.’ Gard ner ( 2 006) d is c u sse s t h e c o ncep t o f ‘ w ork in g a ctiv ely ’ i n t h e o rg an is a tio n. S he l o oks at w ay s t o w ork w ith in t h e o rg an is a tio n f o r c h an ge a n d a t t im es t o r e sis t c h an ge. T he v ie w sh e p re se n ts s its w ell w ith t h e d efin itio n o f l e ad ers h ip w e h av e p ro m ote d t h ro ughout t h is ch ap te r. Gard ner a ls o a rg ues t h at w hile m an y w ork ers a t t h e l o w er e n d o f a n o rg an is a tio n o fte n f e el pow erle ss a n d u nab le t o v oic e t h eir c o ncern s, t h ey i n f a ct c an i n itia te /r e sis t c h an ge m ore t h an th ey r e alis e . S he m ak es t h e i m porta n t p oin t t h at: work ers a re s o f o cu se d o n w ork in g w ith s e rv ic e u se rs t h at t h ey h ave n o e n erg y l e ft t o c h ange o r ch alle n ge t h e o rg anis a tio n. O fte n t o o, w ork ers s o m eh ow l o ose t h e c a pacity t o s ta nd b ack f r o m t h eir org anis a tio n t o s e e i t m ore c le a rly , t o b e a ble t o i d en tify — as t h ey w ould w ith a n i n div id ual o r co m munity s e rv ic e u se r— how i t w ork s a nd h ow c h ange m ay b e p ossib le , a nd t h en t o t a ke a ctiv e ste p s t o a ch ie ve t h is . ( G ard ner, 2 006: 1 28–9) While w ork ers w ill a t t im es u nderta k e a c le ar l e ad ers h ip o r m an ag em en t r o le f o r a s e t perio d o f t im e o r p urp ose , i t i s a ls o i m porta n t f o r w ork ers t o b e a le rt t o o pportu nitie s f o r ‘s itu atio nal l e ad ers h ip ’. B y t h is w e m ean t h at t h ere w ill b e t im es w hen i t i s i m porta n t t o in itia te a ctio n o r s h ow l e ad ers h ip i n a d dre ssin g a n i m med ia te i s su e o r c o ncern . W hat w e h ope to d o b y g iv in g a b rie f o verv ie w o f m an ag em en t a n d i n tr o ducin g t h e c o ncep t o f l e ad ers h ip a t hum an s e rv ic e w ork er l e v el i s t o e n co ura g e y ou t o a lw ay s b e o pen t o t h e p ossib ility o f ch an ge a n d t o h av e t h e c o nfid en ce t o m ak e a n e ffo rt. Som e s tr a te g ie s c an t h at b e u se d t o w ork t o w ard s c h an ge i n clu de r a is in g t h e i s su e, 33 gath erin g i n fo rm atio n, p ro m otin g t h e c ase f o r c h an ge m ore f o rm ally , b uild in g s u pport a n d activ ely a d vocatin g f o r c h an ge. T hese s tr a te g ie s c an b e u se d w heth er y ou s e ek s m all o r l a rg er sc ale c h an ge, a n d w heth er o r n ot t h e c h an ge i s w an te d w ith in o r o uts id e t h e a g en cy ( G ard ner, 2006: 1 35). W e b elie v e t h at t h ese s tr a te g ie s a re c o ncre te e x am ple s o f e x erc is in g l e ad ers h ip . Case s tu dy: M ig ra n t R eso u rce C en tr e Ja ck i s a w ork er i n a M ig ra n t R eso urc e C en tr e . H e h as b een t h ere f o r a b out a y ear a n d i s re sp onsib le t o t h e t e am l e ad er o f t h e s e ttle m en t p ro gra m . A n ew w ork er, A hm ed , i s e m plo yed t o work a s p art o f t h e s e ttle m en t t e am w ith o ne o f t h e e m erg in g c o m munitie s; h e h as l im ite d ex perie n ce i n h um an s e rv ic e w ork a n d h as b een e m plo yed b ecau se o f h is c u ltu ra l u nders ta n din g an d l a n guag e s k ills . J a ck n otic es t h at A hm ed i s w ork in g v ery l o ng h ours a n d o verh ears h im arra n gin g f o r s e rv ic e u se rs t o c o nta ct h im a t h om e o n w eek en ds a n d e v en in gs. H e i s a ls o s u sp ects th at A hm ed i s n ot k eep in g c ase n ote s f o r m an y o f h is c o nta cts d ue t o l a ck o f t im e a n d t h e b elie f th at h e w ill b e t h e o nly p ers o n w ork in g w ith t h e s e rv ic e u se rs . J a ck k now s t h at A hm ed i s m ean t t o be r e ceiv in g s u perv is io n a n d s u pport f ro m t h e t e am l e ad er; h ow ev er, t h is t e am l e ad er i s v ery b usy due t o a n oth er w ork er l e av in g. J a ck a ls o i s a w are t h at A hm ed i s a n xio us t o d o a g ood j o b a n d i s re lu cta n t t o a p pro ach h is s u perv is o r w ith a n y c o ncern s i n c ase t h is i s s e en a s h im n ot c o pin g. Giv en t h ese f a cto rs , J a ck i s a ls o r e lu cta n t t o s p eak t o t h e t e am l e ad er a b out h is c o ncern s, b ut h e i s beg in nin g t o f e el t h at s e rv ic e u se rs w ho s e e A hm ed a re n ot g ettin g a n a p pro pria te s e rv ic e. H e c an re m em ber f e elin g l ik e t h is w hen h e s ta rte d a t t h e s e rv ic e a y ear e arlie r. Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s • L is t s o m e s p ecif ic a ctio ns J a ck c o uld t a k e. • S hould h e a d vis e t h e t e am l e ad er? • W hat a re t h e l o nger t e rm o r b ro ad er i s su es J a ck s h ould b e c o nsid erin g? • W hat o th er f a cto rs m ay b e r e le v an t t o t h e t e am l e ad er n ot s u pportin g A hm ed ? While a m an ag er h as t h e a u th ority o f h is o r h er p ositio n t o g iv e w eig ht t o t h e w is h f o r ch an ge, t h is d oes n ot m ean t h at t h e c h an ge w ill b e a ccep te d w ith out p ro per p la n nin g a n d su pport, a s i llu str a te d i n t h e e arlie r G ath erin g s ta tis tic s c ase s tu dy w here M aria h ad dif fic u ltie s e x erc is in g h er m an ag em en t r o le . C onvers e ly , a s a w ork er y ou m ay n ot h av e a cle ar o rg an is a tio nal m an date t o i d en tif y i s su es/ a re as o f c o ncern , b ut y ou s till h av e t h e pote n tia l a n d t h e p ro fe ssio nal o r e th ic al i m pera tiv e t o d o s o . T his i s i llu str a te d b y t h e M ig ra n t Reso urc e C en tr e c ase s tu dy a b ove a n d w ill b e c o nsid ere d f u rth er i n t h e n ex t s e ctio n o n le ad ers h ip a n d p ro fe ssio nal v alu es. Anoth er e x am ple o f l e ad ers h ip t h at h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers c an e x erc is e i s t o w ork w ith oth ers t o m ax im is e s e rv ic es. M unn a n d M unn ( 2 003) d esc rib e t h is r o le a s t h at o f ‘ s o cia l in novato r’, a n d d esc rib e t h e i m porta n t f u nctio n t h at s o cia l w ork ers c an p la y i n t h eir l o cal co m munity b y w ork in g w ith b oth f o rm al a n d i n fo rm al n etw ork s t o r e sp ond t o c h an ge a n d dev elo p s e rv ic es. T his i s a n e x am ple o f t h e i m porta n ce o f u nders ta n din g t h e b ro ad h um an se rv ic es f ie ld a n d a s w ell a s h av in g t h e c ap acity t o u nders ta n d a n d v alu e t h e w ork o f o th er dis c ip lin es. A h um an s e rv ic e w ork er i n a r u ra l a re a m ay b e t h e o nly f u nded a n d q ualif ie d work er i n t h e t o w n— certa in ly a g overn m en t e m plo yee m ay h av e t h e j o b s e cu rity a n d co ntin uity t h at o th er p ro je ct f u nded p ositio ns w ill n ot. I n t h is r o le , t h e h um an s e rv ic e w ork er can a ssis t t h e c o m munity b y r e so urc in g a n d s u pportin g l o cal n etw ork s. T his c o uld b e b y actin g a s a c o nven or o f a l o cal w elf a re n etw ork , a ssis tin g w ith f u ndin g a p plic atio ns f o r m uch – need ed l o cal s e rv ic es o r h elp in g t o c o ord in ate l o cal a ctio n/lo bby g ro ups. T his i s a r o le t h at can b e p la y ed i n o th er c o m munitie s; h ow ev er, t h ere i s l ik ely t o b e a w id er r a n ge o f w ork ers who c an p artic ip ate i n t h is w ay i n m etr o polita n s e ttin gs. O th er e x am ple s o f l e ad ers h ip i n t h is cro ss-a g en cy d is c ip lin e i n clu de t h e r o le o f h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers i n d is a ste r-re co very a ctio n. 34 Now t h at w e h av e e x plo re d t h e i m porta n ce o f h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers i n flu en cin g t h e quality o f s e rv ic e t h ro ugh e x erc is in g l e ad ers h ip , a n d h av e c o nsid ere d s k ills w ork ers h av e i n th eir p ra ctitio ner r o le t h at c an e q uip t h em t o d o t h is , l e t’ s c o nsid er a n oth er c ase s tu dy w here le ad ers h ip c an b e e x erc is e d . T his c ase s tu dy i n volv es b oth i n te rn al o rg an is a tio nal c h an ge a n d work w ith a r a n ge o f s e rv ic es. Case s tu dy: E m erg en cy f u ndin g f o r y ou th Sonia i s a n o utr e ach w ork er f o r a l o cal g overn m en t y outh s e rv ic es p ro gra m . O ne o f t h e m ajo r is su es f a ced b y y oung p eo ple i n h er a re a i s i n su ffic ie n t m oney f o r f o od a n d s c h ool c o sts f o r y oung peo ple w ho e ith er l iv e a w ay f ro m h om e o r c o m e f ro m f a m ilie s o n v ery l o w i n co m es. T here i s a sm all a m ount o f f u ndin g a v aila b le f ro m c o uncil f o r t h e y outh c o unse llo r t o h elp o ut h is s e rv ic e use rs ; h ow ev er, t h is i s r a re ly e n ough a n d c an o nly b e p ro vid ed t o o ngoin g s e rv ic e u se rs o f t h e youth c o unse llin g p ro gra m . A s t h e y outh c o unse llo r o nly w ork s o ne d ay p er w eek , y oung p eo ple can not a ccess a n y o f t h e f u nds o n o th er d ay s. S onia i s a w are o f m an y y oung p eo ple w ho c an not access a n y f u nds. T he l o cal c o m munity a d vic e b ure au r e ceiv es s o m e g overn m en t f u ndin g t o pro vid e e m erg en cy r e lie f; h ow ev er, y oung p eo ple d o n ot a tte n d t h is s e rv ic e a s t h ey f e el unw elc o m e t h ere a n d t h e w ork ers h av e s a id t h ey d o n ot w an t y oung p eo ple a tte n din g t h e s e rv ic e as t h ey a re c o ncern ed t h at t h eir o ld er s e rv ic e u se rs w ill f e el t h re ate n ed b y t h em . A n um ber o f ch urc h -b ase d s e rv ic es a ls o p ro vid e e m erg en cy r e lie f w hen f u nds a re a v aila b le b ut t h ey d o n ot open d urin g a n y r e g ula r h ours . S onia w ould l ik e t o i m pro ve y oung p eo ple ’s a ccess t o e m erg en cy re lie f f u ndin g a n d a ls o i m pro ve t h e c ap acity o f l o cal s e rv ic es t o w ork w ith y oung p eo ple m ore gen era lly . S he h as r a is e d t h is a s a c o ncern w ith t h e S ocia l a n d C om munity S erv ic es m an ag er, w ho sa y s t h at e m erg en cy r e lie f i s n ot t h e c o uncil’ s r o le a n d t h e e x tr a f u ndin g w as m ad e a v aila b le t o cate r f o r y oung p eo ple w ho c o uld n’t a ccess t h e c o m munity i n fo rm atio n a n d s u pport c en tr e s. Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s • W hat o ptio ns a re o pen t o S onia ? • W hat c an s h e c an d o t o i m pro ve a ccess w ith in c o uncil? • W hat a ctio n c o uld s h e t a k e t o i m pro ve c ap acity o f l o cal a g en cie s t o w ork w ith y oung p eo ple ? • I s t h is p art o f h er j o b? W hy? LEA DER SH IP A ND P R O FE SSIO NAL V ALU ES Fro m o ur d is c u ssio n o f a sp ects o f l e ad ers h ip i n h um an s e rv ic es, i t i s c le ar t h at l e ad ers h ip i s fa r m ore t h an l in e m an ag em en t a n d i s n ot o nly t h e r e sp onsib ility o f t h ose i n d esig nate d le ad ers h ip p ositio ns. A s a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er, y ou w ill h av e a n e th ic al d uty t o l o ok m ore bro ad ly t h an y our o w n d ay -to -d ay p ra ctic e, a n d t o d o a ll y ou c an t o i m pro ve s e rv ic es pro vid ed b y y ours e lf a n d t h e o rg an is a tio n f o r w hic h y ou w ork . An e x am ple o f t h is b ro ad er f o cu s i s p ro vid ed b y t h e A ustr a lia n A sso cia tio n o f S ocia l Work ers ’ ( A ASW ) C ode o f E th ic s, w hic h c le arly s h ow s t h e i m porta n ce o f w ork in g a t a bro ad er l e v el. W ith in t h is c o de, t h e p urp ose o f s o cia l w ork i s s ta te d a s f o llo w s: The s o cia l w ork p ro fe ssio n i s c o m mitte d t o t h e p ursu it a nd m ain te n ance o f h um an w ellb ein g. S ocia l work a im s t o m axim is e t h e d evelo pm en t o f h um an p ote n tia l a nd t h e f u lfilm en t o f h um an n eed s, th ro ugh a n e q ual c o m mitm en t t o : • work in g w ith a nd e n ablin g p eo ple t o a ch ie ve t h e b est p ossib le l e vels o f p erso nal a nd s o cia l w ell- bein g • work in g t o a ch ie ve s o cia l j u stic e t h ro ugh s o cia l d evelo pm en t a nd s o cia l c h ange ( A ASW C ode o f Eth ic s, 1 999). 35 Exam ple s o f h ow t h is c an b e d one a re p ro vid ed t h ro ugh t h e A ASW P ra ctic e S ta n dard s (2 003), w hic h w ere d ev elo ped t o g uid e p ra ctic e a n d t o p ro vid e a m ean s o f a cco unta b ility . Pra ctic e S ta n dard 2 — Serv ic e M an ag em en t s ta te s t h at: All s o cia l w ork ers, r e g ard le ss o f t h eir o rg anis a tio nal p ositio n o r t h e c o nte xt o f t h eir p ra ctic e, h ave th e r e sp onsib ility t o m anage t h eir o w n s e rv ic e p ro vis io n a nd p ra ctic e i n a w ay w hic h i s c o nsis te n t with t h ese s ta ndard s. T his m ay i n vo lv e m anagem en t o f s ta ff a nd o th er A gen cy r e so urc es. T he t e rm ‘s o cia l w ork m anager’ t h ere fo re a pplie s t o a ll s o cia l w ork ers. ( A ASW , 2 003: 1 3) This r e in fo rc es t h e p oin ts w e h av e s tr e sse d t h ro ughout t h is c h ap te r: t h at l e ad ers h ip i s n ot ju st t h e r o le o f t h e m an ag er a n d t h at e th ic al w ork i n t h e h um an s e rv ic e f ie ld i n volv es t a k in g a bro ad er v ie w , r a is in g i s su es o r t a k in g a ctio n r a th er t h an j u st b elie v in g i t i s s o m eo ne e ls e ’s re sp onsib ility . L ead ers h ip i s o ne w ay i n w hic h y ou a re a b le t o i n flu en ce t h e q uality o f w ork underta k en a n d a p ra ctic al d em onstr a tio n o f y our w illin gness t o w ork w ith o th ers t o i m pro ve se rv ic es a n d a d dre ss i m porta n t i s su es o f s o cia l j u stic e a n d e q uity . CO NCLU SIO N Thro ugh t h is c h ap te r, y ou w ill h av e b eg un t o u nders ta n d t h e m ean in g o f l e ad ers h ip i n t h e hum an s e rv ic es a n d e x plo re d h ow y ou c an e x erc is e l e ad ers h ip a s a n ew h um an s e rv ic e work er. W e h ope t h at y ou w ill a ls o h av e b eg un t o t h in k a b out t h e r o le o f m an ag ers i n h um an se rv ic es a n d t o c o nsid er h ow y ou m ay u se t h is , e ith er a s a w ork er o r i n a m an ag em en t positio n, t o i m pro ve t h e q uality o f s e rv ic e m ore b ro ad ly . Chap te r r ev ie w q uestio n s 2.1 W hy i s l e ad ers h ip i m porta n t t o h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers ? 2.2 W hat i m pact h as m an ag eria lis m h ad o n h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers ? 2.3 H ow a re m an ag em en t a n d l e ad ers h ip s im ila r a n d d if fe re n t? 2.4 A s a n ew w ork er i n a h um an s e rv ic es o rg an is a tio n, w hat d o y ou n eed t o k now a b out t h e org an is a tio n’s m an ag em en t? 2.5 I n w hat w ay s c an a f ro nt- lin e w ork er e x erc is e l e ad ers h ip ? G iv e t h re e e x am ple s, e ith er fro m y our e x perie n ce o r t h at y ou c an s e e y ours e lf u nderta k in g. OTH ER R ESO URCES Cen tr e f o r S ocia l L ead ers h ip , < www.s o cia lle ad ers .o rg >. Com munity L ead ers h ip C en tr e , < www.o urc o m munity .c o m .a u /le ad ers h ip /le ad ers h ip _m ain .j s p >. KEY R EA DIN G S Couls h ed , V . a n d M ulle n der, A . 2 001, ‘ M an ag em en t a s V is io n, S tr a te g y a n d L ead ers h ip ’, i n Managem en t i n S ocia l W ork ( 2 nd e d .) , P alg ra v e, H oundsm ills . Gard ner, F . 2 006, ‘ W ork in g A ctiv ely w ith in t h e O rg an is a tio n’, i n Work in g w ith H um an Serv ic e O rg anis a tio ns , O xfo rd U niv ers ity P re ss, M elb ourn e. Hughes, M . a n d W earin g, M . 2 007, ‘ L ead ers h ip , D ecis io n M ak in g a n d R is k ’, i n Org anis a tio ns a nd M anagem en t i n S ocia l W ork , S ag e, L ondon. 36 37 C H APT ER T H REE Sco p in g t h e c o n te x t S U M MARY T his c h ap te r i s d esig ned t o i llu str a te h ow , w hen b eg in nin g w ork i n a n ew o rg an is a tio n, w ork ers c an s y ste m atic ally a p pro ach d ev elo pin g a n u nders ta n din g o f t h e c o nte x t i n w hic h t h ey a re e n gag in g. I t i n volv es s c o pin g t h e i d eo lo gic al, p olitic al a n d l e g al c o nte x t i n w hic h s e rv ic e d eliv ery i s u nderta k en , b oth w ith in a n d b etw een o rg an is a tio ns, a n d i n t e rm s o f t h e b ro ad er s o cia l c o nte x t o f a t r a n sfo rm in g w elf a re s ta te . W HY I S C O NTEX T I M PO RTA NT? A s a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er, y ou o fte n n eed t o a ch ie v e a b ala n ce b etw een y our d uty o f c are t o y our s e rv ic e u se rs , y our c o -w ork ers a n d y our o rg an is a tio n. I n o rd er t o a ch ie v e t h is , y ou h av e t o b e a w are n ot o nly o f t h e i d eo lo gic al, p olitic al a n d l e g al c o nte x t o f y our o rg an is a tio n a n d h ow i t f its i n to t h e b ig ger a n d e v er-c h an gin g w elf a re l a n dsc ap e, b ut a ls o o f t h e t e n sio ns b etw een y our p olitic al a n d i d eo lo gic al b elie fs a n d t h e n eed s o f y our s e rv ic e u se rs . W e h av e s p oken t o h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers o n m an y o ccasio ns w ho t e ll u s t h at t h ey l e av e t h eir p olitic al a n d i d eo lo gic al b elie fs o ut o f t h eir w ork w ith s e rv ic e u se rs a n d o rg an is a tio ns. P ro te sta tio ns n otw ith sta n din g, o ur p ositio n i s t h at t h is c an not b e d one. Id eo lo gy a n d i d eo lo gic a l b elie f: A d octr in e o r s e t o f b elie fs , u su ally i n fo rm ed b y a s e t o f p olitic al id eas. Work in g i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es f ie ld i s i n ev ita b ly p olitic al w ork , s h ap ed a n d d efin ed b y l e g is la tio n a n d t h e d om in an t i d eo lo gic al b elie fs c u rre n t a t a n y p artic u la r t im e. W hat t h e w ork ers t o w hom w e r e fe rre d a b ove a re r e ally s a y in g i s t h at t h ey d o n ot p ro perly u nders ta n d t h e c o nte x t o f t h eir w ork — certa in ly n ot e n ough t o r e fle ct o n i ts i m pact o n t h eir i m plic it b elie fs a b out s e rv ic e u se rs , a b out t h e p ro ble m s t h ey c o nfro nt a n d a b out t h eir o rg an is a tio ns. I n e ffe ct, n ot b ein g a b le t o e n gag e i n c ritic al r e fle ctio n o n a ll a sp ects o f t h e c o nte x t m ean s s u ch w ork ers a re i n d an ger o f n eg le ctin g t h eir d uty o f c are t o t h eir s e rv ic e u se rs a n d t o t h eir a g en cie s. F urth er, a s a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er, y ou c an not a d vocate e ffe ctiv ely i f y ou a re u naw are o f t h e p olitic al, l e g al a n d i d eo lo gic al p ositio n o f y ours e lf , y our s e rv ic e u se rs , y our o rg an is a tio n a n d t h e i n dustr y a s a w hole . 38 Critic a l r e fle ctio n : A p ro cess b y w hic h w ork ers r e se arc h , e v alu ate a n d i m pro ve t h eir o w n p ra ctic e. I t is i n te n ded t o e n han ce a w ork er’s a b ility t o m ove b ey ond i d eo lo gy a n d t o s c ru tin is e h is o r h er o w n pra ctic e i n r e la tio n t o p ers o nal a n d p ro fe ssio nal v alu es a n d c o m mitm en ts . Duty o f c a re : A n i m pera tiv e t h at a p plie s t o a r a n ge o f s itu atio ns; a n o blig atio n t h at a s e n sib le p ers o n would h av e i n t h e c ir c u m sta n ces w hen a ctin g t o w ard s o th ers a n d t h e p ublic . I f t h e a ctio ns o f a p ers o n are n ot m ad e w ith c are , a tte n tio n, c au tio n a n d p ru den ce, t h eir a ctio ns a re c o nsid ere d n eg lig en t. TH E B IG P IC TU RE Befo re w e d elv e i n to t h e w ay s i n w hic h w ork ers c an i n te rp re t a n d u nders ta n d t h e p olitic al, id eo lo gic al a n d p hilo so phic al p re ssu re s a n d d em an ds o f w ork in g i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es, w e need t o l o ok a t t h e b ig ger p ic tu re . I t i s n ecessa ry t h at w e d ev elo p a n a w are n ess o f t h e h um an se rv ic e l a n dsc ap e: w ho w ork s w here , t h e r e la tio nsh ip s b etw een t h e g overn m en t a n d n on- pro fit s e cto rs , a n d s o m e o f t h e m ajo r b odie s o f l a w t h at s h ap e t h e o vera ll c o nte x t o f p ra ctic e. Dev elo p in g a n a w aren ess o f t h e i n dustr y a n d i t s l a b ou r f o rce Meag her a n d H ealy ( 2 006) s ta te t h at t h e c arin g p ro fe ssio ns— th ose p ro fe ssio ns t h at f o cu s o n lo okin g a fte r p eo ple ’s p hysic al, d ev elo pm en ta l, e m otio nal a n d b asic p ra ctic al n eed s s u ch a s housin g a n d i n co m e s u pport— co nstitu te a g ro w in g a n d e x pan din g i n dustr y i n t h e c u rre n t clim ate . C erta in ly , t h e C om monw ealth g overn m en t a g re es. T he h ealth a n d s o cia l c are in dustr y ( in w hic h h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns a re l o cate d ) i s l a rg e. T he i n dustr y i s t h e fa ste st g ro w in g i n dustr y i n A ustr a lia , s e t t o e x pan d t o 2 4 p er c en t o f a ll e m plo ym en t o ver t h e nex t f iv e y ears . T he i n dustr y i s s e t t o c o ntin ue t o g ro w b y n early 4 p er c en t u ntil 2 013 a n d 2014 ( D ep artm en t o f E ducatio n, E m plo ym en t a n d W ork pla ce R ela tio ns, 2 009) a n d p ro duce an e x tr a 1 70 0 00 j o bs. S ocia l w ork ers , y outh w ork ers , c rim in al j u stic e w ork ers , w elf a re work ers , c o m munity d ev elo pm en t w ork ers , m en ta l h ealth w ork ers , d is a b ility s u pport work ers , r e sid en tia l c are w ork ers , h ousin g w ork ers a n d e m plo ym en t p la cem en t w ork ers , t o nam e j u st a f e w , m ak e u p t h e m an y d if fe re n t b ack gro unds o f w ork ers i n t h e g ro w in g h um an an d c o m munity s e rv ic es f ie ld . In t e rm s o f w here t h e w ork i s l o cate d i n t h e c u rre n t h um an s e rv ic e l a b our m ark et, co m munity s e rv ic es, w elf a re , e d ucatio n a n d h ealth a re t h e l e ad in g a re as o f e m plo ym en t f o r work ers : The b ulk o f e m plo ym en t i n s o m e c a rin g o ccu patio ns, s u ch a s c o unse llo rs a nd p sy ch olo gis ts , w as sp re a d a cro ss t h e t h re e m ain h um an s e rv ic e i n dustr ie s i n 2 001. O f a ll t h ose r e p ortin g w ork in g a s a co unse llo r i n t h eir m ain j o b, 3 9% w ere e m plo yed i n c o m munity s e rv ic es, 2 6% i n e d uca tio n, a nd 2 1% in h ea lth . ( M eag her a n d H ealy , 2 006: 2 9) Hum an s e rv ic e w ork ers a re e m plo yed b y a n e n orm ous r a n ge o f a g en cie s a n d o rg an is a tio ns— of a ll s iz es a n d w ith d if fe re n t a u sp ic es— all o f w hic h i m pact o n h ow a n o rg an is a tio n fu nctio ns a n d h ow i t i s e x perie n ced b y s e rv ic e u se rs . I n A ustr a lia , t h ese r a n ge f ro m m an y re lig io us-b ase d a n d s e cu la r c h arita b le o rg an is a tio ns t o g overn m en t b odie s t h at d eal w ith health , c h ild p ro te ctio n, a g ed c are a n d a lm ost a n yth in g e ls e o ne c an t h in k o f. E m plo ym en t i n th e h um an s e rv ic es i n dustr y i s v ast a n d v arie d , a n d a s a r e su lt m an y f ie ld s o f p ra ctic e t h at co uld b en efit f ro m c lo se a n d o pen d ia lo gue w ith e ach o th er ( fo r e x am ple , f a m ily v io le n ce a n d ch ild p ro te ctio n) a re o fte n d is ta n ced i n t e rm s o f f u ndin g, u nders ta n din g, p hilo so phy, ev alu atio n p ra ctic es a n d o utc o m es f o r s e rv ic e u se rs . An i n te re stin g t r e n d t h at c an b e e x tr a p ola te d f ro m t h e M eag her a n d H ealy ( 2 006) s tu dy i s 39 th at b etw een 1 996 a n d 2 001, t h ere w as a d efin ite c h an ge i n t h e s tr u ctu re o f e m plo ym en t i n co m munity s e rv ic es i n dustr ie s. D ata f ro m t h is t im e p erio d s h ow t h at t h ere i s a t r e n d t o w ard s dein stitu tio nalis a tio n o f c erta in s e rv ic e u se r g ro ups ( s u ch a s p eo ple w ith a d is a b ility ) acco m pan ie d b y a c o rre sp ondin g t r e n d i n t h e d ep ro fe ssio nalis a tio n o f t h ose w ork in g w ith t h is gro up o f s e rv ic e u se rs . W hat t h is m ean s i s t h at w hile s e rv ic e u se rs a re l e ss l ik ely t o b e l iv in g in a n i n stitu tio nal s e ttin g ( a n d m uch m ore l ik ely t o b e l iv in g i n h om e-b ase d a n d c o m munity – base d c are a n d t r e atm en t o ptio ns), c o rre sp ondin gly t h e w ork ers w ho w ork w ith t h em a re lik ely n ot t o h old a p ro fe ssio nal q ualif ic atio n. A s a p ro fe ssio nal w ork er i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es fie ld , t h is w ill h av e a n i m pact o n y ou i n t e rm s o f h ow y ou w ork w ith t h is g ro up o f l e sse r qualif ie d c o lle ag ues a s w ell a s s e rv ic e u se rs . I t h as i m plic atio ns f o r t h e r e so urc es a v aila b le t o carry o ut y our w ork a n d a ls o f o r t h e w ay s i n w hic h y ou a re a b le t o w ork w ith o th er w ork ers who m ay h av e a d if fe re n t u nders ta n din g a n d i n te rp re ta tio n o f t h e m an y f a cto rs t h at c o ntr ib ute to s e rv ic e u se rs ’ s itu atio ns. Understa n din g t h e r o le o f t h e s ta te a n d t h e n on -s ta te s e cto rs i n s e rv ic e deliv ery a n d t h e r ela tio n sh ip s b etw een t h em It i s i m porta n t t o t a k e a m om en t t o u nders ta n d h ow w e c am e t o b e i n t h e p ositio n i n w hic h w e fin d o urs e lv es i n A ustr a lia i n t e rm s o f o rg an is a tio ns a n d a g en cie s p ro vid in g w elf a re s e rv ic es with in t h e c o nte m pora ry h um an s e rv ic es l a n dsc ap e. W hen A ustr a lia w as s e ttle d a s a c o lo ny of G re at B rita in , t h e c o lo nia l g overn m en t p olic ie s o f t h e d ay r e je cte d t h e B ritis h a p pro ach t o so cia l s u pport, a n d a v oid ed a n y c o lle ctiv e a p pro ach es t o w elf a re a ctiv ity . I t h as b een w ell docu m en te d t h at s e ttle r s o cie tie s i n A ustr a lia a n d N ew Z eala n d w ere a d am an t t h at t h ere would b e n o ‘ p oor l a w s’ a n d t h e a sso cia te d w ork house s i n t h e n ew c o lo nie s ( T hom so n, 1 998; Dic k ey , 1 987; M en dels o hn, 1 979). T hat a p pro ach w as u nders to od t o p ro m ote u nw an te d dep en den cy b y t h e p oor o n i n stitu tio nal c h arity . T he s e ttlin g o f t h e n ew w orld w as s e en a s a n opportu nity t o d o t h in gs d if fe re n tly , a n d t h e u nders ta n din g w as t h at t h ere w ould b e p le n ty o f work s o p eo ple w ould n’t n eed w elf a re . P overty w ould o nly b elo ng t o t h ose w ho b ro ught i t upon t h em se lv es. ( T he ‘ g en dere d b ia s’ o f t h is p hilo so phy a n d w hat w ould h ap pen t o t h e man y y oung w om en l e ft ‘ h old in g t h e b ab y’, s o t o s p eak , n eed s t o b e r e m em bere d , b ut t h at i s a s u bje ct f o r a n oth er d is c u ssio n.) Poor L aw s: A s y ste m o f p overty r e lie f e sta b lis h ed i n E liz ab eth an E ngla n d, w here in l a n dhold ers re sid in g i n p aris h es p aid a ‘ ta x ’ f o r t h e r e lie f o f t h e p oor i n t h at p aris h . Work h ou se s: A ls o k now n a s ‘ in door r e lie f’. P art o f t h e p oor l a w s y ste m o f r e lie f, t h ey w ere h ars h in stitu tio ns i n w hic h t h e d estitu te w ere f o rc ed t o l iv e a n d w ork . As a r e su lt o f t h is , g overn m en t i n te rv en tio n t o p ro m ote t h e w elf a re o f t h e d estitu te w as kep t a t a m in im um . S upport f o r t h ose w ho c o uld n’t s u pport t h em se lv es w as e x pecte d t o c o m e fro m f a m ilie s, n eig hbours o r t h e C hris tia n c h aritie s t h at w ere e sta b lis h in g t h em se lv es i n t h e new c o lo nie s. T he a u th oritie s a t t h is t im e m ad e a f ir m d ecis io n n ot j u st t o s ta y o ut o f t h e busin ess o f a ssis tin g t h e p oor, b ut a ls o t o p ro m ote t h e i d ea t h at t o b e p oor o r t o n eed h elp mean t t h at a p ers o n w as s o m eh ow m ora lly d efic ie n t ( T hom so n, 1 998). T he r e lia n ce o n re lig io us c h aritie s a n d t h e a cco m pan yin g l a ck o f a n y l e g is la tio n b y g overn m en ts t o r e g ula te th ese c h aritie s r e su lte d i n a s y ste m w here j u dgem en t, d is c rim in atio n a n d s u bsta n dard s e rv ic e deliv ery t o w ard s t h ose d eem ed t h e ‘ u ndese rv in g p oor’ w as r if e . Dese rv in g a n d u ndese rv in g p oor: T he d ese rv in g p oor w ere t h ose c o nsid ere d t o b e d estitu te t h ro ugh no f a u lt o f t h eir o w n ( e .g . o rp han s); t h e u ndese rv in g p oor w ere t h ose a b le -b odie d p eo ple w ho h ad t h e 40 cap acity t o w ork b ut w ho ( a p pare n tly ) c h ose n ot t o . This l e g acy o f t h e b eg in nin gs o f w elf a re i n t h is c o untr y h as m ean t t h at a p hilo so phy w hic h dis tin guis h es b etw een t h e s o -c alle d d ese rv in g a n d u ndese rv in g p oor s till f ilte rs t h ro ugh i n vario us f o rm s o f g overn m en t l e g is la tio n, c h arita b le a ctiv ity a n d i n co m e s u pport t o day . (T hin k, f o r e x am ple , o f t h e s in gle m oth ers m en tio ned p re v io usly , a n d t h e w ay s i n w hic h t h ey are s till j u dged i n g overn m en t d ep artm en ts s u ch a s C en tr e lin k.) O ur w elf a re h is to ry h as a ls o le ft u s w ith a w elf a re s y ste m t h at r e se m ble s a p atc h w ork q uilt— an d i t i s a q uilt t h at, i n t h e tr a d itio ns o f a ll g ood f a m ilie s, h as b een h an ded d ow n t h ro ugh t h e g en era tio ns t o t h e p re se n t day . U nlik e t h e U nite d K in gdom , w here l o cal g overn m en t p la y s a m ajo r r o le i n t h e p ro vis io n of w elf a re a n d c h ild p ro te ctio n, A ustr a lia h as a w elf a re s y ste m t h at i n volv es a ll t h re e t ie rs o f govern m en t ( lo cal, s ta te a n d f e d era l) . I t a ls o i n volv es o th er a g en cie s a n d o rg an is a tio ns deriv in g f ro m t h ose e arlie r c h aritie s ( fo r e x am ple A nglic are , K ild onan , t h e B en ev ole n t Socie ty , S t V in cen t d e P au l, t h e B ro th erh ood o f S t L au re n ce, t h e S alv atio n A rm y, t h e S m ith Fam ily ), p lu s a w hole r a ft o f s m alle r c o m munity a g en cie s l a rg ely s e t u p b ecau se o f dev elo pm en ts i n s o cia l p olic y f ro m t h e 1 970s o nw ard s. The w elf a re s e rv ic e d eliv ery s y ste m v arie s f ro m s ta te t o s ta te w ith in A ustr a lia — fo r ex am ple , t h e i n volv em en t o f l o cal g overn m en t v arie s d ra m atic ally — an d t h ese d ay s m ost org an is a tio ns c o m pete f ie rc ely a g ain st o ne a n oth er f o r g overn m en t f u ndin g. A s a w ork er i n th e h um an s e rv ic es a re a, y our w ork w ill b e i n flu en ced b y t h is h is to ry a s w ell a s b y t h e pre se n t p urc h ase o f s e rv ic e c o ntr a ctin g a rra n gem en ts ( d is c u sse d l a te r). Y ou w ill h av e t o b e aw are o f t h is i n o rd er t o n eg otia te t h e ‘ s y ste m ’. Purc h ase -o f-s e rv ic e c o n tr a ctin g: A s y ste m w here b y a g overn m en t b uys t h e s e rv ic es o f a n on-s ta te org an is a tio n t o d eliv er h um an s e rv ic es i t d eem s a p pro pria te . T he r e la tio nsh ip b etw een t h e p urc h ase r (th e s ta te ) a n d t h e p ro vid er ( th e n on-s ta te o rg an is a tio n) i s m an ag ed v ia a l e g ally b in din g c o ntr a ct. The i m plic atio ns o f t h ese c o m ple x itie s m ean t h at t h e m ajo r f u ndin g b odie s f o r e m plo ym en t in t h e h um an s e rv ic es i n dustr y i n clu de f e d era l, s ta te a n d l o cal g overn m en ts , a lo ngsid e v ario us ch arita b le a n d r e lig io us-b ase d o rg an is a tio ns a n d m an y s m alle r n on-g overn m en t a g en cie s. T he ch an ces a re t h at, a s a w ork er i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es i n dustr y , y ou w ill b e e m plo yed b y o r y our positio n w ill b e e ith er d ir e ctly o r p artia lly f u nded b y o ne o f t h e t h re e t ie rs o f g overn m en t. This c an h av e m ajo r i m plic atio ns f o r t h e k in ds o f w ork y ou c an d o a n d t h e k in ds o f s u pport you h av e f o r y our w ork , a s w ell a s f o r t h e w ork y ou c an not d o. F urth er, i t m ay w ell p la ce se rv ic e u se rs i n d if fe re n t b oxes o r c ate g orie s t h at w ill n ot b e a g ood f it f o r t h em o r a d dre ss th eir n eed s a d eq uate ly . Y ou o nly n eed t o l o ok a t t h e r e str ic tio ns o n C en tr e lin k w ork ers , c h ild pro te ctio n w ork ers a n d i m mig ra tio n w ork ers t o g ain a n u nders ta n din g o f t h e i m porta n ce o f le g is la tio n a n d g overn an ce o n y our r o le i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es i n dustr y . L eg is la tio n o fte n defin es w ho d ese rv es w hat a n d w ho d oesn ’t i n t e rm s o f i n co m e s u pport, l e g al p ro te ctio n a n d re sid en cy . S uch c ate g oris a tio n o f n eed y p eo ple c o nstr a in s t h e w ork o f a h um an s e rv ic e work er. S o h ow d o y ou n eg otia te y our w ay a ro und t h is m in efie ld ? Big -p ic tu re i n flu en ces o n t h e o rg an is a tio n al c o n te x t As a w ork er i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es f ie ld , y ou n eed t o h av e a g ood u nders ta n din g o f t h e dom in an t f ra m ew ork s f o r c o ncep tu alis in g a n d r e sp ondin g t o ‘ s o cia l p ro ble m s’. T he w ay s i n whic h s o cia l i s su es a n d s o cia l p ro ble m s a re i n te rp re te d a n d u nders to od i n o ur s o cie ty a re co nsta n tly c h an gin g a n d a d ju stin g, d ep en din g o n t h e t r e n ds a n d p hilo so phie s o f t h ose i n pow er. A s t h ese c h an ges f ilte r d ow n t o p ra ctic e c o nte x ts , s o d o t h e d om in an t f ra m ew ork s w e use t o u nders ta n d a n d r e sp ond t o t h ese s o cia l p ro ble m s. 41 Work in g i n t h is l in e o f w ork , i t i s o ur r e sp onsib ility t o b e v ig ila n t a n d c o nsis te n t i n in te rp re tin g, e v alu atin g a n d c ritic ally a n aly sin g n ot o nly t h e m otiv es b eh in d t h e w ay s i n whic h m an y s o cia l p ro ble m s a re c o ncep tu alis e d a n d i n te rp re te d b y s o cie ty , b ut a ls o t h e w ay s in w hic h t h e d om in an t f ra m ew ork s f o r p ra ctic e p re sc rib e h ow w e r e sp ond t o t h ese . D om in an t pre sc rip tio ns f o r h ow h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers s h ould r e sp ond t o s e rv ic e u se rs i n c erta in cate g orie s m ay b e b ase d o n f la w ed a g en das o f t h ose i n p ow er. T hese a g en das m ay s e rv e t h e in te re sts o f a v ery f e w , o fte n a t t h e e x pen se o f y our s e rv ic e u se rs . Critic a l a n aly sis : S im ila r t o c ritic al r e fle ctio n; a p ro cess b y w hic h a w ork er t h in ks r a tio nally a n d sy ste m atic ally a b out a s itu atio n o r c o nte x t u sin g k now le d ge a b out i n ju stic e, d is c rim in atio n a n d str u ctu ra l i n eq uality . A r e cen t e x am ple o f a ‘ d om in an t p re sc rip tio n’ i n A ustr a lia w ould b e t h e w ay i n w hic h t h e beh av io ur o f a sy lu m s e ek ers w as p ortr a y ed t o t h e p ublic b y t h e H ow ard C oalitio n govern m en t, a n d t o a c erta in e x te n t b y t h e L ab or g overn m en t u nder J u lia G illa rd . A sy lu m se ek ers h av e b een r e p re se n te d a s ‘ q ueu e j u m pers ’, a s ‘ u n-A ustr a lia n ’ a n d a s a g ro up n ot t o b e tr u ste d . F ed era l g overn m en t f u ndin g r e q uir e m en ts a n d t h e p ra ctic e p ro ced ure s t h at f lo w ed fro m t h is a g en da m ean t t h at m an y h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers h ad t h eir f ra m ew ork s f o r p ra ctic e dic ta te d i n n o u ncerta in t e rm s. W ork ers h ad t o b e a w are o f t h e w ay s i n w hic h t h is g ro up o f se rv ic e u se rs w as c o ncep tu alis e d a n d t h e c o rre sp ondin g w ay s i n w hic h t h is i m pacte d o n t h e work t h ey w ere a b le t o d o. T his o fte n m ean t w ork in g i n d if fe re n t w ay s— fo r e x am ple , g ain in g a f ir m u nders ta n din g o f t h e n ew l e g is la tio n, t h e n ew c ate g orie s o f v is a s a n d t h e l o ophole s, an d d ev elo pin g a w ork in g k now le d ge o f w hic h o rg an is a tio ns w ere s till a b le t o o ffe r s e rv ic es to t h is g ro up o f p eo ple . I t m ean t t h at i t w as h ard er t o w ork i n a n e m pow erin g w ay w ith peo ple w ho w ere j u dged a n d o str a cis e d b y t h e w id er c o m munity , a s w ell a s h ard er t o e d ucate th ose i n t h at w id er c o m munity a b out t h e r e ality o f t h eir l iv es. Work in g t h ro ugh t h is p erio d o f t im e d em onstr a te d t h e v ery r e al n eed f o r h um an s e rv ic e work ers t o t h in k c ritic ally a n d t o s tr iv e f o r a n i n te llig en t a n d h um an e u nders ta n din g o f t h e big ger p ic tu re i n w hic h o ur w ork i s s itu ate d a n d t h e i m pact t h is c an h av e o n o ur s e rv ic e u se rs . You n eed t o s c ru tin is e t h e b ig ger p ic tu re b y a sk in g q uestio ns a b out h ow s e rv ic e u se r i s su es are d efin ed b y t h ose w ho h old t h e p ow er t o d efin e t h em . W hat s tr u ctu re s a t t h e l o cal, s ta te , fe d era l o r g lo bal l e v els ( w heth er t h ey b e l e g al, p olitic al, r e lig io us o r s o cia l) a re w ork in g t o oppre ss, d is c rim in ate o r c o ntr ib ute t o y our s e rv ic e u se rs ’ i s su es? W hy i s t h is t h e c ase ? R ead th e f o llo w in g c ase s tu dy a n d a n sw er t h e q uestio ns p ose d . The f ir s t s te p i n g ain in g a n a w are n ess o f t h e b ig ger p ic tu re i s t o h av e a c le ar u nders ta n din g of s tr u ctu ra l d is c rim in atio n a n d t o u se t h is a s a l e n s t h ro ugh w hic h t o a d ap t a n y f ra m ew ork fo r p ra ctic e t o e n su re t h at y ou a re w ork in g f o r t h e b est o utc o m e f o r y our s e rv ic e u se rs . T he nex t s te p i n u nders ta n din g t h e b ig ger p ic tu re i s f o r y ou a s a w ork er t o g ain s o m e i n sig ht i n to th e n ot s o o bvio us w ay s i n w hic h t h is s tr u ctu ra l d is c rim in atio n c an b e b uilt i n to p re sc rip tio ns fo r p ra ctic e. H um an s e rv ic e w ork ers a re o fte n ‘ e n co ura g ed ’ t o r e sp ond t o t h ese ‘ s o cia l pro ble m s’ i n s p ecif ic w ay s. Str u ctu ra l d is c rim in atio n : D is c rim in atio n a g ain st a p ers o n o r g ro up o n t h e b asis o f r a ce, c u ltu ra l back gro und, g en der, r a ce, a g e a n d/o r d is a b ility . This d oes n ot m ean t h at y ou n eed t o b eco m e c ritic al f o r t h e s a k e o f i t w hen n ew fra m ew ork s a n d w ay s o f w ork in g a re i n tr o duced b y g overn m en ts a n d p eak b odie s. I t d oes mean , h ow ev er, t h at y ou n eed t o a sk y ours e lf s o m e q uestio ns a b out w ho i s d oin g t h e defin in g, t h e p re sc rib in g a n d w hy. T here a re n um ero us e x am ple s o f t h is i n t h e h um an se rv ic es f ie ld a t t h e p re se n t t im e, w ith t h e d om in an ce o f f ra m ew ork s a n d p ra ctic es— base d , fo r e x am ple , o n m ed ic al m odels o f i n te rp re tin g p re se n tin g i s su es. T hese o fte n s e rv e t o 42 path olo gis e a n d b la m e i n div id uals r a th er t h an s itu ate t h eir i s su es w ith in b ro ad er s o cia l str u ctu re s. A n e x am ple o f t h is w ould b e t h e w ay t h e c u rre n t s y ste m o f e m plo ym en t s e rv ic es path olo gis e s a n d b la m es t h e u nem plo yed f o r t h eir p re d ic am en t, t h ere b y a u th oris in g p unitiv e an d i n tr u siv e r e sp onse s ( s e e M cD onald a n d M ars to n, 2 008b). I t c an a ls o b e f o und i n s o m e o f th e w ay s i n w hic h t h e e v id en ce-b ase d p ra ctic e a p pro ach i s u se d . Case s tu dy: A ccess t o c o m munit y h ea lt h s e rv ic es You a re a s o cia l w ork er, w ork in g i n a c o m munity h ealth c en tr e . P art o f y our j o b i s t o f a cilita te access t o t h e s e rv ic es o f t h e c o m munity h ealth c en tr e f o r v ario us g ro ups i n t h e l o cal c o m munity , in clu din g n ew ly a rriv ed a sy lu m s e ek ers w ho a re w aitin g f o r t h eir i m mig ra tio n s ta tu s t o b e fin alis e d . Y ou k now t h at t h is i s a v ery s tr e ssfu l t im e f o r t h is g ro up o f p eo ple . T hey h av e s p oken t o you o fte n a b out t h e r e aso ns w hy t h ey w ere f o rc ed t o f le e t h eir c o untr y , a n d t h e g rie f o f h av in g t o le av e f a m ily m em bers b eh in d. M an y o f t h e f a m ilie s w ith w hic h y ou w ork h av e n ot b een a b le t o co nta ct t h ose t h ey l e ft b eh in d, a n d a re n ot e v en s u re w heth er t h ey s u rv iv ed . T hey h av e a ls o t a lk ed ab out t h eir j o urn ey t o A ustr a lia , a j o urn ey t h at o fte n t o ok y ears , d urin g w hic h t im e t h ey w ere atta ck ed a n d a ssa u lte d a n d h ad f e w i f a n y m ed ic al o r d en ta l s e rv ic es. R ecen tly , t h e e ld erly citiz en s’ e x erc is e g ro up h as a p pro ach ed y ou. T hey a re c o m pla in in g a b out h av in g t o s h are t h e re so urc es o f t h e c en tr e ( e .g . t h e b us, t h e m eetin g r o om s, e tc .) , w ith t h ese n ew g ro ups. T hey f e el th at, a s t h ey h av e a lw ay s b een h ere v olu nte erin g a n d w ork in g i n t h e c en tr e , t h ey h av e m ore o f a cla im t o t h ese r e so urc es t h an t h e p eo ple w ho o nly j u st g ot h ere . T hey a re a n gry a n d r a cis t i n t h eir co m men ts t o y ou a b out t h e a sy lu m s e ek ers , a n d a re d em an din g t h at y ou g iv e t h em p rio rity a ccess to t h e c en tr e ’s r e so urc es f o r t h e c o m in g t e rm . Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s • W hat s te p s c an y ou t a k e t o d if fu se t h is s itu atio n? • W hat d o y ou t h in k m ay b e c o ntr ib utin g t o t h e e x erc is e g ro up’s r a cis t a ttitu de? • H ow m ay t h is i m pact o n y our a lr e ad y t r a u m atis e d g ro up o f a sy lu m s e ek ers ? • I n w hat w ay s c o uld y ou i n cre ase e ach g ro up’s u nders ta n din g o f e ach o th er a n d t h eir n eed s? • W ho w ould y ou f e ed t h is s itu atio n ‘ u p’ t o a n d w hat w ould y ou b e a sk in g f o r? ‘E vid en ce-b ase d ’ a p pro ach es t o t h e h um an s e rv ic es As a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er, y ou w ill n eed t o d ev elo p a n i n fo rm ed p ositio n r e g ard in g t h e r is e an d a d optio n o f e v id en ce-b ase d p ra ctic e a n d r e se arc h -in fo rm ed p ra ctic e i n t h e h um an se rv ic es i n dustr y . T hese a p pro ach es t o p ra ctic e a re m ore t h an i n fo rm ed s u ggestio ns a b out way s f o rw ard . I n deed , a s w ith e v ery th in g i n t h e s o cia l w orld , t h ey c o nta in a n d p ro pel a m ora l ag en da. E vid en ce-b ase d p ra ctic e i n p artic u la r h as b een m ark ete d t o h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers i n man y f ie ld s o f p ra ctic e a s t h e m ost s u ita b le m odel f o r w ork ers t o i m ple m en t. O ne o nly n eed s to e x am in e t h e t e rm s a n d c o nditio ns o f f u ndin g s u bm is sio ns a n d t h e t e n ders f ro m a n y govern m en t d ep artm en t t o g ain a n u nders ta n din g o f t h e w ay s i n w hic h t h is a p pro ach h as sa tu ra te d t h e h um an s e rv ic es. Y our o ngoin g f u ndin g m ay w ell d ep en d o n t h e r e p ortin g a n d ev alu atio n o f p ra ctic e t h ro ugh a n e v id en ce-b ase d f ra m ew ork . S o w hat i s i t a n d w hat a re t h e im plic atio ns o f t h is s a tu ra tio n? Evid en ce-b ase d p ra ctic e i s d eriv ed f ro m m ed ic al d is c o urs e s, f ro m a p ro fe ssio n w here sc ie n tif ic d eb ate s p re v ail. E vid en ce-b ase d p ra ctic e i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es f ie ld d ra w s o n t h e tr a d itio n o f e v id en ce-b ase d m ed ic in e i n w hic h d ecis io ns m ad e a b out t h e c are o f p atie n ts ( in our c ase , s e rv ic e u se rs ) w ill c o m e f ro m k now le d ge g ain ed f ro m r ig oro us s c ie n tif ic s tu die s an d a r a tio nal a p pro ach t o d ecis io n-m ak in g. O ’C onnor a n d c o lle ag ues ( 2 008) a rg ue t h at t h is im plie s h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers h av e a n e th ic al r e sp onsib ility t o d ev elo p t h eir k now le d ge b ase 43 an d e n su re b est o utc o m es f o r s e rv ic e u se rs t h ro ugh c o nsis te n tly d ra w in g f ro m t h e m ost u p-to – date r e se arc h -b ase d k now le d ge a v aila b le . N o o ne w ould d en y t h at t h is i s t h e k in d o f p ra ctic e we w an t t o a ch ie v e; h ow ev er, e v id en ce-b ase d p ra ctic e f re q uen tly d ra w s o nly o n t h e m ost u p- to -d ate k now le d ge i n c erta in a re as. A s a r e su lt, i t c an a ssu m e a o ne-s iz e-fits -a ll a p pro ach a n d ofte n f a ils t o t a k e i n to a cco unt t h e c o m ple x itie s o f t h e h um an c o nditio n. Dis c o u rse : A p artic u la r s y ste m o f b elie fs h eld i n c o m mon b y a g ro up o r f ie ld o f a ctiv ity t h at s h ap es unders ta n din g, c o m munic atio ns a n d p ra ctic es i n t h at f ie ld . Evid en ce-b ase d p ra ctic e i s b uilt o n t h e m ed ic al a n d s c ie n tif ic p re m is e t h at y our s e rv ic e use r h as a s p ecif ic p ro ble m o r p ro ble m s t h at c an b e i s o la te d a n d t r e ate d . I t i s g eare d t o w ard s pre cis e m easu re m en t, m onito rin g a n d e v alu atio n, a n d p ro m ote s a n o ver-s im plif ie d v ie w o f pra ctic e t h at c an m easu re t h e t r e atm en t o f t h e s p ecif ic s y m pto m s. I t o fte n c an not a d dre ss t h e co m ple x m ultip le l a y ers o f t h e l if e e x perie n ce o f y our s e rv ic e u se r, o r a n u nders ta n din g o f t h e in eq ualitie s o r o ppre ssiv e p ra ctic es t h at h av e a ls o c o ntr ib ute d t o y our s e rv ic e u se r’s i s su es. Bed doe a n d M aid m en t ( 2 009: 6 7) a rg ue t h at t h e p rim ary d if fic u lty w ith e v id en ce-b ase d pra ctic e i s t h at t h e h um an c o nditio n i s v ery c o m ple x a n d t h at: ‘ s e rv ic e u se rs f re q uen tly h av e multip le l a y ers o f i s su es t o a d dre ss, i n clu din g p ra ctic al a n d p sy ch olo gic al c o ncern s r e la tin g t o str u ctu ra l i n eq uality ’. Evid en ce-b ase d p ra ctic e c la im s t o b e s c ie n tif ic a n d o bje ctiv e, a n d a s a w ork er y ou obvio usly w an t ‘ b est p ra ctic e’ f o r y our s e rv ic e u se rs . H ow ev er, y ou a ls o n eed t o b e m in dfu l th at e v id en ce-b ase d p ra ctic e is d eriv ed f ro m t h e m ed ic al p ro fe ssio n— or, m ore s p ecif ic ally , fro m a w hite , m ale , W este rn is e d m ed ic al d is c o urs e t h at o fte n d oes n ot u nders ta n d o r h onour vast a m ounts o f k now le d ge l o cate d o uts id e i ts o w n d om ain . A s a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er, y ou need t o b e r e sp ectf u l o f o th er b odie s o f k now le d ge t h at c an c o ntr ib ute t o t h e w ork y ou a re doin g w ith y our s e rv ic e u se rs , s u ch a s f e m in is t o r I n dig en ous w ay s o f u nders ta n din g t h e is su es y our s e rv ic e u se rs e x perie n ce. Y ou n eed t o b rin g i n w ay s o f u nders ta n din g d iv ers ity aris in g f ro m g en der, c u ltu re , r a ce, c la ss a n d a g e, a s w ell a s t h e o ppre ssio n i n here n t i n t h ese cate g orie s a t m ultip le l e v els . We a re n ot s u ggestin g t h at y ou d is m is s t h e e n tir e g en re o f e v id en ce-b ase d p ra ctic e. T his would c erta in ly b e d etr im en ta l i n t o day ’s c lim ate . W e a re a sk in g t h at y ou l o ok s c ep tic ally a t th e d om in an t f o rc es i n t h e i n dustr y a n d b e e q ually s c ep tic al a b out c alls f o r o verly s im plis tic way s o f m easu rin g t h e h um an c o nditio n. A t t h e s a m e t im e, w e s u ggest t h at y ou w ork w ith your s e rv ic e u se rs t o a d dre ss t h eir d is a d van ta g e a n d l e sse n t h e i m pact o f p ath olo gis in g pra ctic e a n d o th er p re sc rip tio ns t h at ‘ b la m e t h e v ic tim ’. R efle ct o n t h e c ase s tu dy b elo w a n d th e q uestio ns w e p ose . Case s tu dy: I n te r-g en era tio n al i s su es Kara i s a s u pport w ork er i n a f a m ily s u pport a g en cy . S he w ork s m ain ly w ith f a m ilie s r e fe rre d t o her f ro m C hild P ro te ctio n. S he r e ceiv es a r e fe rra l t o w ork w ith a 2 8-y ear-o ld w om an , N ata lie , a moth er o f t w o c h ild re n a g ed 1 3 a n d 1 4. A cco rd in g t o t h e r e fe rra l, N ata lie h as b een s e n din g h er ch ild re n t o s c h ool h ungry a n d t h ey a re o fte n n ot t u rn in g u p t o s c h ool a t a ll. T he s e co ndary c o lle g e th ey a tte n d m ad e a n otif ic atio n o n t h e g ro unds o f n eg le ct. T he r e fe rra l f ro m c h ild p ro te ctio n su ggests t h at N ata lie n eed s a ssis ta n ce w ith p are n tin g a n d b udgetin g, a n d t h ere i s s o m e s u ggestio n th at t h e c h ild re n m ay b e w itn essin g v io le n ce. O nce K ara b eg in s t o w ork w ith N ata lie , a h is to ry em erg es o f i n te r-g en era tio nal p overty a n d a b use . K ara l e arn s t h at N ata lie r a n a w ay a t t h e a g e o f 1 2 due t o s e x ual a b use , a n d l iv ed w ith v ario us r e la tiv es, o ne o f w hom a ls o a b use d h er. B y t h e t im e sh e w as 1 4, s h e w as n o l o nger a tte n din g s c h ool a n d w ould n ot l e av e h er h ouse . A t 1 6 s h e h ad h er fir s t c h ild t o h er 2 7-y ear-o ld c o usin , w ho i s c u rre n tly i n j a il f o r a ssa u lt. N ata lie i s n ow a lo ne w ith her c h ild re n , u nab le t o w ork d ue t o a cu te a n xie ty , a n d a s s h e i s n ot f u lf illin g h er ‘ lo okin g f o r work ’ c rite ria , s h e h as h ad h er i n co m e d ock ed b y C en tr e lin k. 44 Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s • W hat a re s o m e o f t h e b ig ger-p ic tu re s tr u ctu ra l i s su es t h at a re c o ntr ib utin g t o N ata lie ’s s itu atio n? • E vid en ce-b ase d p ra ctic e w ould s u ggest t h at, a s h er w ork er, y ou n eed t o b e a ssis tin g N ata lie t o co m ply w ith C en tr e lin k p ro to co l b y g ettin g h er t o l o ok f o r w ork , l e arn t o b udget a n d b eco m e a more a sse rtiv e p are n t. W hat c o m ple x itie s d oes t h is m is s i n N ata lie ’s s itu atio n? Every a g en cy a n d o rg an is a tio n w ith in w hic h y ou w ork i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es f ie ld w ill hav e t h ese ‘ b ig ger p ic tu re ’ i s su es a n d p re ssu re s t o c o nte n d w ith . T he t r ic k i s t o b e a b le t o s e e th ese t e n sio ns, t o b e a b le t o a n aly se a n d u nders ta n d w hat i s g oin g o n a n d t o w ork w ith in t h e para m ete rs o f t h is u nders ta n din g f o r t h e b est o utc o m e f o r y our s e rv ic e u se rs . S om e o f t h e most p ositiv e w ay s f o rw ard i n b ein g a b le t o w ork w ith in t h ese b oundarie s i n volv e h av in g a fir m u nders ta n din g o f t h e m ajo r b odie s o f l a w t h at s h ap e p ra ctic e a n d g overn o rg an is a tio ns, an d a c o m pre h en siv e k now le d ge o f t h e c o nte x t o f y our s p ecif ic o rg an is a tio n. UNDER ST A NDIN G T H E M AJO R B O DIE S O F L A W The w ork o f h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns i s g overn ed b y v ario us l a w s o r A cts o f p arlia m en t, wheth er i t i s f e d era l l e g is la tio n, s ta te l e g is la tio n o r l o cal c o uncil r e g ula tio ns. K now le d ge i s pow er, a n d h av in g a g ood g ra sp o f t h e ‘ ru le s’ t h at r e g ula te y our w ork , a n d a n u nders ta n din g of t h e w ay s i n w hic h t h ese r u le s a re i n te rp re te d b y v ario us g overn m en t b odie s a n d l e g al in stitu tio ns, i s e x tr e m ely i m porta n t. F urth erm ore , s e rv ic e u se rs a re o fte n n ot g iv en t h e in fo rm atio n t h ey r e q uir e , o r t o ld t h e d ir e ctio n t h ey n eed t o t a k e, b ecau se t h eir w ork er i s n ot fa m ilia r w ith t h e l e g is la tio n w ith in w hic h t h e i s su e s its . We a re n ot a d vocatin g t h at y ou h av e y our h ead a ro und a ll t h e l e g is la tio n i n a ll a re as o f t h e work y ou d o; h ow ev er, y ou n eed t o k now m an y o f t h e b asic l e g al t e n ets o f t h e w ork t h at i s th e m ain b usin ess o f y our o rg an is a tio n, a n d w here t o l o ok f o r f u rth er i n fo rm atio n w hen y ou need i t. L eg is la tio n g overn in g t h e w ork w e d o i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es f ie ld r e fle cts t h e c h ao tic mix ed e co nom y o f w elf a re i n w hic h h ealth , w elf a re a n d c o m munity s e rv ic es a re d eliv ere d i n Austr a lia . S om e l e g is la tio n t h at d ir e cts y our w ork i s f e d era l, a n d i s t h ere fo re n atio nal i n i ts co vera g e o f t h at s p ecif ic i s su e— fo r e x am ple , t h e Socia l S ecu rity A ct 1 991, w hic h s e ts o ut t h e para m ete rs f o r i n co m e s e cu rity a n d t h e Fam ily L aw A ct 2 008, w hic h s e ts o ut r e sid en cy , co nta ct r u le s a n d p ro ced ure s f o r s e p ara tin g p are n ts . T hese a cts , a lo ng w ith t h e Aged C are A ct 1997, t h e Mig ra tio n A ct 1 958 a n d t h e Dis a bility A ct 2 006 a re c o nsis te n t n o m atte r i n w hat sta te o r t e rrito ry y ou f in d y ours e lf w ork in g. Much o f t h e l e g is la tio n t h at w ill g overn y our w ork o n a d ay -to -d ay b asis i s s ta te le g is la tio n. L eg is la tio n g overn in g h ousin g ( Resid en tia l T en ancy A cts ), f a m ily v io le n ce, se x ual a ssa u lt, m en ta l h ealth a n d c h ild p ro te ctio n i s a ll i n t h e f o rm o f s ta te A cts , a n d a s s u ch is d if fe re n t i n e v ery s ta te a n d t e rrito ry o f A ustr a lia . Y ou w ill f in d t h at s o m e o f t h ese a re sim ila r i n v ario us s ta te s a n d s o m e a re v ery d if fe re n t. I n a r e cen t n atio nal c o m paris o n o f c h ild pro te ctio n s y ste m s, f o r e x am ple , i t w as f o und t h at, d esp ite s o m e d if fe re n ces i n l e g is la tiv e str u ctu re s a n d s o m e d if fe re n ces i n t h e w ay s i n w hic h t h is l e g is la tio n i s i n te rp re te d a n d en acte d , A ustr a lia n s ta te s a n d t e rrito rie s a re p ro vid in g v ery c o m para b le m odels o f c h ild pro te ctio n i n te rv en tio n ( B ro m fie ld a n d H ig gin s, 2 005). A ustr a lia h as e ig ht d if fe re n t c h ild pro te ctio n s y ste m s b ecau se e ach s ta te a n d t e rrito ry h as r e sp onsib ility f o r i ts o w n h ealth a n d welf a re i s su es. T his m ean s t h at t h ere i s n o s in gle d efin itio n o f c h ild a b use c o nsis te n t th ro ughout A ustr a lia . P ro ble m s c an e m erg e w hen s e rv ic e u se rs w ho a re u nder i n vestig atio n in o ne s ta te f o r c h ild p ro te ctio n i s su es m ove i n te rs ta te . This v olu m e o f s ta te -s p ecif ic l e g is la tio n c an l e ad t o o th er i s su es. I n t h e c rim es ( s e x ual offe n ces) a n d f a m ily v io le n ce a re a, f o r e x am ple , t h ere a re n o c o nsis te n t n atio nal d efin itio ns 45 co verin g c h ild s e x ual a b use o r d om estic v io le n ce. T his m ean s t h at w hat y ou m ay b e a b le t o ad dre ss i n a c o urt o f l a w i n o ne s ta te m ay n ot n ecessa rily e v en b e i n t h e l e g is la tio n o f an oth er. T his h as i m plic atio ns w ith s e rv ic e u se rs w ho o fte n n eed t h e p ro te ctio n o f t h e l a w a s th ey m ove a ro und t h e c o untr y ( w heth er t h ey b e c h ild re n o r a d ults ), a n d o fte n w ork s t o t h e ad van ta g e o f p erp etr a to rs . The A tto rn ey -G en era l’ s D ep artm en ts , e ith er n atio nally o r a t a s ta te l e v el, a re r e sp onsib le fo r r e g ula rly r e v ie w in g A cts t o k eep t h em u p t o d ate w ith c h an gin g t im es a n d c h an gin g co m munity a ttitu des. I t i s y our r e sp onsib ility a s a w ork er i n t h is f ie ld t o k eep a b re ast o f t h e ch an ges a n d t o f a m ilia ris e y ours e lf w ith n ew p ro vis io ns t o A cts o f p arlia m en t. O fte n t h e b est way t o d o t h is i s t o e n su re t h at y ou f in d o ut w ho i s o ffe rin g t r a in in g a n d w ork sh ops o n re v is e d o r n ew l e g is la tio n, a n d b ook y ours e lf i n to t h is t r a in in g. Your a g en cy o r o rg an is a tio n s h ould h av e c o pie s o f t h e l e g is la tio n a n d l e g al f ra m ew ork s th at g uid e o r c o ntr o l t h e e v ery day b usin ess o f y our a g en cy . T ak e t im e t o f a m ilia ris e y ours e lf with t h ese d ocu m en ts . I f t h ey a re n ot a v aila b le , l o ok t h em u p. L eg is la tio n i s a v aila b le o n t h e Atto rn ey -G en era l’ s w eb site f o r e v ery s ta te i n A ustr a lia . A lte rn ativ ely , g o t o t h e w eb site o f th e A ustr a lia n L eg al I n fo rm atio n I n stitu te a t < www.a u stlii.e d u.a u >. A ls o e n su re t h at y ou ( o r your a g en cy ) a re a m em ber o f p ro fe ssio nal a n d i n dustr y p eak b odie s, a s t h eir co m munic atio ns a re a g ood w ay t o s ta y i n fo rm ed a b out a n y c h an ges. Pro fe ssio n al b ody: A p ro fe ssio nal b ody i s a n o rg an is a tio n g iv in g r e co gnitio n a n d p ro vid in g mem bers h ip t o m an y o f t h e p ro fe ssio ns. E xam ple s i n clu de t h e A ustr a lia n A sso cia tio n o f S ocia l Work ers , t h e A ustr a lia n P sy ch olo gic al A sso cia tio n a n d t h e A ustr a lia n M ed ic al A sso cia tio n. Pea k b ody: A p eak b ody i s a n i n dustr y -b ase d o rg an is a tio n t h at i s f o rm ed t o r e p re se n t t h e i s su es o f pro vid ers i n t h at i n dustr y . E xam ple s i n clu de t h e A ustr a lia n C ouncil o f S ocia l S erv ic e, J o bs A ustr a lia an d t h e C ham ber o f C om merc e. Som e o f t h e i m plic atio ns f o r d ay -to -d ay p ra ctic e m ay n ot b e q uite s o s tr a ig htf o rw ard . T he le g is la tio n a n d i ts g uid in g p rin cip le s m ay s e t y ou a t o dds w ith o th er h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers in y our a re a, w ho m ay b e w ork in g w ith t h e s a m e s e rv ic e u se rs a s y ours e lf . F or e x am ple , in te rp re ta tio ns a ro und ‘ b est i n te re sts o f t h e c h ild ’ h av e d if fe re n t w eig htin gs a n d m ean in gs dep en din g o n w heth er y ou w ork f ro m s ta te -b ase d c h ild p ro te ctio n l e g is la tio n o r s ta te -b ase d fa m ily v io le n ce p ro te ctio n l e g is la tio n, o r t h e c u rre n t Fam ily L aw A ct 2 006. TH E O RG ANIS A TIO NAL C O NTEX T As w e h av e s e en i n t h e p re v io us d is c u ssio n o f t h e i n dustr y a s a w hole , t h ere a re m an y f a cto rs th at n eed t o b e t a k en i n to c o nsid era tio n w hen a sse ssin g t h e c o nte x t o f p ra ctic e. I n a n org an is a tio n w here t h e m ain g oal i s t h e d eliv ery o f h um an s e rv ic es, t h ere c an b e m ultip le maste rs , a n d t h e w ork er m ay b e a cco unta b le t o m an y o rg an is a tio nal a n d c o m munity sta k eh old ers . A s y ou b eg in t o u nders ta n d t h e l e g al, p olitic al a n d i d eo lo gic al c o nte x t w ith in whic h y our o rg an is a tio n f u nctio ns, y ou w ill a ls o b eg in t o u nders ta n d t h e m an y in co nsis te n cie s a n d c o nflic tin g p rio ritie s t h at t h e w ork ers w ith in t h e o rg an is a tio n m ust co nfro nt a n d w ork t h ro ugh o n a d aily b asis . I t i s n o e asy t a sk t o w eig h u p a n d b ala n ce t h e need s, w an ts a n d r ig hts o f t h e s e rv ic e u se rs , t h e c o m munity , t h e g overn m en t a n d o th er pro fe ssio nal w ork ers w hile k eep in g w ith in y our f in ite a llo catio n o f r e so urc es. As d is c u sse d i n Chap te r 1 a n d a cco rd in g t o B erg -W eg er a n d B ir k en m aie r ( 2 000: 9 0), m an y is su es c o ntr ib ute t o t h e c o nte m pora ry e n vir o nm en t o f o rg an is a tio ns. T hese i n clu de t h e in sta b ility a n d c o nsta n t v ola tility o f f u ndin g s o urc es, s o cia l p olic y a n d p re ssu re s o f accre d ita tio n a n d p olitic al a ffilia tio ns, a lo ng w ith b ala n cin g t h e n eed s o f y our s e rv ic e u se rs 46 with t h e s u rv iv al o f t h e o rg an is a tio n. O rg an is a tio ns m ay a ls o b e c o nflic t r id den a n d s e em t o hav e n o s h are d v alu e s y ste m . C le ak a n d W ils o n ( 2 007: 3 0) a rg ue t h at m an y h um an s e rv ic e org an is a tio ns h av e v ag ue g oals t h at a re c o nte ste d b y w ork ers a s w ell a s b y e x te rn al sta k eh old ers . A s a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er, y ou n eed t o b e a w are o f t h ese d if fe re n t d em an ds an d d ev elo p s k ills t h at w ill e n ab le y ou t o m an oeu vre a n d w ork e ffe ctiv ely . H ere a re s o m e ad ditio nal i n sig hts t h at c o m ple m en t t h ose o ffe re d i n Chap te r 1 . Understa n din g t h e i d eo lo gic a l o rie n ta tio n o f t h e o rg an is a tio n a n d t h e norm ativ e i m pera tiv es t h at a ris e f r o m t h is In o rd er t o b e a s e ffe ctiv e a s p ossib le i n y our w ork w ith a n d o n b eh alf o f y our s e rv ic e u se rs , i t is i m porta n t t o u nders ta n d t h e i d eo lo gic al o rie n ta tio n o f t h e o rg an is a tio ns f o r w hic h y ou w ork an d t h ose w ith w hic h y ou n etw ork , t o geth er w ith t h e i m plic atio ns o f t h is f o r t h e w ork y ou will b e a b le t o d o. W hen y ou t a k e i n to c o nsid era tio n t h e f a ct t h at y ou c an f in d y ours e lf work in g f o r a l a rg e g overn m en t b ure au cra cy , a s m all c o m munity a g en cy , a r e lig io us-b ase d org an is a tio n, a c o lle ctiv e o r p erh ap s a ‘ p ro fit- b ase d ’ o rg an is a tio n, i t i s n o w onder t h at t h ere are m an y d if fe re n t i d eo lo gic al p ers p ectiv es i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es. While i t i s v ery i m porta n t t o h av e a f ir m u nders ta n din g o f t h e p olic ie s, p ro ced ure s a n d le g is la tio n t h at g overn t h e d ay -to -d ay w ork w ith in a n o rg an is a tio n a n d t h e e x pecta tio ns u pon th e w ork ers t h at a ris e f ro m t h is , i t i s e q ually i m porta n t t o h av e a g ood a p pre cia tio n o f t h e in fo rm al r u le s, t h e l a n guag e a n d t h e r itu als t h ro ugh w hic h a n o rg an is a tio n d efin es i ts e lf . I n Chap te r 1 , w e i n tr o duced t h e n otio n o f o rg an is a tio nal c u ltu re . A n o rg an is a tio n’s c u ltu re pro vid es a n i n dic atio n o f h ow a w ork er w ill b e t r e ate d b y t h at o rg an is a tio n: w heth er a w ork er can b e o rig in al a n d i m ag in ativ e i n t h e w ay s i n w hic h t h ey w ork , o r w heth er t h e o rg an is a tio n only h as r o om f o r o ne d om in an t m ode o f w ork in g. I f y ou d o n ot h av e a g ood u nders ta n din g of t h e c u ltu re o f y our o rg an is a tio n a n d h ow t h is r e fle cts i ts v alu es a n d i d eo lo gy, y ou w ill hav e t r o uble w ork in g o ut w hat t h e i m plic atio ns a re f o r t h e w ay s i n w hic h y ou w ork , a n d t h e way s i n w hic h y ou w ill b e a b le t o a d vocate f o r y our s e rv ic e u se rs . H ow c an y ou g o a b out work in g o ut t h e c u ltu re , a n d i d eo lo gy o f y our a g en cy ? Org an is a tio n al c u ltu re : T he a ttitu des, b elie fs , p ers o nal a n d c u ltu ra l v alu es s h are d b y p eo ple a n d gro ups i n a n o rg an is a tio n t h at s ig nif ic an tly i m pact o n t h e w ay p eo ple i n te ra ct w ith e ach o th er a n d with o th ers o uts id e o f t h e o rg an is a tio n. Every o rg an is a tio n o r a g en cy h as a n nual r e p orts , w ritte n v alu es, m is sio n s ta te m en ts a n d goals . I s t h e w ork y ou a re d oin g w ith s e rv ic e u se rs a n d o th er p ro fe ssio nals r e fle ctiv e o f t h ese goals a n d v alu es, o r i s t h ere a m is m atc h ? W hat d o t h e s e rv ic e u se rs t h in k o f t h e w ay t h ey a re tr e ate d b y t h e o rg an is a tio n? A re t h ey v alu ed , e m pow ere d , l is te n ed t o a n d r e sp ecte d ? A re t h e work ers w ith in t h e o rg an is a tio n v alu ed , e m pow ere d , l is te n ed t o a n d r e sp ecte d ? O fte n t h e way s i n w hic h t h e w ork ers a re t r e ate d a re i n dic ativ e o f t h e w ay s i n w hic h s e rv ic e u se rs a re vie w ed . W ork er e v alu atio ns, s e rv ic e u se r e v alu atio ns a n d o uts id e a u dits a re a ll g ood m eth ods of c o lle ctin g a n d r e v ie w in g i n fo rm atio n t h at w ill e n ab le y ou a n d y our a g en cy t o r e fle ct o n t h e re ality o f t h e w ork t h at i s b ein g d one a s w ell a s o n t h e c u ltu re o f t h e o rg an is a tio n. T hey a re als o g ood m eth ods o f d ev elo pin g r e co m men datio ns a n d w ay s o f m ovin g t o w ard s w hat y ou re ally w an t t o b e d oin g. A w ork er o r a n o rg an is a tio n t h at i s r e sis ta n t t o t h is k in d o f s c ru tin y will o fte n a lr e ad y k now t h at t h ey a re n ot p ra ctis in g a s t h ey s h ould . A gain , r e ad t h e f o llo w in g case s tu dy a n d t h in k a b out t h e q uestio ns p ose d . Case s tu dy: O rg an is a tio n al c u lt u re 47 You a re a n ew g ra d uate w ork er i n a c o m munity a g en cy . D urin g y our o rie n ta tio n, y ou r e ad m uch ab out t h e m is sio n a n d v alu e s ta te m en ts o f y our n ew a g en cy , w hic h c la im t h at t h e o rg an is a tio n re fle cts t h e l o cal c o m munity i n t h at i t h as a m ultic u ltu ra l f o cu s a n d i s s e n sitiv e t o t h e n eed s o f t h e lo cal I n dig en ous c o m munity . A s y ou p ro gre ss t h ro ugh y our f ir s t f e w m onth s i n t h is a g en cy , y ou beg in t o g et a n u neasy f e elin g t h at a ll i s n ot a s i t s e em s. Y ou r e alis e t h at t h ere a re v ery f e w s e rv ic e use rs a n d n o w ork ers a t a ll f ro m a n y c u ltu ra lly a n d l in guis tic ally d iv ers e b ack gro unds. M em bers of t h e l o cal I n dig en ous c o m munity d o n ot u se y our s e rv ic es a n d p re fe r t o t r a v el a n e x tr a 3 0 min ute s t o a n oth er a g en cy , a n d t h ere i s n o s y ste m i n p la ce f o r i n te rp re tin g s e rv ic es o r t r a n sla tio n of a n y o f t h e a g en cy ’s w ritte n m ate ria l. Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s • A s a n ew w ork er, w hat c an y ou d o a b out t h is ? • W hat c an y ou d o t o e n su re t h at t h ese o bse rv atio ns a re v alid ate d a n d b eco m e m ore t h an a n ecd ota l obse rv atio ns? • T o w hom c an y our o bse rv atio ns b e g iv en ? • W here t o f ro m h ere ? Understa n din g a n d d ea lin g w it h t h e t e n sio n s b etw een y ou a s a h um an se rv ic e w ork er a n d t h e o rg an is a tio n s i n w hic h y ou w ork Work in g i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es f ie ld i s n ev er g oin g t o b e a ll s m ooth s a ilin g. W hat w e e x pect an d w an t f ro m o ur o rg an is a tio ns a n d t h e p eo ple w ith w hom w e w ork v ery r a re ly m eets o ur ex pecta tio ns. W heth er y ou a re e m plo yed b y a g overn m en t o r n on-p ro fit o rg an is a tio n, t h ere can b e m an y r e aso ns w hy y ou m ay f in d y ours e lf f ru str a te d , a n d y ou n eed t o f in d w ay s t o id en tif y , w ork t h ro ugh a n d d eal w ith t h ese t e n sio ns. O’C onnor a n d c o lle ag ues ( 2 008: 1 85) o utlin e f o ur k ey r e aso ns f o r t h ese t e n sio ns: 1. O rg an is a tio ns c o ntr o l a ccess t o s o cia l r e so urc es. W ork ers o fte n c o m pete w ith in t h eir org an is a tio ns f o r t h e d is tr ib utio n o f t h ese r e so urc es. 2. T he k now le d ge a n d p ra ctic e c o nte x t o f t h e w ork c arrie d o ut b y h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers i s o fte n co nte ste d b y s e rv ic e u se rs , c o m munity a ttitu des, g overn m en t p olic y a n d o th er w ork ers . 3. O rg an is a tio ns a re o fte n a t a rg et f o r s o cia l c h an ge b y t h eir o w n w ork ers o r w ork ers i n o th er ag en cie s. 4. H um an s e rv ic e w ork ers o fte n h av e t o c o nfro nt i s su es o f a u to nom y a n d c o ntr o l o ver t h eir w ork . These p oin ts d em onstr a te t h at w ork ers c an b e u nder p re ssu re f ro m w ith in t h eir o w n org an is a tio n t o w ork i n c erta in w ay s a n d f o llo w c erta in p ro to co ls , a s w ell a s c o m in g u nder pre ssu re f ro m o uts id e t h eir o rg an is a tio ns, f ro m o th er p ro fe ssio nals , s e rv ic e u se rs a n d co m munity a ttitu des t o w ork i n c erta in w ay s. W e c an not s tr e ss e n ough t h at c o m munic atio n i s ofte n t h e k ey t o n eg otia tin g y our w ay t h ro ugh t h ese t e n sio ns. B ein g a b le t o s ta te y our c ase cle arly a n d l is te n t o t h at o f o th ers w ith in y our o rg an is a tio n c an o fte n l e ad t o w ork ab le co m pro m is e s i n t e rm s o f t h e s tr u ggle f o r r e so urc es w ith in o rg an is a tio ns. Unders ta n din g t h e b ig ger p ic tu re , a s w e h av e d is c u sse d p re v io usly — partic u la rly i n t e rm s of h av in g a g ood g ra sp o f w ho i s d efin in g s o cia l p ro ble m s, h ow t h ey a re d oin g i t a n d w hy— is ofte n t h e k ey t o n av ig atin g p re ssu re s a n d t e n sio ns f ro m o uts id e y our o rg an is a tio n. B ein g a b le to c o m munic ate t h is u nders ta n din g, f e ed in g t h is i n fo rm atio n u p t o t h ose i n g overn m en t dep artm en ts a n d r e m ain in g i n fo rm ed a re a ll w ay s i n w hic h y ou c an f in d a w ay t h ro ugh m an y of t h e f ru str a tio ns a n d t e n sio ns y ou w ill e x perie n ce. As w e w ill d is c u ss i n m ore d eta il i n Chap te r 6 , a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er w ill h av e t o w ork with w ork ers f ro m o th er d is c ip lin es a n d w ork ers w ith o th er a g en das. I t i s v ery i m porta n t t o be a b le t o n eg otia te t h ese r e la tio nsh ip s a s r e sp ectf u lly a s y ou c an , i n o rd er t o p ro vid e t h e b est 48 possib le o utc o m e f o r y our v uln era b le s e rv ic e u se r g ro up a n d t o d eal w ith s o m e o f t h ose te n sio ns. T here h as b een m uch r e se arc h o f l a te t h at c le arly d em onstr a te s t h e f a ct t h at s e rv ic e use rs l o se w hen t h ere i s p oor n etw ork in g a n d p oor c o m munic atio n, a n d t h is c an o fte n a ris e a s a r e su lt o f p ro fe ssio nal o r a g en cy r iv alr y . The r e ality i s t h at, a s a w ork er, y ou w ill w ork w ith p ro fe ssio nals , n on-p ro fe ssio nals a n d ag en cie s, w ho m ay w ell b e w ork in g f ro m a d if fe re n t p hilo so phic al p ositio n t h an y ours e lf . You w ill a ls o b e w ork in g w ith w ork ers f ro m o th er p ro fe ssio ns w ho h av e d if fe re n t i d eo lo gic al positio ns a n d w ho a re f o cu se d o n d if fe re n t o utc o m es— fo r e x am ple , n urs e s, d octo rs , l a w yers , men ta l h ealth w ork ers , t h e p olic e a n d t h e c o urts . T he t r ic k i s t o l o ok f o r t h e p ositiv es a n d str e n gth s i n t h is d iv ers ity , t o s e ek t h e w ay s i n w hic h t h is c an a ssis t y our s e rv ic e u se r a n d work t o w ard s t h eir g oals . I f y ou a p pre cia te e ach p ro fe ssio n, a n d s tr iv e f o r s o m e unders ta n din g o f w here e ach w ork er a n d a g en cy i s c o m in g f ro m , y ou c an b e w ork in g t o w ard s so lu tio ns. This d oes n ot m ean t h at y ou r e m ain s ile n t a b out v ic tim b la m in g a n d d is c rim in ato ry pra ctic es, b ut i t d oes m ean t h at y ou w ork t o geth er, k eep in g t h is a n d y our a g en da f o r y our se rv ic e u se r i n m in d. P art o f y our w ork f o r p artic u la r s e rv ic e u se rs m ay i n clu de t h e n eed f o r you t o e d ucate y our c o -w ork ers a b out y our p ositio n. T his c an b e i n fo rm al, o r y ou m ay c h oose to m ak e i t f o rm al. Y ou c o uld , f o r e x am ple , f a cilita te a n e d ucatio n s e ssio n w ith l o cal g en era l pra ctitio ners a ro und d om estic v io le n ce, o r a n e d ucatio n s e ssio n w ith c h ild p ro te ctio n w ork ers aro und c h ild s e x ual a b use a n d t h e i m porta n ce o f t h e r e la tio nsh ip t h e c h ild h as w ith t h e n on- offe n din g p are n t. CO NCLU SIO N This c h ap te r h as f o cu se d o n h ow y ou c an b eg in t o s c o pe t h e c o nte x t o f y our w ork i n a n y org an is a tio n. W e h av e l o oked a t w hy i t i s e sse n tia l t o g ain a n u nders ta n din g o f t h e b ig ger pic tu re , a n d t h e s tr u ctu ra l d im en sio ns w hic h i m pact o n y our s e rv ic e u se rs a n d t h e w ork t h at you d o. O nce y ou a re a b le t o u se t h is c ritic al a n aly sis a s a l e n s t h ro ugh w hic h t o s e e h ow y our work i s s itu ate d , y ou w ill h av e a b ette r u nders ta n din g o f t h e i s su es c o ntr ib utin g t o t h e l iv es o f your s e rv ic e u se rs a n d t h e w ay s i n w hic h y ou a n d y our o rg an is a tio n a re s itu ate d t o r e sp ond t o th ese . Chap te r r ev ie w q uestio n s 3.1 W hy i s i t i m porta n t t o b e a b le t o u nders ta n d t h e c o nte x t o f t h e o rg an is a tio n a n d t h e w ay s in w hic h t h is i m pacts o n y our s e rv ic e u se rs ? 3.2 W ho a re t h e w ork ers w ith w hom y ou w ill b e w ork in g a n d w hat m ig ht b e t h eir back gro unds? 3.3 W hat b earin g c o uld t h is h av e o n t h e w ork t h at y ou d o? 3.4 H ow c an y ou b eco m e a w are o f w ho i s d efin in g s o cia l i s su es, w hy t h ey a re d oin g t h is a n d th e p ote n tia l i m pact o n s o m e o f y our c lie n ts ? 3.5 W hy i s i t i m porta n t t o h av e a b asic u nders ta n din g o f t h e l e g al f ra m ew ork s i n w hic h y our work i s s itu ate d ? 3.6 H ow c an y ou e n su re t h at t h e w ork y ou a re d oin g i s c o nsis te n t w ith t h e s ta te d v alu es a n d mis sio ns o f y our o rg an is a tio n? OTH ER R ESO URCES All F ed era l A cts o f P arlia m en t, < www.a u stlii.e d u.a u /a u /le g is /c th /c o nso l_ act >. 49 All s ta te -b ase d l e g is la tio n i s a v aila b le a t s ta te g overn m en t w eb site s. F or e x am ple , f in d Vic to ria n l e g is la tio n a t: < www.l e g is la tio n.v ic .g ov.a u >. Cen tr e f o r C ultu re , E th nic ity a n d H ealth , < www.c eh .o rg .a u /r e so urc es/p ublic atio ns/a sp x >. KEY R EA DIN G S Bed doe, L . a n d M aid m en t J . 2 009, Mappin g K now le d ge f o r S ocia l W ork P ra ctic e, C ritic a l In te rse ctio ns , C en gag e, M elb ourn e. 50 C H APT ER F O UR Reco rd in g a n d r ep ort-w rit in g S U M MARY N ote -ta k in g, r e co rd in g, r e p ort- w ritin g a n d a sso cia te d d ocu m en ta tio n a re t h e m ajo r m ean s o f c o m munic atio n i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es s e cto r— both f o rm ally a n d i n fo rm ally . T his c h ap te r l o oks a t f a cto rs c o m mon t o a ll p ro fe ssio nal w ritin g i n t h is f ie ld . W e t h en c o nsid er v ario us f o rm s a n d m eth ods o f w ritin g f o r e ffe ctiv e c o m munic atio n w ith in a n d a cro ss d if fe re n t l e v els o f p ra ctic e. S om e o f t h ese a re s p ecif ic t o p artic u la r a re as o f w ork , w ith in t h e c o nte x t o f l e g is la tio n a n d p rin cip le s t h at a re c o m mon t o a ll h um an s e rv ic e p ra ctitio ners . I N TR O DUCTIO N A s i n dic ate d i n Chap te r 1 , w hat w e w rite i s d ep en den t o n t h e c o nte x t. T his m ean s w ork ers n eed t o a p pre cia te h ow s p ecif ic c o nte x ts m ay i n flu en ce t h e a ctio ns a n d i n te rp re ta tio ns o f a ll i n volv ed . F urth er, t h e l a n guag e w e u se c re ate s t h e w ay s i n w hic h w e b oth s e e a n d u nders ta n d c o nte x t ( H artm an , 1 991). ‘ L an guag e i s u se d t o a cco m plis h p artic u la r p ra ctic al p urp ose s a n d t o c o nstr u ct a n d m ain ta in s o cia l r e alitie s.’ ( S ch neid er, 2 001: 2 31) L an guag e i s a ls o d ete rm in ed b y o ur c ap acity t o e n gag e i n c ritic al r e fle ctio n, a ck now le d ged b y m an y r e cen t w rite rs a s t h e m ost s ig nif ic an t c o m ponen t o f p ro fe ssio nal p ra ctic e ( e .g . F ook, 1 996; A lla n , 2 009; H alf p en ny, 2 009). C ritic al r e fle ctio n b y a p ra ctitio ner f o cu se s o n h is o r h er p ra ctic e i n r e la tio n t o h ow k now le d ge i s g en era te d a b out t h ose w ith w hom t h e p ra ctitio ner i s w ork in g, a n d t h e p la ce o f p ow er i n t h is p ro cess, t o geth er w ith r e fle ctio n u pon t h e i n flu en ce o f t h e p ra ctitio ner’s v alu es, f e elin gs a n d e m otio ns. ( D ’C ru z e t a l, 2 007). The n atu re a n d s ig nif ic an ce o f r e co rd in g a n d r e p ort- w ritin g h av e e x te n ded b ey ond t h em b ein g s e en a s ‘ a m ech an is m t o f a cilita te t h eo ry b uild in g, r e se arc h , a n d t e ach in g’ ( C um min g e t a l., 2 007: 2 39) t o b ein g v ie w ed a s a n e sse n tia l c o m ponen t o f a ll o ur p ra ctic e. W hile m an y h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers v ie w r e co rd in g a n d r e p ort- w ritin g a s a n ecessa ry b urd en , s o m e s e e i t a s a n i n te g ra l p art o f t h eir p ro fe ssio nal r e sp onsib ility . C le ak ( 2 009: 1 ) r e fe rs t o r e se arc h u nderta k en b y O ’C onnor e t a l. ( 2 008) t h at s u ggests w ork ers i n c lin ic al s e ttin gs s p en d o ne- f if th o f t h eir t im e r e co rd in g. A s e n io r s o cia l w ork er i n a h osp ita l r e cen tly e stim ate d t h at a p pro xim ate ly h alf o f h er t im e w as s p en t w ritin g r e p orts o r p ro vid in g v erb al r e p orts . I n c o ntr a st, t h e e stim ate d t im e s p en t o n t h is a ctiv ity b y a s u pport w ork er i n a s m all n on-p ro fit o rg an is a tio n w as a ro und 3 0 p er c en t a n d f o r t h e d ep uty C EO i t w as 9 0 p er c en t. 51 Our f o cu s o n r e co rd in g a n d r e p ort- w ritin g r e la te s t o i ts s ig nif ic an t p la ce i n s e rv ic e deliv ery . R efe re n ce i s a ls o m ad e t o a sso cia te d w ritin g s k ills r e q uir e d f o r o rg an is a tio nal re sp onsib ilitie s a n d c o m munity e n gag em en t ( e .g . e m ails , m in ute -ta k in g a n d p re ss r e le ase s). The h um an s e rv ic e w ork er i s p art o f a n o rg an is a tio n t h at i s t h ere t o a d dre ss t h e s e rv ic e u se r’s need s. T hese d ay s, s e rv ic e u se rs m ay b e a ssis te d b y a t e am o f p ro fe ssio nals . T his m ean s t h at work ers n eed t o s h are i n fo rm atio n w ith in a n d b etw een t e am s b elo ngin g t o a m ore o r l e ss dis p ers e d n etw ork , c o m munic atin g o fte n b y i n fo rm atio n t e ch nolo gy. I n t h is c o nte x t, t h e t e rm ‘p ro fe ssio nal r e la tio nsh ip ’ t a k es o n a d if fe re n t m ean in g. Rese arc h i n to t h e i m pact o f d ata p ro te ctio n l e g is la tio n i n t h e U nite d K in gdom f o und t h at hum an s e rv ic e p ra ctitio ners e x perie n ce o ngoin g t e n sio n b etw een t w o d if fe re n t d is c o urs e s, t h e le g al- a d m in is tr a tiv e d is c o urs e a n d t h e t h era p eu tic d is c o urs e ( J e n kin s a n d P otte r, 2 007: 1 33). In a c u ltu re w here f e ar a n d r is k a re c o nsta n tly p re se n t, q uality a n d t im ely r e co rd in g i s a critic al c o m ponen t o f h um an s e rv ic e w ork . I n t h e f ir s t p art o f t h is c h ap te r, w e p ro vid e ex am ple s o f t h e p urp ose a n d n atu re o f r e co rd in g a n d r e p ort- w ritin g. WHAT I S R EC O RDIN G ? A w ell- c o nstr u cte d r e co rd p ro vid es c o ncre te e vid en ce o f c h ange, i n fo rm atio n f o r a naly sis , a nd in dic a tio ns f o r f u tu re a ctio n . . . [ se rv in g] a s t h e b asis f o r i n div id ual r e fle ctio n, s u perv is o ry dis c u ssio n, a nd p eer c o nsu lta tio n. F or p ro gra m e va lu atio n, f u tu re p la nnin g, j u stify in g a nd o bta in in g fu nds, m ea su re s o f q uality a ssu ra nce a nd r e se a rc h . ( M ile y e t a l., 1 998: 2 60) Reco rd in g d ra w s o n i n fo rm atio n a n d k now le d ge f ro m a w id e r a n ge o f s o urc es, a n d i n clu des desc rip tio n, a n aly sis a n d p ro fe ssio nal j u dgem en t. C le ar d is tin ctio ns n eed t o b e m ad e b etw een fa ct a n d o pin io n w here i n put i s o bta in ed f ro m a t h ir d p arty . As w e d is c u ss i n m ore d ep th i n Chap te r 1 0 , A ustr a lia n c itiz en s h av e t h e r ig ht t o a ccess in fo rm atio n— pers o nal a n d p ublic — held b y f e d era l a n d s ta te g overn m en ts a n d g overn m en t- fu nded a g en cie s. I n V ic to ria , f o r e x am ple , t h e D ep artm en t o f H um an S erv ic es’ p olic y i s t h at, where a p pro pria te , s e rv ic es u se rs s h ould b e a b le t o a ccess t h eir p ers o nal i n fo rm atio n d ir e ctly , with out t h e n eed t o m ak e a f o rm al a p plic atio n u nder t h e V ic to ria n Fre ed om o f I n fo rm atio n Act . F or t h ese r e aso ns, i t i s v ita l t h at w ork ers t a k e g re at c are w hen r e co rd in g. Reco rd s a n d r e p orts i n a n y h um an s e rv ic e w ork r e q uir e a v arie ty o f w ritin g s k ills . W ork i n a s p ecia lis t a re a s u ch a s c h ild p ro te ctio n w ill b e f o cu se d o n t h e i n div id ual, b ut m uch w ritin g a work er d oes w ill b e b ro ad er o r f o r d if fe re n t p urp ose s. The d if fe re n t t y pes o f r e co rd in g a n d r e p orts w ith in a s p ecia lis t r o le s u ch a s c h ild p ro te ctio n in clu de: c ase n ote s; i n itia l r e p ort o r n otif ic atio n; m in ute s o f c ase -p la n nin g m eetin gs; c ase pla n s r e co rd in g t h e c h ild ’s g oals a n d s tr a te g ie s; a sse ssm en t r e p orts ; a ffid av its f o r c are a n d pro te ctio n c o urt p ro ceed in gs; c o urt r e p orts ; l e tte rs t o s ta k eh old ers a ffe cte d b y a d ecis io n; a n d re p orts f o r e x te rn al ( e .g . o m budsm an ) a n d i n te rn al a u die n ces ( e .g . m em o t o m an ag er). WHY R EC O RD? When t h in gs g o w ro ng t h ere i s a t e n den cy t o j u dge p ra ctic e o n t h e b asis o f t h e w ritte n r e co rd . (T ay lo r, 2 008: 2 9) Shaefo r a n d c o lle ag ues u se fu lly r e m in d u s t h at ‘ if i t i s n ot d ocu m en te d i n t h e r e co rd , i t w as not d one’ ( S haefo r e t a l., 2 003: 1 81). T hey p ro pose t h at t h e p urp ose s o f r e co rd in g c o ncern acco unta b ility i n r e la tio n t o f o ur m ajo r p artie s: t h e s e rv ic e u se r, t h e w ork er, t h e o rg an is a tio n an d t h e s ta te . F or e x am ple , i t i s u se d : 52 • t o p ro vid e a n a ccu ra te a cco unt o f s e rv ic es p ro vid ed ( w ork er/ o rg an is a tio n) • t o i d en tif y c h an ges i n p olic y , s e rv ic e d eliv ery a n d s ta ff d ep lo ym en t ( w ork er/o rg an is a tio n) • f o r e v alu atio n a n d f u tu re r e se arc h ( w ork er/o rg an is a tio n) • f o r o vera ll l e g al a n d p olic y r e q uir e m en ts ( o rg an is a tio n/s ta te ). Reco rd in g p la y s a c ritic al r o le i n d ecis io n-m ak in g i n c o nte x ts s u ch a s c h ild p ro te ctio n, t h e Fam ily C ourt a n d t h e G uard ia n sh ip a n d A dm in is tr a tiv e T rib unals . Besid es d ocu m en tin g e v ery c o nta ct w ith o r i n r e la tio n t o t h e s e rv ic e u se r, t h e r is k ( m in im al th ough i t i s i n A ustr a lia ) o f c h arg es b ein g b ro ught a g ain st a w ork er n ecessita te t h at e v en can cella tio ns o f a p poin tm en ts s h ould b e n ote d . A s B oyle e t a l. ( 2 006) p oin t o ut, c are fu l docu m en ta tio n h elp s r e d uce a w ork er’s l ia b ility i f a s e rv ic e u se r s u es t h em , o r w hen a n offic ia l i n vestig atio n i s c arrie d o ut. F urth er, C um min g e t a l. ( 2 007: 2 41) r e co m men d fa m ilia rity w ith p ro fe ssio nal a sso cia tio ns’ c o des o f e th ic s a n d p ra ctic e s ta n dard s d ocu m en ts re g ard in g t h e s ig nif ic an t r o le o f r e co rd in g i n r e la tio n t o ‘ e th ic al r is k s’ a n d p ro fe ssio nal acco unta b ility . Case s tu dy: R eco rd in g 1 Angela p la ces a h ig h p rio rity o n r e co rd in g b ecau se : ‘ I n eed t o r e co rd w hat i s s a id a n d h ap pen s a t th e t im e. I c an ’t r e ly o n m em ory . F or l e g al a n d p ro fe ssio nal r e aso ns I r e ta in a r e co rd o f e v ery se rv ic e u se r c o nta ct o n t h e d ata b ase s y ste m , w heth er i t b e b y p hone, f a x , l e tte r o r e m ail. T his i s esp ecia lly r e le v an t t o c ase s, w hic h m ay e n d u p i n c o urt, o r t h ose t h at t h e m ed ia m ay p ic k u p, f o r whic h a s p eed y r e p ort t o t h e m in is te r o r p arlia m en t m ay b e r e q uir e d . W e c an ’t f o re se e t h e l o nger- te rm i m plic atio ns. W e’re a cco unta b le t o t h e s e rv ic e u se r, t h eir a d vocate s, a s w ell a s t o t h e govern m en t a n d o ur p ro fe ssio n.’ Reco rd in g f o r a sse ssm en t, p la n nin g a n d r e p ortin g w ere i n te g ra l f a cto rs d ev elo ped i n 2 008 by t h e A ASW M en ta l H ealth P ra ctic e S ta n dard s. T hey s tip ula te t h e n ecessity t o : • m ain ta in r e co rd s o f a ctiv ity a s r e q uir e d b y a cco unta b ility s ta n dard s w ith in t h e a g en cy • d ev elo p a s e rv ic e p la n w ith t h e s e rv ic e u se r t h at t a k es a cco unt o f s h ort- a n d l o ng-te rm g oals , a n d id en tif ie s h ow t h e c ase m an ag er w ill s u pport t h ese g oals • r e v ie w , r e v is e a n d m onito r t h e p la n r e g ula rly w ith t h e s e rv ic e u se r • i n te g ra te d ata -g ath erin g t o f o rm a t e n ta tiv e a sse ssm en t o f c o m munity n eed s a n d r e so urc es • r e g ula rly m onito r t h e a sse ssm en t f o rm ed . Apart f ro m t h e a b ove f o rm al n ecessity t o m ain ta in a r e lia b le r e co rd o f s e rv ic es r e n dere d , th ere a re s e v era l o th er a d van ta g es a sso cia te d w ith a s y ste m atic r e co rd in g p la n . T hese i n clu de th e v is ib ility o f s p ecif ic g oals a n d o utc o m es, a r e co rd o f p ro gre ss o r o th erw is e , a n d d ata dev elo pm en t e n ab lin g e v alu atio n o f e ffe ctiv en ess o f p ra ctic e, b oth i n div id ually a n d org an is a tio nally ( B lo om a n d F is c h er, 1 983). Case s tu dy: R eco rd in g 2 Angela ’s e x perie n ce o f a p artic u la rly c ritic al i n cid en t r e la te d t o t h e r e je ctio n o f a n a p plic atio n f o r re fu gee s ta tu s f o r a w om an w ith m en ta l h ealth i s su es. T he w om an ’s l a w yer a sk ed f o r e x tr a t im e becau se t h e w om an w as p re g nan t a n d s u ffe rin g p re -n ata l d ep re ssio n, s o s h e w as n ot w ell e n ough fo r a n i n te rv ie w . T his w en t o n f o r s e v era l m onth s. A fte r c h ild bir th , t h e w om an w as s till u nw ell, ex perie n cin g p sy ch otic e p is o des a n d u nab le t o b e i n te rv ie w ed . C onse q uen tly , s h e s o ught a decis io n f ro m t h e d ep artm en ta l w ork er w ith out a n i n te rv ie w . A ngela s a id t h at t h e i n te rv ie w w as esse n tia l. T he w om an r e co vere d s o t h e i n te rv ie w p ro ceed ed . T he w om an c la im ed t h at s h e w as a 53 vic tim o f d om estic v io le n ce. A ngela ’s a sse ssm en t w as t h at t h e s itu atio n w as m ore r e la te d t o fa m ily p ro ble m s. H er s ta tu s c o uld n ot b e d efin ed a s ‘ re fu gee’, s o h er a p plic atio n w as r e fu se d a n d a notif ic atio n l e tte r w as s e n t t o t h e s e rv ic e u se r a n d h er r e p re se n ta tiv e. A ppro xim ate ly t w o w eek s afte r t h e l e tte r o f r e je ctio n w as s e n t, t h e w om an ’s l a w yer p honed a n d s a id t h at t h ere w as a n e rro r in n otif ic atio n a n d t h at t h e s e rv ic e u se r h ad r e ceiv ed a n a d ditio nal l e tte r t h at r e fe rre d t o t h e g ra n t of a r e sid en t v is a ( i.e . p erm an en t s ta tu s).T his w as t h e r e su lt o f a n a d m in is tr a tiv e e rro r o f w hic h Angela w as u naw are . A fte r c h eck in g t h e f ile s s h e f o und t h at s h e h ad s e n t t h e c o rre ct n otif ic atio n le tte r t o t h e s e rv ic e u se r, b ut t h at a d m in is tr a tio n h ad s e n t a n i n co rre ct l e tte r. T he l a w yer a ccu se d Angela o f p re cip ita tin g a s u ic id e a tte m pt b y t h e w om an b ecau se h er c ase h ad b een r e fu se d . A ngela was c o ncern ed b ecau se o ver a s ix -m onth p erio d s h e h ad r e sp onded t o a ll o f t h e w om an ’s r e q uests fo r a d ditio nal t im e a n d e x te n sio ns o f t h e p ro cessin g p erio d. T his w as d ocu m en te d i n h er f ile a n d on t h e d ep artm en ta l d ata b ase . A ngela a g ain a d vis e d t h e l a w yer t h at a p plic atio n c o uld b e m ad e t o th e R efu gee R ev ie w T rib unal, d ra w in g a tte n tio n t o w hat h ad b een a d vis e d i n t h e p re v io us co rre sp onden ce. L ate r t h e l a w yer a d vis e d A ngela t h at h er s e rv ic e u se r’s c ase h ad b een a p pro ved by t h e R efu gee R ev ie w C ouncil. Dis c u ssio n q uestio n • W hat m ore c o uld A ngela h av e d one t o r e m ed y t h e s itu atio n? HOW T O R EC O RD Key q uestio ns t h at a p ply t o e v ery th in g w e w rite a re : • W ho i s t h e a u die n ce? • W hat i s t h e p urp ose ? • W hat d o I w an t t o c o m munic ate ? • W hen s h ould I r e co rd t h is ? • W hic h f o rm o f w ritin g s h ould I u se ? Case s tu dy: R eco rd in g 3 Angela m ak es d eta ile d h an dw ritte n n ote s, s im ila r t o a p ro cess r e co rd . S he t h en w rite s a n a n aly sis of t h e c ase u pon w hic h a d ecis io n i s m ad e, d ra w in g u pon a ll i n fo rm atio n f ro m t h e s e rv ic e u se r a n d oth er r e se arc h d ocu m en te d , t a k in g a cco unt o n o ccasio ns o f c erta in p ro fe ssio nal c o des o f e th ic s (e .g . w here i n fo rm atio n o n w hic h t h e d ecis io n i s b ase d h as b een o bta in ed p rim arily t h ro ugh a n in te rp re te r). An i m porta n t s k ill t h at i s o fte n o verlo oked i s t h e d ev elo pm en t o f o ur o w n v ers io n o f ‘s h orth an d’. W hile l a p to ps h av e b eco m e t h e n orm f o r n ote -ta k in g a t m eetin gs, a n d c o m pute rs are i n te g ra l t o i n te rv ie w in g i n o ffic es s u ch a s C en tr e lin k, i n m an y f a ce-to -fa ce e n co unte rs with s e rv ic e u se rs , w heth er i n t h e w ork er’s o ffic e o r i n t h e s e rv ic e u se r’s h om e, w ork ers a re still r e lia n t o n m an ual n ote -ta k in g. I n r e la tio n t o c ase r e co rd in g, S haefo r e t a l. ( 2 008: 1 91) su ggest a s y ste m o f n ote -ta k in g w here b y c ase n ote s k eep a c h ro nolo gic al r e co rd o f a ctiv itie s pro vid in g b asic d ata t h at m ay b e d ra w n u pon a t a n y t im e. I n t r a n sfe rrin g t h e o rig in al n ote s in to f o rm al r e co rd s, O ’H ara a n d W eb er ( 2 006: 1 12) r e co m men d t h at t h e r e p ort b e s im ple a n d sh ort, w ith s e n te n ces i n t h e a ctiv e v oic e, p ara g ra p hs c o nfin ed t o o ne p oin t, a v oid an ce o f ab str a ct w ord s a n d j a rg on, a f a ctu al a n d o bje ctiv e s ty le , a n d a v oid an ce o f j u dgem en t a n d su bje ctiv ity . Work ers n eed t o d ev elo p w ritin g s k ills i n a r a n ge o f w ritin g s ty le s t o e ffe ctiv ely d ocu m en t all a sp ects o f t h eir w ork a n d t o c o nvey t h e c o rre ct m essa g e t o d if fe re n t a u die n ces. M ost 54 org an is a tio ns h av e s p ecif ic c o m pute r- o r p ap er-b ase d s y ste m s w ith g uid elin es f o r docu m en tin g t h e h ow , w hen , w hy a n d w hat o f p ra ctic e. R eam er ( 2 005) h as d ev elo ped a fra m ew ork f o r c o ncep tu alis in g f u nctio ns o f d ocu m en ta tio n m ore b ro ad ly . H e n ote s t h at f o r pra ctic e r e la te d t o c lin ic al, s u perv is o ry , m an ag em en t o r a d m in is tr a tiv e d utie s, o ur r e co rd in g se rv es s ix m ain f u nctio ns: 1. a sse ssm en t a n d p la n nin g 2. s e rv ic e d eliv ery 3. c o ntin uity a n d c o ord in atio n o f s e rv ic es 4. s u perv is io n 5. s e rv ic e e v alu atio n 6. a cco unta b ility t o s e rv ic e u se rs , i n su re rs , a g en cie s, o th er p ro vid ers , c o urts a n d r e v ie w b odie s. TY PE S O F P R O FE SSIO NAL R EC O RDIN G A ND R EPO RTIN G Cle ak ( 2 009: 1 5) i d en tif ie s f o ur m ain t y pes o f p ro fe ssio nal r e p ort- w ritin g r e q uir e d o f h um an se rv ic e p ra ctitio ners i n t h eir c o nta ct w ith s e rv ic e u se rs . T hese a re : 1. f ile n ote s, p ro gre ss n ote s o r c lie n t r e co rd s 2. r e fe rra ls t o o th er p ro fe ssio nals a n d a g en cie s 3. r e p orts o n p ro gre ss o r o utc o m e o f i n te rv en tio ns 4. a sse ssm en ts . Som e s p ecif ic m eth ods a re l is te d b elo w . The d ia ry o r l o g b ook Activ ity l o gs t h at d ocu m en t c h ro nolo gic ally t h e c o nta cts b etw een w ork er a n d s e rv ic e u se r, a s well a s r e le v an t t a sk s, g oals , a ctiv itie s, f u tu re p la n s, o th er p artie s i n volv ed a n d t im e s p en t, a re re tr o sp ectiv ely v alu ab le f o r r e lia b ility a n d a cco unta b ility ( S haefo r e t a l., 2 003: 2 62). I n t e rm s of t im e m an ag em en t a n d p la n nin g, a d ia ry i n dic atin g d aily e v en ts , a p poin tm en ts a n d c ale n dar dead lin es f o r c erta in t a sk s i s i n valu ab le . C le ak a n d W ils o n ( 2 007: 7 7) p ro vid e a u se fu l t o ol. Jou rn al A j o urn al r e co rd s m ate ria l u su ally d ra w n u pon t o s u bsta n tia te p ers o nal/p ro fe ssio nal r e fle ctio n upon p ro gre ss a n d o utc o m es. I t i s m ore c o m monly u se d b y s tu den ts t o c o m ple m en t t h eir le arn in g p la n s. C le ak a n d W ils o n ( 2 007: C h. 8 ) p ro vid e d eta ile d g uid elin es f o r j o urn al writin g a s a r e fle ctiv e l e arn in g t o ol. Note -ta k in g Note -ta k in g p ro vid es t h e b asis f o r m ost r e co rd s. U nlik e l e ctu re n ote s a n d l o g b ooks, n ote s kep t a b out s e rv ic e u se rs m ay b e s u bpoen aed , s o a t f ir s t c o nta ct i t i s a p pro pria te t o l e t t h e se rv ic e u se r k now w hy n ote s a re b ein g t a k en a n d t o o bta in p erm is sio n t o t a k e n ote s d urin g th e i n te rv ie w . 55 Pro cess r eco rd in g Pro cess r e co rd in g i s ‘ a n arra tiv e a cco unt o f a n i n te ra ctio n w ith a n oth er i n div id ual’ ( W oodsid e an d M cC la m , 2 006: 3 19), a d eta ile d a cco unt o f c o m munic atio n t h at t a k es p la ce b etw een t h e in te rv ie w er a n d t h e i n te rv ie w ee. I t i s p rim arily u se d a s a s tu den t l e arn in g t o ol w ith p artic u la r atte n tio n t o c ritic al r e fle ctio n u pon t h e r e co rd o f t h e s tu den t’ s s u bje ctiv e r e actio ns t o t h e se rv ic e u se r a n d s itu atio n. C onte n ts s h ould i n clu de a d esc rip tio n o f i n te ra ctio n w ith t h e se rv ic e u se r, r e fle ctio n u pon h ow a n d w hat t h e s e rv ic e u se r c o m munic ate d ( in clu din g n on- verb al b eh av io ur) a n d t h e t h eo ry , s k ills a n d v alu es d ra w n u pon d urin g t h e i n te ra ctio n. A u se fu l f o rm at f o r r e co rd in g a n d r e fle ctin g u pon p ro cess n ote s i s r e p ro duced i n Tab le 4 .1 . Tab le 4 .1 : P ro cess r eco rd in g s h eet Dia lo gu e Skills use d Feelin gs a n d resp on se s Refle ctiv e an aly sis Superv is o r co m men ts EX ER CIS E Role -p la y a n a sse ssm en t i n te rv ie w b etw een a w ork er a n d a h ostile y oung f a th er w ho h as b een re fe rre d b y C hild P ro te ctio n t o a p are n tin g p ro gra m r u n b y a n on-p ro fit o rg an is a tio n. F ill o ut t h e pro cess r e co rd i n r e la tio n t o t h at i n te rv ie w ( s e e Tab le 4 .1 ). The f o llo w in g q uestio ns a re u se fu l t o a sk w hen r e fle ctin g u pon t h e i n te rv ie w : • W hic h a sp ects o f t h e i n te rv ie w d id I f in d m ost c h alle n gin g a n d w hy? • W hat m ig ht I h av e d one d if fe re n tly ? • W hat s p ecif ic m ic ro -s k ills d id I u se i n t h is i n te rv ie w ? • I n w hat w ay s d id t h e p ers o nal i s su es d is c u sse d d urin g t h e i n te rv ie w r e fle ct m acro s o cie ta l co ncern s? • W hat n eed s t o h ap pen n ow w ith t h is ‘ c ase ’? Sourc e: B ed doe a n d M aid m en t ( 2 009: 3 0) Narra tiv e r eco rd in g In t h e h um an s e rv ic es, n arra tiv e r e co rd in g i s u se d p re d om in an tly a s a n oth er l e arn in g t o ol f o r stu den ts e n gag ed w ith i n div id ual s e rv ic e u se rs . I t i s a d eta ile d r e co rd o f e v ery th in g t h at i s ex pre sse d i n a n i n te rv ie w , u sin g t h e ‘ I s a id , s h e/h e s a id ’ s ty le o f w ritin g ( W in t a n d H ealy 1998: 9 7). R eis sm an a n d Q uin ney ( 2 005) h av e u se d n arra tiv e f ra m ew ork s e ls e w here , s u ch a s fo r r e se arc h i n te rv ie w s a n d p ro fe ssio nal s to ry te llin g a t t e am m eetin gs. V aria tio ns o f n arra tiv e re co rd in g a re c ritic al i n cid en t a n d c ritic al i s su e r e co rd in g. 56 Crit ic a l i n cid en t r eco rd in g The a b ility t o t h in k c ritic ally i s a k ey f a cto r i n r e sp ondin g e ffe ctiv ely t o t h e c o m ple x ity a n d uncerta in ty o f t h e h um an s e rv ic e e n vir o nm en t. T he c ritic al i n cid en t c o ncep t h as b een a p plie d in n um ero us w ay s. D av is a n d R eid ( 1 983) r e fe r t o c ritic al i n cid en t a n aly sis a s a u se fu l meth od f o r d eta ile d s tu dy o f a p ers o n’s s p ecif ic e x perie n ce g ro unded i n a p artic u la r s itu atio n, an d f o r c ap tu rin g w hat i s u niq ue o r c o m mon a b out a n e v en t. H ettla g e a n d S te in lin ( 2 006) re g ard t h e C ritic al I n cid en t T ech niq ue a s a u se fu l t o ol f o r e x plo ra tio n i n p la n nin g, p ro je ct ev alu atio n a n d e m pow erm en t a ctiv itie s. The C ritic al I n cid en t T ech niq ue w as d ev elo ped b y F la n ag an ( 1 954) f o r t h e A via tio n Psy ch olo gy P ro gra m o f t h e U S A rm y A ir F orc es d urin g W orld W ar I I. B en ner ( 1 984) a p plie d th e t e ch niq ue t o n urs in g, o pen in g t h e w ay f o r i ts u se i n t h e q ualita tiv e s tu dy o f p ro fe ssio nal pra ctic e, e x am ple s o f w hic h m ay b e f o und i n r e se arc h r e g ard in g p ro fe ssio nal c o m pete n cie s (G onzi e t a l., 1 993) a n d p ro fe ssio nal e x pertis e ( F ook e t a l., 2 000). H ettla g e a n d S te in lin (2 006) r e fe r t o t h e m utu al b en efit f o r b oth r e se arc h er a n d t h e r e se arc h ed o f u sin g t h e C ritic al In cid en t T ech niq ue a s a r e se arc h t o ol, w ith i n te rv ie w ees g ain in g a b ette r u nders ta n din g o f th eir o w n b eh av io urs i n t h e p ro cess o f s tr u ctu re d r e fle ctio n u pon t h eir e x perie n ce w hile pro vid in g t h e i n fo rm atio n s o ught b y t h e i n te rv ie w er. In h ealth c are , t h e C ritic al I n cid en t T ech niq ue i s u se d a s a t o ol t o h elp c lin ic al s ta ff b ette r unders ta n d t h eir p ra ctic e f ro m t h e v ie w poin t o f a v arie ty o f r o le s ( e .g . p hysic ia n , n urs e , clin ic al e d ucato r), a s w ell a s t h ro ugh r e fle ctio n o n t h e h an dlin g o f a m ed ic al e m erg en cy o r a co m mon p ro ble m w ith a p atie n t o r a c o lle ag ue. A s a n a d ult e d ucatio n l e arn in g t o ol, t h e critic al i n cid en t e x erc is e p la y s a d ual r o le , w hic h h as b een b uilt i n to t h e c u rric u lu m o f m an y hum an s e rv ic e p ro gra m s. A n i n div id ual’ s l e arn in g i s e n han ced b y r e fle ctin g u pon t h eir o w n ex perie n ce w hile e x posin g p eers t o a d iv ers ity o f c o nte x ts a n d s itu atio ns, l e arn in g t h ro ugh narra tiv e a n d d ia lo gue w ith e ach o th er: ‘ T he s im ple a ct o f a sk in g a p ers o n t o d esc rib e a n in cid en t t h at w as c ritic al t o t h em e lic its v alu ab le c o ncre te i n fo rm atio n a b out h ow t h at p ers o n ex perie n ces t h eir w orld .’ ( F ook, 1 996: 1 94) The p ro cess o f r e fle ctin g o n t h e i n cid en t i ts e lf i s a l e arn in g e x perie n ce f o r t h at work er/p ers o n. A s w ell, i t p ote n tia lly u nearth s a ll s o rts o f t h eo re tic al a ssu m ptio ns o f w hic h th e w ork er i s n ot a lw ay s a w are , w hic h m ak es i t a p artic u la rly v alu ab le t o ol f o r t e ach in g t h e in te g ra tio n o f t h eo ry a n d p ra ctic e. T he a b ility t o t h in k c ritic ally i s a k ey f a cto r i n r e sp ondin g effe ctiv ely t o t h e c o m ple x ity a n d u ncerta in ty o f t h e h um an s e rv ic es e n vir o nm en t. A c ritic al in cid en t m ay b e: • a n i n cid en t t h at w en t u nusu ally w ell • a n i n cid en t i n w hic h t h in gs d id n ot g o a s p la n ned • a n i n cid en t t h at i s v ery o rd in ary a n d t y pic al • a n i n cid en t t h at w e t h in k c ap tu re s t h e e sse n tia l n atu re o f w hat o ur w ork i s a b out • a n i n cid en t t h at w as p artic u la rly d em an din g. In cre asin g a tte n tio n, b oth l o cally a n d i n te rn atio nally , i s n ow b ein g g iv en t o s itu atio n a n d re sp onse s tr a te g ie s w hen a p artic u la r t y pe o f c ritic al i n cid en t ( s u ch a s n atu ra l d is a ste r o r unfo re se en a cts o f v io le n ce) i m pacts u pon a g ro up, a c o m munity o r a n atio n. Crit ic a l i s su e r eco rd in g A c ritic al i s su e u su ally c o m pris e s f a cto rs s p an nin g a p erio d o f t im e, r e la tin g t o a g ro up o f peo ple , a n o rg an is a tio n o r a c o m munity t h at i s h av in g a s ig nif ic an t i m pact o n o th ers . A critic al i s su e g en era lly a ris e s f ro m i n volv em en t i n a re as s u ch a s p ro gra m p la n nin g, s ta ff 57 tr a in in g, r e se arc h , p olic y e v alu atio n o r c o m munity d ev elo pm en t. I t m ay b e a n i s su e t h at w as partic u la rly c o m ple x , o ne t h at r a is e d c o nflic ts o r d oubts , o r o ne t h at c au se d u s t o r e fle ct u pon ours e lv es o r t h e n atu re o f t h e w ork i n w hic h w e a re e n gag ed , t h e c o ncep ts u pon w hic h w e dra w , o ur v alu es o r o ur r o le i n t h at c o nte x t, r a is in g q uestio ns a b out o ur o blig atio n t o t a k e actio n a n d, i f s o , u nder w hic h a u sp ic es. The m ajo r f a cto rs i n volv ed i n r e fle ctin g u pon t h e e x perie n ce a re : • w hy t h e i n cid en t o r i s su e w as c ritic al t o u s a t t h e t im e • w hat w ere o ur c o ncern s, t h oughts , f e elin gs a n d d em an ds. In ta k e s u m mary Most a g en cie s h av e a s ta n dard p ro -fo rm a d ocu m en t f o r e ffic ie n cy a n d c o nsis te n cy i n in fo rm atio n o bta in ed a t f ir s t p oin t o f c o nta ct w ith s e rv ic e u se rs . H ow ev er, t h e e x te n t a n d dep th o f m ate ria l r e co rd ed v arie s b etw een o rg an is a tio ns, a n d i s d ep en den t o n t h e a g en cy ’s au sp ic e, s ta tu to ry r o le a n d s e rv ic e p ro vis io n. L eg ally , a g en cy r e co rd s a re t h e p ro perty o f t h e em plo yer ( C le ak a n d W ils o n, 2 007: 8 1). Data g en era lly r e q uir e d i n clu des: a g en cy a n d w ork er i d en tif y in g d ata ; d ate ; i d en tif ic atio n (n am e, a d dre ss, f a m ily s ta tu s); r e fe rra l s o urc e; r e aso n f o r r e fe rra l; b ack gro und s u m mary a n d so cia l h is to ry ; p re v io us c o nta ct w ith a g en cy ; s u m mary s ta te m en t o f p re se n tin g s itu atio n; a n d re co m men datio ns. S um mary r e co rd in g a ls o r e fe rs t o p ro gre ss n ote s, i n ta k e s u m marie s a n d re fe rra l r e p orts . Case n ote s Case n ote s a re t h e w ritte n a cco unt o f e ach c o nta ct w ith o r i n r e la tio n t o a s e rv ic e u se r. T hese pro vid e a c h ro nolo gic al r e co rd o f c o m munic atio n, a ctio ns a n d e v en ts t h at m ay n ot b e c o vere d in o th er d ocu m en ta tio n. C ase n ote s s h ould b e b rie f, f a ctu al a n d p ertin en t t o t h e c u rre n t situ atio n o f t h e s e rv ic e u se r ( C le ak , 2 009: 1 5). Case r eco rd s A c ase r e co rd c o nta in s t h e i n fo rm atio n g ain ed , p la n s a g re ed u pon, d ecis io ns m ad e a n d actio ns t a k en . T ay lo r ( 2 008: 2 8) h ig hlig hts t h e e sse n tia l r o le o f c ase -re co rd in g s k ills i n re co rd s t h at i n cre asin gly a re d ocu m en te d v ia I T . T his s ta n dard is e d I T -b ase d s y ste m o f re co rd in g o fte n f a cilita te s i n te r-p ro fe ssio nal s h are d a ccess a n d e n ab le s m ore s y ste m ic c ase ad m in is tr a tio n, i n clu din g a v aila b ility o f m ate ria l f o r l o nger t e rm q uan tita tiv e a n d q ualita tiv e an aly sis . Tab le 4 .2 : C ase r eco rd s Id en tif y in g d ata : n am e, p hon e, ad dress, f a m ily m em bers— gen ogra m • I n itia l a sse ssm en t o f i s su e a n d s itu atio n • I s su es p ers o n/s p re se n t w ith e ach p ers o n’s s tr e n gth s a n d need s In it ia l a n d s u bse q uen t g oals an d o b je ctiv es a n d r ev ie w sc h ed ule • P la n s o f h ow g oals w ill b e a ch ie v ed • T ask s a ssig ned t o w ork er, f a m ily , o th er Refe rra l m ate ria ls 58 Serv ic e a greem en t/ p la n • I d eally d ev elo ped i n c o lla b ora tio n w ith a n d s ig ned b y se rv ic e u se r Case a ctiv it y l o g • D ate , a ctiv ity , c o m men t • R ela te d t o p la n a n d g oals • O nly r e co rd s w hat i s r e le v an t t o t h e i s su e • R eco rd s f a cts b ase d o n e v id en ce a n d o bse rv atio ns, e .g . verb al a n d n onverb al l a n guag e, w hat w as s a id , w hat hap pen ed , w hat y ou s a w Corresp on den ce R ep orts Sourc e: C oste llo , 2 007 With i n cre asin g l e g is la tio n b ein g p asse d r e g ard in g r ig hts a n d p ro fe ssio nal r e sp onsib ilitie s, Je n kin s a n d P otte r ( 2 007: 1 34) h ig hlig ht t h e n eed f o r p ro fe ssio nals t o o bta in t h eir c o nse n t f o r th e r e co rd in g a n d t o i n fo rm t h em o f p ro vis io ns a n d p ro ced ure s r e g ard in g a ccess t o r e co rd s. A critic al f a cto r d ete rm in in g a ccu ra cy o f c ase n ote s i s t h e p erio d b etw een c o m munic atio n w ith th e o th er p artie s a n d d ocu m en ta tio n. C onte n t o f d ia lo gue s h ould b e d ocu m en te d a lm ost im med ia te ly f o r g re ate r a ccu ra cy . Actio n s h eets /a ctiv it y l o gs Actio n s h eets o r a ctiv ity l o gs a re u se fu l t o ols t h at c o m ple m en t c ase n ote s b y d ocu m en tin g a ll th e w ork er a n d t h e s e rv ic e u se r f o cu se d u pon, r e le v an t t a sk s s u ch a s t h e g oals s o ught, activ itie s, o th er p artie s i n volv ed , f u tu re p la n s a n d r e so urc es s o ught/r e q uir e d t o a ch ie v e t h ese . REPO RT-W RIT IN G Ham ilto n ( in C le ak 2 009: 5 1) d esc rib es a r e p ort r e g ard in g s e rv ic e u se rs a s a r e co rd o f t h e pro fe ssio nal a ccu m ula tio n o f i n fo rm atio n, r e fle ctio ns a n d k now le d ge a b out a p ers o n a n d t h eir situ atio n, t o geth er w ith a n a n aly sis a n d a p plic atio n o f t h is k now le d ge i n t h e c o nte x t o f t h e pers o n’s n eed s a n d t h e s e rv ic e s y ste m a v aila b le t o r e sp ond. T he r e p ort f o rm at w ill v ary acco rd in g t o i ts p urp ose a n d o rg an is a tio nal c o nte x t. S haefo r e t a l. ( 2 003) i d en tif y t h ir te en poin ts t h at c o ntr ib ute t o w ard s a q uality r e p ort. T hese a p ply t o r e p orts r e g ard in g i n div id ual se rv ic e u se rs a s w ell a s s y ste m s. 1. S pecif y t h e p urp ose o f t h e r e p ort. 2. D ecid e u pon t h e f o rm at a n d w ritin g s ty le a p pro pria te f o r t h e r e p ort. 3. O rg an is e t h e i n fo rm atio n i n a l o gic al s tr u ctu re w ith h ead in gs a n d s u b-h ead in gs. 4. U se t h e m in im um n um ber o f w ord s t o a d dre ss p urp ose o f r e p ort. 5. U se c le ar, s im ple a n d d ir e ct l a n guag e/te rm in olo gy. 6. S en te n ces s h ould b e s u ccin ct— fif te en t o t w en ty w ord s i s t h e r e co m men ded l e n gth . 7. W here p ossib le , u se t h e a ctiv e v oic e. 8. C onstr u ct p ara g ra p hs a ro und a s in gle i d ea, s ta tin g t h e c en tr a l p oin t i n t h e f ir s t s e n te n ce, t h en fin is h in g w ith a s u m mary o f t h e k ey p oin t i n t h e f in al s e n te n ce. 9. A void l a n guag e t h at i s v ag ue, h azy o r u ncle ar i n m ean in g. 10. A void c lic h és. 11. E nsu re t im e f o r a t l e ast o ne d ra ft a n d, w here p ossib le , o bta in f e ed back f ro m p eers o r a n oth er s ta ff mem ber b efo re s u bm ittin g t o t h e s u perv is o r. 12. W hen u ncerta in o f t h e m ean in g o f w ord s, u se a d ic tio nary . 59 13. M ax im is e t h e u se o f t o ols o n t h e c o m pute r t o e d it, a n d t o c h eck s p ellin g a n d g ra m mar. Cou rt r ep orts In g en era l, a r e p ort f o r t h e C hild re n ’s C ourt s h ould i n clu de: • a n a cco unt o f y our i n volv em en t w ith t h e c h ild o r y oung p ers o n a n d t h e f a m ily ( in clu din g y our o w n dir e ct i n volv em en t o r t h e i n volv em en t o f t h e a g en cy o r s e rv ic e) • a d esc rip tio n o f t h e a b use o r n eg le ct o f t h e c h ild , i f a p pro pria te w ith in y our e x pertis e • a p ro fe ssio nal a sse ssm en t o f t h e f a m ily ’s s itu atio n, t h eir s tr e n gth s a n d w eak nesse s • y our m ajo r c o ncern s a b out t h e c h ild ’s w ellb ein g ( in clu din g p ast, p re se n t a n d f u tu re c o ncern s) • t h e c ap acity a n d w illin gness o f t h e c h ild ’s p are n ts o r c are g iv ers t o c are f o r a n d p ro te ct t h e c h ild i n th e f u tu re . Pro fe ssio nals m ust i n fo rm f a m ilie s t h at a r e p ort i s b ein g w ritte n f o r t h e C hild re n ’s C ourt hearin g, k eep in g t h em i n fo rm ed o f t h e a ctio ns a n d r e aso ns f o r w ritin g t h e r e p ort. The r e p ort w ill b e a d ocu m en t o f t h e C hild re n ’s C ourt a n d i s r e ad b y t h e m ag is tr a te a n d t h e le g al r e p re se n ta tiv es f o r t h e d ep artm en t, t h e c h ild a n d f a m ily . T he c h ild a n d f a m ily w ill a ls o usu ally r e ad t h e r e p ort o r h av e t h e c o nte n ts e x pla in ed t o t h em . B elo w a re f a cto rs s p ecif ic t o co urt r e p orts f ro m N atio nal C en tr e A gain st S ex ual A ssa u lt’ s g uid elin es, i n a d ditio n t o t h e poin ts i d en tif ie d b y S haefo r e t a l. ( 2 003). • P re se n t t h e i n fo rm atio n a s a c h ro nolo gic al a cco unt o f y our i n volv em en t w ith t h e c h ild o r y oung pers o n, u sin g p re cis e d ate s. • D is tin guis h b etw een f a ct a n d p ro fe ssio nal a sse ssm en t. • D ra w o n f a cts a n d l in k t h ese t o y our p ro fe ssio nal k now le d ge, t r a in in g a n d t h eo ry . • P ro vid e e x am ple s t o s u pport y our a sse ssm en ts a n d c o nclu sio ns. F or e x am ple , i f y ou s a y ‘ M ary w as with dra w n’, t h en y ou n eed t o s a y h ow a n d w hy. • D is tin guis h b etw een y our o w n o bse rv atio ns ( fir s t h an d) a n d i n fo rm atio n f ro m o th er s o urc es (h ears a y ). • S ta te y our s o urc es o f i n fo rm atio n. • K eep w ith in y our o w n a re a o f e x pertis e a n d k now le d ge. • S ta te y our c o nclu sio ns a n d r e co m men datio ns a b out t h e f u tu re c are o f t h e c h ild o r y oung p ers o n (a v oid i n tr o ducin g n ew m ate ria l a t t h is p oin t) . • T itle t h e r e p ort ‘ R ep ort t o t h e C hild re n ’s C ourt i n R ela tio n t o ( n am e o f c h ild )’. • I n clu de n am es o f a ll r e le v an t f a m ily m em bers o n t h e t itle p ag e. • S ta te y our r o le , t h e r o le o f y our a g en cy a n d t h e s e rv ic es i t p ro vid es. • S ta te w hen t h e c h ild a n d f a m ily b ecam e i n volv ed w ith y ou a n d y our a g en cy , a n d w hy. • D esc rib e t h e n atu re o f y our i n volv em en t w ith t h e c h ild a n d f a m ily . • D esc rib e t h e n um ber a n d t y pe o f c o nta cts y ou h av e h ad w ith t h e c h ild o r f a m ily i n t h e b ody o f t h e re p ort, o r a tta ch i t a s a n a p pen dix . • S ta te y our c o ncern s f o r t h e c h ild ’s w elf a re a n d t h e b asis f o r t h ese . • D esc rib e t h e s tr e n gth s a n d w eak nesse s o f t h e f a m ily . • S ta te y our c o nclu sio ns a n d, i f a p pro pria te , y our r e co m men datio ns. Som e a g en cie s r e q uir e t h at t h e r e p ort b e s ig ned b y t h e i n div id ual w ork er ( a u th or) a n d co unte r-s ig ned b y t h e w ork er’s s u perv is o r o r a g en cy d ir e cto r. T he e n velo pe s h ould b e mark ed ‘ c o nfid en tia l’ . Pro fe ssio n al l e tte r-w rit in g Hogan ’s ( 2 001) p ro posa l f o r l e tte r-w ritin g a s p art o f t h e c o unse llin g p ro cess i s t h at i t i s a n 60 eth ic ally v alu ab le m ean s o f s h are d r e co rd -k eep in g, t a k in g i n to a cco unt m ore o pen a ccess t o data u nder f re ed om o f i n fo rm atio n ( 2 001: 1 5). T he c o nte n ts o f t h is k in d o f l e tte r i n clu de id en tif y in g d ata ( e .g . n am e, d ate a n d p la ce), r e v ie w o f p re v io us c o nta ct, p oin ts r a is e d , f u tu re goals , p la n s, c o m mitm en t a n d a g re em en ts . M ore f o rm al l e tte rs r e q uir e c are fu l p la n nin g, su ccin ct w ritin g a n d a c le ar s ta te m en t o f t h e s u bje ct- m atte r, p urp ose a n d a c o nta ct p ers o n ( if not t h e w rite r). A s im ple b ut s o m etim es o m itte d f a cto r i n l e tte rs s e n t b y ‘ s n ail m ail’ t h ese day s i s t h e d ate ! Reco rd in g i n te rn et c o m munic a tio n Com munic atio n b y e m ail h as b eco m e a n i n sta n t, s p eed y m ean s o f c o m munic atio n, b lu rrin g th e b oundarie s b etw een i n fo rm al ( p ers o nal) a n d p ro fe ssio nal m essa g es. J o hnso n ( 2 009) id en tif ie s t h re e t y pes o f e m ail: e m ail p ro vid in g i n fo rm atio n; e m ail r e q uestin g i n fo rm atio n; an d e m ail r e q uestin g a ctio n. S en din g s in gle -to pic e m ails o bta in s a s p eed ie r r e sp onse , a v oid s co nfu sio n w hen s o rtin g i n to t h em ed m ailb oxes o r w hen s e arc h in g b y s u bje ct a t a l a te r d ate . The i m porta n ce o f k eep in g p ers o nal a n d p ro fe ssio nal e m ails s e p ara te i s o bvio us— but h ow ofte n h av e w e f a ile d t o a d here t o t h is ? H ow o fte n h av e w e f o rw ard ed e m ails o n t o o th ers with out t h in kin g? W e h av e l ittle c o ntr o l o ver w hat h ap pen s t o o ur m essa g e a fte r i t h as b een se n t. T he b est s a fe g uard i s t o a v oid u sin g e m ail t o c o m munic ate i n fo rm atio n t h at s h ould n ot be m ad e p ublic ( 2 009: 2 2). W hen a tta ch in g a f ile , a lw ay s r e fe r t o i t i n t h e e m ail m essa g e, sta tin g t h e r e aso n f o r s e n din g t h e a tta ch m en t. Effe ctiv e p ro fe ssio nal e m ail c o m munic atio n i s d ep en den t u pon: • t h e p olic ie s a n d p ro ced ure s o f y our o rg an is a tio n • t h e i n te r-a g en cy s y ste m i n o pera tio n • t h e p ers o nal o rg an is a tio n a n d ‘ u se ’ o f e m ails r e ceiv ed a n d s e n t. As p ra ctitio ners , w e a re r e sp onsib le f o r i m ple m en tin g t h e f ir s t t w o f a cto rs . O rg an is a tio nal em ail p olic ie s a n d p ro ced ure s d ev elo ped b y t h e I T s e ctio n o f o ur o rg an is a tio n a n d a u th oris e d by m an ag em en t a re t h ose t o w hic h w e s ig n a g re em en t o n c o m men cin g e m plo ym en t. Jo hnso n’s ( 2 009) g uid elin e a b out a v oid in g s e n din g i n fo rm atio n v ia e m ail t h at s h ould n ot be m ad e p ublic i s h elp fu l. H ow ev er, t h e i n cre asin g d ep en den cy o f o ur h ealth a n d w elf a re sy ste m s u pon s p eed y c o m munic atio n v ia e m ail i n l ie u o f t e le p hone c o nta ct h as n ecessita te d th e d ev elo pm en t o f i n te r-a g en cy s y ste m s f o r t r a n sfe rrin g c o nfid en tia l i n fo rm atio n a b out se rv ic e u se rs a cro ss a g en cie s. A n e x am ple o f t h is i s t h e S erv ic e C oord in atio n o f T ools Tem pla te ( S C oT T) S yste m , u se d b y h ealth s e rv ic es i n V ic to ria . T his i s a d ata b ase -d riv en e – re fe rra l s y ste m a im ed a t s tr e am lin in g a n d c o ord in atin g r e fe rra l p ro cesse s, u sin g s ta n dard docu m en ta tio n. T he d ocu m en ta tio n i n clu des a g re ed -u pon s ta n dard r e fe rra l p ro cesse s, w hic h re q uir e a ck now le d gem en t t h at t h e r e fe rra l h as b een r e ceiv ed a n d f e ed back a b out t h e o utc o m e. Secu rity i n te g ra l t o t h e s y ste m e n su re s l im ite d a ccess t o m ate ria l t r a n sm itte d , g uara n te ein g co nfid en tia lity . A c ritic al c o m ponen t o f t h e s y ste m i s c lie n t c o nse n t. Use o f t h e S C oT T s y ste m a m ong o rg an is a tio ns c o m pris in g t h e S outh W est P rim ary C are Partn ers h ip ( V ic to ria ) h as r e su lte d i n i m pro vem en ts i n t h e c o nte n t o f r e fe rra ls , co nfid en tia lity , m ore e ffic ie n t d ata -c o lle ctio n a n d i n cre ase d s h arin g o f r e le v an t k now le d ge ab out r e fe rra l a n d o utc o m e; i t h as a ls o s tr e n gth en ed i n te r-a g en cy r e la tio ns ( S in nott, 2 007). Alo ngsid e t h is , h ow ev er, i s t h e f ru str a tio n e x perie n ced b y w ork ers d ue t o t h e i n itia l ad ditio nal t im e c o nsu m in g t a sk . The t h ir d f a cto r i n r e g ard t o o ur o rg an is a tio n a n d ‘ u se ’ o f e m ails r e ceiv ed a n d s e n t i s o ur pers o nal/p ro fe ssio nal r e sp onsib ility . R ese arc h i n t h e b usin ess s e cto r ( B en ja m in , 2 008) f o und th at 5 5 p er c en t o f e m plo yers r e ta in a n d r e ad t h eir e m plo yees’ e m ails . M cG hee ( 2 009) 61 re co m men ds f o ur w ay s t o t a k e c o ntr o l o f y our e m ail i n b ox: 1. S et u p a s im ple a n d e ffe ctiv e e m ail r e fe re n ce s y ste m . 2. S ch ed ule u nin te rru pte d t im e t o p ro cess a n d o rg an is e e m ail. 3. P ro cess o ne i te m a t a t im e, s ta rtin g a t t h e t o p. 4. U se t h e ‘ 4 D s f o r D ecis io n M ak in g’ m odel. The ‘ 4 D s f o r D ecis io n M ak in g’ r e fe rs t o t h e c h oic es a v aila b le w hen o pen in g e ach m essa g e —th at i s , d ecid in g w heth er t o : • D ele te i t • D o i t • D ele g ate i t, o r • D efe r i t. McG hee f in ds t h at t h is a p pro ach e n ab le s u s t o h an dle o ur d aily e m ails m ore s p eed ily , t h ere b y en han cin g o ur m in dse t. Snopes.c o m p ro vid es a d vic e t h at i s p artic u la rly r e le v an t t o h um an s e rv ic e p ra ctitio ners re g ard in g m essa g es a b out ‘ w orth y c au se s’ o r ‘ m atte rs o f c o ncern ’ t h at s e ek y our s u pport a n d ask y ou t o f o rw ard t h em o n t o o th ers . T hro ugh t h is p ro cess, t h e h ost s e n der a cq uir e s l is ts o f ‘a ctiv e’ e m ail a d dre sse s, w hic h m ay t h en b e u se d f o r o th er p urp ose s. M ore o ver, e m ail petitio ns a re n ot a ccep ta b le t o g overn m en t. T he s im ple m essa g e i s : d o n ot s ig n, r e sp ond o r fo rw ard e m ails o f t h is k in d. I f y ou a re c o ncern ed a b out t h e n atu re o r s o urc e o f a n e m ail, < www.s n opes.c o m > m ay s h ed l ig ht u pon w heth er t h e m essa g e i s s p am . The i n cre asin g u se o f t e x tin g b etw een w ork ers a n d s e rv ic e u se rs r a is e s q uestio ns a b out o ur re co rd in g r e sp onsib ility f o r i n fo rm atio n c o m munic ate d i n t h is m an ner. W hat a re t h e m eth ods fo r r e co rd in g S M S s e rv ic e u se r c o m munic atio n o n o ur a g en cy d ata b ase s? D o w e n eed dif fe re n t p olic ie s t o r e co rd s e rv ic es p ro vid ed b y a m ed iu m o th er t h an o ur c o nven tio nal f a ce- to -fa ce a n d t e le p hone c o unse llin g ( fo r e x am ple , o nlin e c o unse llin g) t e ch niq ues? Min ute s o f m eetin gs The m in ute s o f a m eetin g a re a n o ffic ia l r e co rd o f w hat t a k es p la ce. T his i n clu des: • a s u m mary o f t h e d ate , t im es t h at t h e m eetin g b eg in s a n d e n ds a n d m eetin g v en ue • t h e n am es o f a ll p eo ple p re se n t a n d a p olo gie s r e ceiv ed • k ey p oin ts r e g ard in g a ll i te m s d is c u sse d ( w heth er o n t h e a g en da o r n ot) • m otio ns a n d w ho m ad e t h em , h ig hlig htin g a ctio ns a g re ed u pon, w ith t h e n am es o f t h ose r e sp onsib le fo r i m ple m en ta tio n • i te m s d efe rre d a n d m otio ns f o r f u rth er d is c u ssio n— th ese s h ould b e n ote d t o a g en da a t t h e n ex t meetin g • t h e d ate f o r n ex t m eetin g. It i s w is e t o p re p are a d ra ft a s s o on a s p ossib le a fte r t h e m eetin g. W hen r e p ortin g o n l e n gth y or c o m ple x d is c u ssio ns, i t i s a g ood i d ea f o r t h e s u perv is o r o r a c o lle ag ue p re se n t a t t h e meetin g t o r e ad t h e m in ute s b efo re d is tr ib utio n. Subm is sio n -w rit in g The g uid elin es a n d a p plic atio n f o rm s o f t h e p ote n tia l f u ndin g o rg an is a tio n a re t h e s ta rtin g poin t f o r a n y s u bm is sio n-w ritin g. A n e sse n tia l c o m ponen t i n t h e a p plic atio n, o r a tta ch ed , i s 62 an o rg an is a tio nal s ta te m en t ( n o m ore t h an o ne p ag e). T his s h ould i n clu de: • o rg an is a tio n m is sio n a n d p urp ose • o rig in s o f o rg an is a tio n • c u rre n t o pera tio ns • f u tu re v is io n • s tr u ctu re o f o rg an is a tio n • a d m in is tr a tiv e p ro ced ure s • f in an cia l p ro cesse s. Mate ria l t o s u pport t h e n eed f o r f u ndin g c o uld i n clu de r e p orts ( e .g . a n nual r e p ort) , A GM min ute s, s u rv ey r e su lts o r a p ro gra m f ly er. G uid elin es f o r r e p ort- w ritin g a re g en era lly ap plic ab le t o s u bm is sio n-w ritin g, t h e m ajo r d if fe re n ce b ein g t h at i n a s u bm is sio n o ne i s se ek in g f u nds f o r a p ro gra m o r r e se arc h t h at i s s till a n i d ea, f o r e v alu atin g a n ew s e rv ic e o r dev elo pin g a lte rn ativ e w ay s o f a d dre ssin g l o cal n eed s. T he f o llo w in g s u bm is sio n-w ritin g guid elin es a re f ro m t h e C om monw ealth D ep artm en t o f H ealth a n d A gein g ( 2 006): • S ta rt w ith a d esc rip tio n o f t h e i m petu s o f t h e s u bm is sio n. W here d id i t c o m e f ro m — a p ublic meetin g, t h e o utc o m es o f a r e se arc h p ro je ct, a n a d vertis e m en t i n t h e p ap er? • S ta te t h e n atu re a n d d im en sio ns o f t h e p ro ble m t h at a s u ccessfu l s u bm is sio n w ill a d dre ss— pro vid e cle ar a n d c o ncre te i n fo rm atio n. D esc rib e y our u nders ta n din g o f t h e c au se o f t h e ‘ p ro ble m ’ a n d w hat th e ‘ p ro ble m ’ i s — ex pla in h ow y ou i d en tif y t h is c au se – effe ct r e la tio nsh ip . • I n dic ate s u pportin g e v id en ce, i n clu din g r e se arc h r e p orts , c u rre n t b est p ra ctic e, p olic y g uid elin es. • D esc rib e h ow t h e ‘ p ro ble m ’ i s c u rre n tly d ealt w ith , h ow a d eq uate t h ese a p pro ach es a re a n d t h eir defic ie n cie s. • E xpla in t h e p ossib le a lte rn ativ e c o urs e s o f a ctio n, t h eir b en efits a n d d efic its . • S ta te c le arly w hat y our p ro posa l i s a n d h ow i t w ill a d dre ss t h e p ro ble m — desc rib e t h e p ro pose d meth ods a n d w hat w ill b e a ch ie v ed . • I n dic ate c le arly h ow t h e s e rv ic e/p ro je ct w ill b e m onito re d a n d e v alu ate d . • D esc rib e t h e o rg an is a tio nal a n d a cco unta b ility s tr u ctu re s. • I n dic ate w ho w ill b e r e sp onsib le f o r w hat. • D esc rib e h ow a n d w hen r e p orts — sa y , t o a f u ndin g b ody— will b e d eliv ere d . • D esc rib e t h e r e q uir e d b udget. • C re ate a s c h ed ule o f t a sk s a n d c o m ple tio n d ate s. • S ta te t h e c o nta ct d eta ils o f y our r e fe re es. • G iv e t h e d eta ils f o r t h e c o nta ct p ers o n f o r t h e s u bm is sio n. Med ia r ele a se s Ross ( 2 004) p ro vid es t h e f o llo w in g c o m pre h en siv e g uid e t o w ritin g a m ed ia r e le ase , ex am ple s o f w hic h h av e b een a d ap te d t o t h e h um an s e rv ic es f ie ld . T he p urp ose o f a m ed ia re le ase i s t o p ro vid e n ew sw orth y i n fo rm atio n t o t h e m ed ia a b out r e cen t o r c o m in g e v en ts — fo r e x am ple , t h e o pen in g o f t h e l o cal y outh -m an ag ed c o m munity c afé — in t h e h ope t h at t h ey will r u n t h e s to ry . T his i n fo rm atio n s h ould b e p ro vid ed i n w ritin g r a th er t h an v erb ally , t o min im is e t h e c h an ce o f m is ta k es. The m ed ia r e le ase s h ould b e b rie f a n d t o t h e p oin t. O ne p ag e i s r e co m men ded ( b ack gro und in fo rm atio n, p hoto s, e tc . c an b e a tta ch ed s e p ara te ly ), s ta rtin g w ith t h e m ain p oin ts , u sin g b old te x t t o m ak e i t e asy f o r t h e j o urn alis t t o e x tr a ct t h e m ost i m porta n t p oin ts . I t m ust b e co nsis te n t a n d a ccu ra te , w ith d ate s, t im es a n d n um bers . A m ed ia r e le ase s h ould a n sw er t h e fo llo w in g q uestio ns: W ho? W hat? W hen ? W here ? W hy? H ow ? H ow m uch ? H ow m an y? A nd how d o p eo ple a ccess i t? T o m ak e t h e s to ry ‘ n ew sw orth y’, i t n eed s t o b e t o pic al/tim ely , politic ally /e co nom ic ally s ig nif ic an t, a ty pic al, o f h um an i n te re st a n d h eart- w arm in g. U se 63 quote s t o l iv en u p t h e s to ry , t a k in g i n to a cco unt t h e t o ne/s ty le o f t h e p ublic atio n t o w hic h y ou are s e n din g t h e m ed ia r e le ase a n d w ho w ill b e t h e r e ad ers . Read t h e t a rg ete d p ublic atio ns t o i d en tif y t h e r e le v an t e d ito rs a n d j o urn alis ts , d ev elo pin g a med ia l is t t h at i s a p pro pria te t o o ur o rg an is a tio n. T he m ed ia r e le ase s h ould b e s e n t t o ‘ T he Edito r’ ( p re fe ra b ly b y n am e). M ed ia r e le ase s m ay b e s e n t b y f a x o r e m ail, b ut a h ard c o py with a n y p hoto gra p hs o r o th er e n clo su re s s h ould f o llo w . I t i s i m porta n t t o c h eck d ead lin es, esp ecia lly f o r m onth ly o r w eek ly p ublic atio ns, b ut t o a v oid s e n din g i t t o o f a r i n a d van ce o f th e e v en t. A f o llo w -u p c all a f e w d ay s a fte r s e n din g t h e m ed ia r e le ase i s a g ood i d ea, t o double c h eck t h at i t h as b een r e ceiv ed b y t h e r ig ht p ers o n, a n d w heth er a n y f u rth er in fo rm atio n i s r e q uir e d ; t h is a ls o a cts a s a r e m in der. CO NCLU SIO N Hum an s e rv ic e w ork ers r e q uir e a d iv ers ity o f w ritin g s k ills i n p ro vid in g s e rv ic e t o i n div id uals an d r a is in g c o m munity a w are n ess a b out s h are d i s su es. R eco rd in g a n d r e p ort- w ritin g a re critic al c o m ponen ts o f t h is w ork . Chap te r r ev ie w q uestio n s 4.1 W hy a re r e co rd in g a n d r e p ort- w ritin g c ritic al c o m ponen ts o f o ur w ork i n h um an s e rv ic es? 4.2 W hat m ajo r l e g is la tio n i m pacts u pon o ur r e co rd in g a n d r e p ort- w ritin g? 4.3 W hat t y pes o f r e co rd s a re e sse n tia l w hen c o m munic atin g w ith s e rv ic e u se rs ? 4.4 H ow m ig ht r e cen t d ev elo pm en ts i n i n fo rm atio n t e ch nolo gy a n d r e la te d l e g is la tio n a ffe ct our r e co rd in g? 4.5 W hat o th er t y pes o f w ritin g a re u se fu l f o r o ur o rg an is a tio nal a n d c o m munity r o le s? OTH ER R ESO URCES The O wl a t P urd ue ( P urd ue O nlin e W ritin g L ab ), < http ://o w l.e n glis h .p urd ue.e d u/s ite m ap >. Rep ort W ritin g ( C en tr a l Q ueen sla n d U niv ers ity ) < www.d tls .c q u.e d u.a u /c lc /2 _1_3.h tm l >. How t o w rite r e p orts i n p la in E nglis h , < www.p la in en glis h .c o .u k/r e p orts g uid e.p df >. AASW C ode o f E th ic s 1 999, < www.a asw .a sn .a u /d ocu m en t/ite m /9 2 >. The P ra ctic e S ta n dard s f o r S ocia l W ork ers : A ch ie v in g O utc o m es, A ASW , 2 003, 1 .6 a n d 1 .7 , < www.a asw .a sn .a u /d ocu m en t/ite m /1 6 >. Snopes, < www.s n opes.c o m > a n d/o r < www.t r u th orfic tio n.c o m >; < www.s n opes.c o m /in boxer/p etitio n/I n te rn et.a sp >. 64 C H APT ER F IV E In fo rm atio n d ev elo p m en t a n d m an agem en t i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio n s S U M MARY T his c h ap te r i s d esig ned t o a ssis t s tu den ts a n d n ew w ork ers a p pre cia te w hy i n fo rm atio n d ev elo pm en t a n d m an ag em en t— esp ecia lly t h at u nderta k en b y a n o rg an is a tio n’s m an ag em en t t e am — is i m porta n t. W e a ck now le d ge t h at p eo ple w ork in g a t t h e f ro nt l in e o f h um an s e rv ic es p ra ctic e o fte n f e el t h at r e co rd in g a n d o th er f o rm s o f i n fo rm atio n g en era tio n d etr a ct f ro m t h eir c ap acity t o p ro vid e m uch -n eed ed a ssis ta n ce t o t h eir c lie n ts . N ev erth ele ss, t h e c h ap te r o utlin es a n um ber o f r e aso ns w hy i t c an not b e i g nore d . W e d is c u ss t h e d if fe re n t t y pes o f d ata t h at o rg an is a tio ns m ig ht g en era te , i llu str a te t h e s te p s i n volv ed i n d ev elo pin g a m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m , o utlin e q uestio ns w ork ers m ig ht l ik e t o a sk i n a n y s u ch d ev elo pm en t p ro cess, a n d e x pose t h e s o cia l d im en sio ns o f m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m s. R etu rn in g t o c o nte x t, t h e c h ap te r d is c u sse s t h e s p ecif ic d if fic u ltie s p ose d t o c o m munity -b ase d , n on-p ro fit o rg an is a tio ns i n t h e c o nte m pora ry m ix ed e co nom y o f w elf a re . W e f in is h w ith a n od t o t h e f u tu re , t h e d ev elo pm en t o f k now le d ge m an ag em en t— a f ie ld o f a ctiv ity d is tin ct f ro m i n fo rm atio n m an ag em en t. I N TR O DUCTIO N N ot s u rp ris in gly , p eo ple w ork in g i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns a re v ery c o m mitte d t o t h eir w ork a n d t o t h e v uln era b le p eo ple w ith w hom t h ey w ork . B ecau se o f t h is , h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers c an b eco m e v ery f ru str a te d w ith a n y o rg an is a tio nal i m pera tiv e t h at d ir e cts t h eir a tte n tio n a w ay f ro m t h eir s e rv ic e u se rs . T his i s p artic u la rly t h e c ase i n r e la tio n t o t h e t im e s p en t r e co rd in g i n fo rm atio n f o r m an ag em en t. O fte n , w ork ers c h alle n ge t h e u tility o f t h e i n fo rm atio n t h ey i n put i n to m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m s, p artic u la rly w hen t h ey a re o ver-s tr e tc h ed a n d a w are o f t h e u nre le n tin g d em an d f o r t h eir s e rv ic es. S om etim es, t h ey a re c o ncern ed t h at t h e d em an ds o f s u ch s y ste m s ( in t e rm s o f w hat a ctiv itie s c o unt a s ‘ d ata ’) o verly d ete rm in e t h e c o nto urs o f t h eir a ctu al p ra ctic es. I n s u ch s itu atio ns, i t i s v ery i m porta n t t o b e c le ar a b out w hy o rg an is a tio ns a sk w ork ers t o d o c erta in t h in gs, a n d i n t h is c ase w hy d ev elo pin g a n d c o lle ctin g i n fo rm atio n i s a v ery i m porta n t p art o f g ood o rg an is a tio nal p ra ctic e a n d g overn an ce. Our f ir s t a rg um en t r e la te s t o a c o re p ro fe ssio nal s k ill t h at w e h ope a ll h um an s e rv ic e 65 work ers d ev elo p— th e c ap acity t o b e c ritic ally r e fle ctiv e a b out t h eir w ork o vera ll a n d t h eir en gag em en t w ith s e rv ic e u se rs i n p artic u la r. W e s u ggest t h at d ev elo pin g a n d r u nnin g man ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m s i s t h e b usin ess e n d o f c ritic al r e fle ctiv ity , b ut i n t h is c ase a t th e l e v el o f t h e p ro gra m a n d t h e o rg an is a tio n. W hat d o w e m ean b y t h is ? A ll h um an s e rv ic e org an is a tio ns h av e a n e th ic al o blig atio n t o p ro vid e t h e v ery b est s e rv ic e t h ey c an . T o d o s o , th ey n eed t o b e a b le t o s ta n d b ack f ro m t h e h urly b urly o f e v ery day p ra ctic e a n d l o ok critic ally a t w hat i s g oin g o n b eh in d t h e d oor a t t h e b ack o f t h e r e cep tio n d esk . M an ag ers a n d sta ff a ll h av e t o c o ntr ib ute t o a n o ngoin g c y cle o f e v alu atio n, l o okin g c are fu lly a t w heth er t h e fro nt- lin e p ra ctic es o f s ta ff i n volv ed i n d eliv erin g p ro gra m s a re a ch ie v in g t h e d esir e d outc o m es. I n o th er w ord s, p ro gra m e v alu atio n ( a n d o th er f o rm s o f a sse ssin g a n o rg an is a tio n’s perfo rm an ce) i s a p ro fe ssio nal d uty . I n fo rm atio n a b out t h e s e rv ic e, n ot s u rp ris in gly , i s t h e basic u nit o f e v alu atio n. The C ode o f E th ic s d ev elo ped b y t h e A ustr a lia n A sso cia tio n o f S ocia l W ork ers , f o r ex am ple , s ta te s t h at: Socia l W ork ers s h ould a ppro pria te ly c h alle n ge a nd w ork t o i m pro ve p olic ie s, p ro ced ure s, p ra ctic es and s e rv ic e p ro vis io ns w hic h : • are n ot i n t h e b est i n te re sts o f t h e s e rv ic e u se r • are i n eq uita ble • are i n a ny w ay o ppre ssiv e, d is e m pow erin g o r c u ltu ra lly i n appro pria te • dem onstr a te u nfa ir d is c rim in atio n. ( A ASW , 2 002: 3 1) Alth ough c o uch ed i n a s lig htly d if fe re n t m an ner, t h e e th ic al i m pera tiv e i s n ev erth ele ss c le ar: so cia l w ork ers i n p artic u la r m ust w ork t o i m pro ve p olic ie s, p ro ced ure s, p ra ctic es a n d s e rv ic e pro vis io n. W e s u ggest t h at a s im ila r i m pera tiv e i s p ose d t o a ll h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers , n ot ju st s o cia l w ork ers . T o d o t h is , w ork ers ( a n d m an ag ers , w ho w ill n o d oubt h av e s im ila r co m mitm en ts t o f ro nt- lin e s ta ff) m ust b e p re p are d t o e n gag e i n p ro gra m a n d o rg an is a tio nal ‘c ritic al r e fle x iv ity ’— or, i n t e ch nic al l a n guag e, e v alu atio n. F urth er, a s a k ey a u th or o n ev alu atio n s u ggests , o ur f o cu s o n e v alu atio n a n d o n t h e i n fo rm atio n-c o lle ctio n s y ste m s a n d pro cesse s t h at i n fo rm e v alu atio ns s h ould n ot b e v ie w ed a s a n i m positio n, b ut a s a n opportu nity ( G in sb erg , 2 001). A s e co nd r e aso n f o r p ay in g a tte n tio n t o i n fo rm atio n d ev elo pm en t a n d m an ag em en t i s t h at all h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns a re , a s w e s u ggeste d i n Chap te r 3 , c u rre n tly c au ght u p i n a bro ad er m ovem en t a ffe ctin g t h e e n tir e s p an o f i n te re sts a n d a ctiv itie s o f g overn m en ts — th e ev id en ce-b ase d p olic y a n d p ra ctic e m ovem en t. O ccu rrin g o n a b ro ad er s c ale t h an t h e h um an se rv ic es, t h e r e n ais sa n ce o f e v id en ce i n t h e c o nte m pora ry e ra i s e n tir e ly c o ngru en t w ith t h e tim es. I ts e m erg en ce h as b een s p urre d b y a r a n ge o f o bje ctiv es, t h e m ost i n tu itiv ely co m pellin g o f w hic h a re e th ic al i n i n te n t. I n s im ila r v ein t o o ur c o m men ts a b ove, t h e pro m otio n o f p ra ctitio ner a cco unta b ility t o p eo ple w ho u se h um an s e rv ic es, a s w ell a s t o oth er r e le v an t b odie s, i s v ig oro usly a d van ced a s a k ey r e aso n w hy h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers i n partic u la r s h ould e m bra ce e v id en ce-b ase d p ra ctic e ( s e e G am brill 2 003; R ose n 2 003). An i m porta n t ( a lth ough n ot a s c le arly a ck now le d ged ) i m petu s a ls o a ris e s f ro m t h e d esir e t o co unte r t h e i n cre asin gly p re cario us i m ag e o f w elf a re i n t h e ( u nfrie n dly ) N ew P ublic Man ag em en t- in sp ir e d s ta te . E sse n tia lly , e v id en ce-b ase d p ra ctic e p ro pose s t h at h um an s e rv ic e in te rv en tio n k now le d ge s h ould b e d ev elo ped t h ro ugh t h e a p plic atio n o f ( fo r t h e m ost p art) so und e v alu atio n a n d r e se arc h m eth ods, a n d t h at i n div id ual a n d o rg an is a tio nal p ra ctic e sh ould b e b ase d o n t h e b est a v aila b le e v id en ce. O bvio usly , u nderta k in g e v alu atio n a n d re se arc h a b out t h e e ffic acy a n d i m pact o f a n o rg an is a tio n’s p ro gra m s a n d i n te rv en tio ns re q uir e s i n fo rm atio n a b out a n o rg an is a tio n’s a ctiv itie s a n d t h ose o f i ts e m plo yees. Fin ally , a n oth er v ery g ood r e aso n t o t a k e t h e c o lle ctio n o f i n fo rm atio n s e rio usly i s t h at i t i s 66 a r e q uir e m en t o f f u ndin g b odie s— be t h ey g overn m en ts o r p hila n th ro pic b odie s. T hese d ay s, a hum an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio n w ould n ot b e g ra n te d f u nds u nle ss i t c o uld p ro vid e a n i n -d ep th an d a ccu ra te p ic tu re o f w hat i t d oes. S im ila rly , a ll f u ndin g c o ntr a cts r e q uir e a cco unta b ility becau se t h e f u ndin g i ts e lf c o m es f ro m t a x pay ers o r d onors . C onte m pora ry f u ndin g b odie s assu m e t h at h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns h av e p ro fe ssio nal i n fo rm atio n-m an ag em en t sy ste m s, a n d a ssu m e t h at t h eir s ta ff e n gag e w ith t h ese p ro activ ely . So w hy d o h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers r e act n eg ativ ely t o e n gag in g i n d ata -c o lle ctio n f o r in fo rm atio n-m an ag em en t s y ste m s? B urto n a n d v an d en B ro ek ( 2 006) p ro vid e a n um ber o f re aso ns t h at t h ey d is c o vere d w hen t a lk in g t o h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers i n Q ueen sla n d a n d N ew South W ale s. O ne i m porta n t r e aso n o fte n s ta te d b y w ork ers i s t h at t h ey a re f e arfu l man ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m s m ig ht c o m pro m is e s e rv ic e u se r c o nfid en tia lity . T here a re tw o i s su es h ere . F ir s t, w ork ers c an b e w orrie d t h at f u ndin g b odie s m ig ht r e q uir e t o o m uch pote n tia lly i d en tif y in g d ata o n t h e p eo ple w ith w hom o rg an is a tio ns w ork . S eco nd, w ork ers ofte n d o n ot h av e c o nfid en ce i n t h eir o w n o rg an is a tio n’s h an dlin g o f t h e d ata . B urto n a n d v an den B ro ek c ite , f o r e x am ple , a f a m ily t h era p is t’ s c o ncern s i n r e la tio n t o l o cal d ata b ein g m ad e accessib le t o o th er s ite s i n t h e o rg an is a tio n: It h orrifie s m e b eca use I s till d on’t k n ow w here o ur c o m pute ris e d s e rv ic e u se rs’ f ile s w ill b e l iv in g . . . W e k eep a ll o ur r e co rd s o n c o m pute r . . . That’ s f in e a t t h e m om en t b eca use w e k n ow w here o ur stu ff g oes a nd w e k n ow w ho h as a ccess t o i t . . . S o w e a ctu ally h ave s o m e c o ntr o l o ver t h e p riv a cy o f our s e rv ic e u se rs . . . W ith t h e n ew s y ste m i t s e em s t o m e t h at e very th in g w e p ut o n t h at s y ste m i s goin g t o b e k ep t i n h ea d o ffic e. ( 2 006: 6 ) Burto n a n d v an d en B ro ek a ls o n ote t h at h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers a re v ery a ttu ned t o t h e u se o f man ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m s i n m an ag in g r is k — be i t o rg an is a tio nal r is k o r r is k a s i t i s perc eiv ed b y t h e f u ndin g b ody. U nfo rtu nate ly , a s P ow er ( 1 997) s u ggests , r is k a n d t h e n eed t o man ag e i t a re u biq uito us i n t h e c o nte m pora ry e ra . W e u se t h e w ord ‘ u nfo rtu nate ly ’ delib era te ly h ere b ecau se m uch c o nte m pora ry r is k m an ag em en t i n h um an s e rv ic e org an is a tio ns i s n ot n ecessa rily r e la te d t o e n su rin g g ood s e rv ic e u se r o utc o m es, b ut r a th er i s more r e la te d t o m an ag in g t h e p olitic al r is k o f f a ilu re . Anoth er r e aso n w hy h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers m ig ht b e w ary o f m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n sy ste m s a n d e v alu atio ns i s s im ply t h at t h e l a n guag e a n d l o gic t h ey d ep lo y i s u nfa m ilia r. L ook at t h e c ase s tu dy o pposite . DATA A ND I N FO RM ATIO N In t h e c o nte m pora ry c o nte x t, v ir tu ally a ll h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns a re r e q uir e d t o d ev elo p good m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m s i f t h ey w is h t o r e ceiv e g overn m en t f u nds. I n V ic to ria , fo r e x am ple , a ll o rg an is a tio ns p ro vid in g f a m ily s e rv ic es a re r e q uir e d t o r e g is te r w ith t h e s ta te govern m en t u nder t h e Child re n , Y outh a nd F am ilie s A ct 2 005. P art o f t h e r e g is tr a tio n sta n dard s i n volv es t h e d ev elo pm en t o f a m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m a n d o ver t h e p ast decad e t h ese h av e b eco m e i n cre asin gly m ore s o phis tic ate d . O ur p urp ose i n t h is s e ctio n o f t h e ch ap te r i s t o h elp y ou b eg in t o u nders ta n d t h e d im en sio ns o f s u ch s y ste m s, a n d w hat t h ey a re tr y in g t o a ch ie v e. I n t h is w ay , w e h ope t o h elp h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers e n gag e p ro ductiv ely with t h em w hile r e co gnis in g t h at m ost w ork ers w ill n ot b e i n volv ed i n t h eir d esig n. Case s tu dy: P ro gra m e v alu atio n Ja n , a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er m an ag in g a n ew c o unse llin g p ro gra m f o r v ic tim s o f d is a ste rs , w as ask ed t o p artic ip ate i n t h e d ev elo pm en t o f a n e v alu atio n f o r t h e p ro gra m . T he e v alu atio n w as 67 co m mis sio ned b y t h e a u sp ic in g o rg an is a tio n i n p artn ers h ip w ith a u niv ers ity . T he u niv ers ity peo ple w ould a ctu ally r u n t h e e v alu atio n. T hese p eo ple w ere p ro fe ssio nal e v alu ato rs . T he m eetin g Ja n w as a sk ed t o a tte n d w as i n te n ded t o o utlin e t h e d esig n o f t h e e v alu atio n, a n d i t w as d ete rm in ed th at J a n ’s i n put w as i m porta n t. T he u niv ers ity p eo ple b eg an b y p ro m ptin g J a n t o t a lk a b out t h e pro gra m . N ot l o ng i n to t h e d is c u ssio n, t h ey a sk ed h er w hat t h e p ro gra m ’s l o gic m odel w as. J a n was c o nfu se d . S he d id n ot u nders ta n d w hat t h ey w ere a sk in g a n d s h e f e lt q uite i n ad eq uate . A fte r so m e t im e, s h e w ork ed o ut t h at t h ey w ere a sk in g h er t o n om in ate t h e h um an s e rv ic e p ra ctic e th eo rie s a n d k now le d ge t h e c o unse llin g p ro gra m u se d . I n t h is c ase , t h e p ra ctic e t h eo ry w as s h ort- te rm c ris is i n te rv en tio n, l o nger t e rm c ase m an ag em en t w here a p pro pria te , a n d k now le d ge o f peo ple ’s r e actio ns t o l o ss, g rie f a n d t r a u m a, a s w ell a s s ta g es o f r e co very . B ut i t t o ok s o m e e ffo rt fo r t h is t o b eco m e c le ar. Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s • H ow w ould y ou r e act i f s o m eo ne t a lk ed t o y ou l ik e t h is ? • W ho h as t h e p ro ble m h ere — Ja n o r t h e e v alu ato rs ? • W hy w ould t h e e v alu ato rs n eed t o k now t h e l o gic m odel ( p ra ctic e t h eo ry a n d k now le d ge)? • W hat l in ks d o y ou t h in k t h ere a re b etw een p ra ctic e t h eo rie s a n d k now le d ge, a n d m an ag em en t in fo rm atio n s y ste m s? Kettn er ( 2 002), o ne o f t h e l e ad in g a u th ors i n m an ag in g h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns, su ggests t h at o rg an is a tio ns n eed t w o t y pes o f i n fo rm atio n: i n fo rm atio n a b out t h e exte rn al en vir o nm en t a n d i n fo rm atio n a b out t h e o rg an is a tio n’s in te rn al p ro cesse s . S ev era l t y pes o f in fo rm atio n a b out t h e e x te rn al e n vir o nm en t a re r e le v an t. T hese c an b e r e fra m ed a s q uestio ns. We s u ggest t h at r e ad ers u se t h ese q uestio ns a t t h is b eg in nin g s ta g e o f t h in kin g a b out t h e in fo rm atio n n eed s o f a n o rg an is a tio n w ith w hic h t h ey a re f a m ilia r. A cco rd in gly , i n Tab le 5 .1 we h av e m odif ie d t h e o rig in al q uestio ns d ev elo ped b y K ettn er f o r u se i n a s im ple e x erc is e . Tab le 5 .1 : I d en tif y in g r ele v an t c a te g orie s o f e x te rn al i n fo rm atio n , p art 1 Questio n Answ ers What i n fo rm atio n d o o ur fu ndin g b odie s w an t? What i n fo rm atio n d o o ur re g ula to rs o r a ccre d ito rs wan t? What i n fo rm atio n d o w e wan t a b out o ur co m munity ? What i n fo rm atio n d o w e wan t a b out o ur s e rv ic e use rs ? What i n fo rm atio n d o w e wan t a b out o ur l o cal se rv ic e d eliv ery s y ste m ? Look a t t h e a n sw ers y ou g en era te d i n t h ese l a st t w o c ate g orie s i n Tab le 5 .1 . H ow w ould th is i n fo rm atio n n eed t o b e t r a n sla te d i n to a m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m ? W ith r e g ard t o se rv ic e u se rs , c o lle ctin g i n fo rm atio n a b out t h e c h ara cte ris tic s o f s e rv ic e u se rs a t i n ta k e i s t h e basic b uild in g b lo ck o f k now in g h ow r e sp onsiv e t h e o rg an is a tio n i s t o t h e n eed s o f l o cal 68 peo ple . W ith r e g ard t o t h e s e rv ic e d eliv ery s y ste m , a m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m s h ould cap tu re t h e o rg an is a tio n’s p atte rn s o f r e fe rra ls — both s u ccessfu l a n d u nsu ccessfu l. I f, f o r ex am ple , a n oth er o rg an is a tio n s y ste m atic ally r e fu se s r e fe rra ls , t h en t h e r e fe rrin g org an is a tio n’s m an ag em en t n eed s t o a d dre ss t h is i n w hate v er w ay i s c o nsid ere d a p pro pria te . As p re v io usly s u ggeste d , K ettn er ( 2 002) s u ggests t h at t h ere a re s ig nif ic an t t y pes o f i n te rn al in fo rm atio n t h at o rg an is a tio ns n eed f o r m an ag em en t, a d m in is tr a tiv e a n d s u perv is o ry purp ose s. M ost o rg an is a tio ns, f o r e x am ple , w ill h av e a v is io n e m bed ded i n t h eir s tr a te g ic pla n . T hat p la n w ill a ls o n om in ate c y cle s o f r e v ie w a n d e v alu atio n. I n te rn al o rg an is a tio nal in fo rm atio n i s v ita l i n t h ese p ro cesse s, b ecau se w ith out i t a n o rg an is a tio n c an not t e ll w heth er or n ot i t i s p ro gre ssin g t o w ard s i ts v is io n. F urth erm ore , i t c an not t e ll w heth er i t i s b ein g effic ie n t, m uch l e ss e ffe ctiv e, o r w heth er i t i s t a rg etin g i ts u ndoubte d ly s c arc e r e so urc es ap pro pria te ly . A gain , r e v is in g K ettn er’s s u ggestio ns, Tab le 5 .2 p re se n ts s o m e q uestio ns worth c o nsid erin g. Tab le 5 .2 : I d en tif y in g r ele v an t c a te g orie s o f i n te rn al i n fo rm atio n , p art 2 Questio n Answ ers What f a cto rs n eed t o b e tr a ck ed t o a sse ss ach ie v em en t o f org an is a tio nal p urp ose ? How m ig ht t h ese f a cto rs be m easu re d ? What a re t h e p erfo rm an ce re q uir e m en ts f o r o ne div is io n, s e ctio n o r pro gra m i n t h e org an is a tio n? What s o rt o f d ata w ould ev alu ate t h ese perfo rm an ce re q uir e m en ts ? How c an t h at d ata b e co lle cte d ? While t h e q uestio ns i n Tab le 5 .2 a re v ery s im ple , t h ey d em onstr a te t h at q uite a l o t o f d ata is n ecessa ry t o m eet e v en t h e b asic i n fo rm atio n n eed s o f h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns. O ne o f th e h ard est t h in gs t o d o w hen d ev elo pin g a m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m i s t o c ap tu re su ffic ie n t d ata t o s e rv e s e n sib le p urp ose s w ith out g oin g i n to i n fo rm atio n o verlo ad . A s s u ch , man ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m s s h ould b e s tr e am lin ed . T he o th er k ey c h alle n ge i s t o dev elo p t h e s y ste m i n s u ch a w ay t h at w ork ers a t t h e d ata -c o lle ctio n i n te rfa ce c an e asily unders ta n d t h e u tility o f t h e d ata f o r t h e o rg an is a tio n b ut a ls o , i m porta n tly , f o r t h em se lv es. Such s y ste m s a re o fte n d ev elo ped i n l a y ers . A t t h e c o re w ill b e w hat R ap p a n d P oertn er (1 992) ( c ite d i n K ettn er, 2 002: 1 62) c all t h e ‘ p erfo rm an ce g uid an ce s y ste m ’— data o n a ll t h e se rv ic e u se rs s e rv ic ed b y t h e o rg an is a tio n; t h e p ro gra m s w ith in t h e o rg an is a tio n s e rv in g t h e se rv ic e u se rs ; t h e v olu m e, r a te a n d t y pe o f s e rv ic e u se r e n gag em en t w ith p ro gra m s i n t h e org an is a tio n, p lu s a n y o utc o m e v aria b le s ( if t h ese a re a v aila b le ). A s w e w ill d is c u ss i n t h e nex t s e ctio n, t h is l a st t y pe o f d ata i s q uite c o nte n tio us i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es. 69 As w ell a s t h e c o re p ro gra m g uid an ce s y ste m , a t y pic al m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m will h av e s e co ndary s y ste m s f o cu sin g o n t h e i n fo rm atio n n eed ed f o r h um an r e so urc e man ag em en t. N ot s u rp ris in gly , a ll t h e p arts o f a m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m n eed t o b e in te g ra te d s o t h at d if fe re n t p arts c an b e i n te rro gate d i n d if fe re n t w ay s, d ep en din g o n t h e questio n b ein g a sk ed . TH E C O NCEPT S B EH IN D M ANAG EM EN T I N FO RM ATIO N SY ST EM S In t h e c h ap te r’s i n tr o ducto ry c o m men ts , w e s u ggeste d t h at h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers o fte n r e sis t en gag em en t w ith m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m s. I n 2 005, C arrilio e x am in ed t h e man ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m s i n t w o U S h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns. S he f o und t h at t h e fa cto rs w hic h a ffe cte d h ow s ta ff r e sp onded t o t h e s y ste m s w ere o rg an is a tio nal c u ltu re , le ad ers h ip , t h e e x te n t t o w hic h t h e s y ste m i n te rfa ce w as u se r-frie n dly a n d t h e o vera ll re ad in ess t o c h an ge. I n r e g ard t o t h e s y ste m i n te rfa ce, a r e cen t A ustr a lia n e x am ple i s illu m in atin g. D is c u ssin g c ase m an ag er r e sp onse s t o a v ery u nfrie n dly m an ag em en t in fo rm atio n s y ste m t h at t h e D ep artm en t o f E ducatio n, E m plo ym en t a n d W ork pla ce R ela tio ns in sis t m ust b e u se d i n t h e J o b S erv ic es A ustr a lia n etw ork o f e m plo ym en t s e rv ic es, M cD onald an d M ars to n ( 2 008b) q uote o ne w ork er: They n eed t o s ta rt p ro je ctin g a m ore a cco m modatin g a nd u ndersta ndin g i m age, i n ste a d o f t h e cu ltu re o f f e a r t h at t h ey p erm ea te t h ro ugh t h eir c o ntr a ct m anagers, g en era l s ta ff, c o m pute r s y ste m s and g en era l c o rre sp onden ce. T he f ir st t h in g w e s e e e a ch d ay o n o ur c o m pute r w hen o pen in g e a 3000 [th e s y ste m e m plo yed i n t h e J o b S erv ic es A ustr a lia n etw ork ] i s a m essa ge t h at t h re a te n s p ro se cu tio n under t h e c rim in al c o de o f c o nduct f o r p ro vid in g m is le a din g i n fo rm atio n. ( M cD onald a n d M ars to n, 2008b: 1 12) Cle arly , c o nfro ntin g s u ch a n i n te rfa ce m essa g e e v ery m orn in g w ould n ot i n duce e ag ern ess t o en gag e w ith t h e s y ste m ! Keep in g t h at i n m in d, i t i s a ls o i m porta n t t h at a n y m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m i s co ncep tu ally s o und. A s i n dic ate d p re v io usly , t h is c an b e c o nte n tio us. A ll m an ag em en t in fo rm atio n s y ste m s a re c o ncep tu ally b ro ken d ow n i n to f o ur p arts — in puts , t h ro ughputs , outp uts a n d o utc o m es. I n A ustr a lia , u p u ntil t h e 1 980s, m ost o rg an is a tio ns c o lle cte d d ata o n in puts o nly , l a rg ely b ecau se t h ey w ere g iv en b lo ck g ra n ts w ith f e w s p ecif ic atio ns o n h ow th ey w ere t o s p en d t h em . M an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m s, t o t h e e x te n t t h at t h ey e x is te d , la rg ely i n volv ed f in an cia l r e co rd s d eta ilin g w hat m oney c am e i n a n d t h e t h in gs o n w hic h i t was s p en t. A ll t h at c h an ged i n t h e 1 980s a n d 1 990s a s a n ew m eth od o f f u ndin g a n d man ag in g h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns— esp ecia lly n on-p ro fit c o m munity -b ase d org an is a tio ns— gra d ually e v olv ed . T hese d ay s, o rg an is a tio ns w ork w ith in a c o nte x t i n w hic h th e m oney t h ey r e ceiv e i s g iv en w ith t ig htly s p ecif ie d c o nditio ns w ritte n i n to a f o rm al l e g ally bin din g c o ntr a ct— sp ecif ic atio ns v ario usly k now n a s b en ch m ark s, c o ntr a ct s p ecif ic atio ns, k ey perfo rm an ce c rite ria a n d k ey p erfo rm an ce i n dic ato rs . O rg an is a tio ns h av e t o b e a b le t o nom in ate e x actly w hat i t i s t h at m atc h es t h e c o ncep tu al c ate g orie s o f i n put, t h ro ughput, outp ut a n d o utc o m e. S ee Tab le 5 .3 , i n w hic h w e n om in ate o ne e x am ple . W e i n vite y ou t o f ill in t h e r e le v an t b oxes o n t h e o th er e x am ple s p ro vid ed . As y ou c an s e e, t h e f in al o utc o m es a re s o m ew hat h ard er t o d efin e, a n d a s s u ch a re m ore dif fic u lt t o m easu re . B ecau se o f t h is , i t i s m uch h ard er t o d ev elo p r e lia b le a n d v alid o utc o m e measu re s t h an i t i s t o s p ecif y i n put, t h ro ughput a n d o utp uts . I t i s a ls o v ery e x pen siv e. F or t h is re aso n, t h e m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m s o f m an y h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns o nly re ally g en era te i n fo rm atio n o n t h e f ir s t t h re e c rite ria . A s s u ch , t h ey c an r e p ort o n w hat t h e 70 activ ity a ctu ally c o st b ut n ot n ecessa rily a b out w heth er t h ere w as a n y s ig nif ic an t c h an ge a s a re su lt o f t h e a ctiv ity ( in te rv en tio n). T his d oes n ot m ean i t c an not b e d one r e la tiv ely c h eap ly an d e ffe ctiv ely , h ow ev er. R ead t h e f o llo w in g c ase e x am ple . Case s tu dy: S erv ic e e v alu atio n i n t h e f ie ld One o f u s i s p art o f a s m all r e se arc h t e am t h at w as a sk ed b y a m id siz ed c o m munity -b ase d f a m ily welf a re o rg an is a tio n t o d ev elo p a n o utc o m e m easu re t h at w ould h elp t h em e v alu ate t h e effe ctiv en ess o f t h eir s e rv ic e. T hey s p ecif ic ally a sk ed t h at i t b e e m bed ded i n t h eir m an ag em en t in fo rm atio n d ata -c o lle ctio n p ro cesse s a n d s y ste m . A cco rd in gly , a n d a fte r c o nsid era b le d is c u ssio n an d r e se arc h , t h e c o nstr u ct o f ‘ w ellb ein g’ w as a d opte d . T he r a tio nale w as t h at t h e c o m mon desir a b le o utc o m e o f a ll t h e o rg an is a tio n’s i n te rv en tio ns w as t h at t h e s e rv ic e u se rs f e lt b ette r a b out th eir l iv es, a s e x pre sse d b y t h eir s e lf -re p orts o f t h eir w ellb ein g. A s im ple m easu re w as c o nstr u cte d ad optin g a n oth er w ell- k now n m easu re o f h ealth o utc o m es. I t i s d esig ned a s a q uestio nnair e t o b e ap plie d t o s e rv ic e u se rs a t i n ta k e a n d a t i n te rv als d eem ed a p pro pria te b y t h e d if fe re n t p ro gra m a re a sta ff. This o rg an is a tio n i s c le arly a ccep tin g t h e c h alle n ge o f a tte m ptin g t o n om in ate d esir a b le outc o m es b y d ev elo pin g a m easu re a n d i n co rp ora tin g t h at m easu re i n to t h eir m an ag em en t in fo rm atio n s y ste m . H opefu lly o th ers w ill f o llo w s u it. I n d ev elo pin g t h is m easu re , t h e org an is a tio n a n d t h eir u niv ers ity p artn ers w ere v ery a w are t h at t h e f ro nt- lin e s e rv ic e d eliv ery sta ff h ad t o e n gag e w ith t h e p ro cess. T he o rg an is a tio n w as a ls o v ery a w are o f t h e s o cia l re la tio ns o f m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m s. I t i s t o t h is t h at w e n ow t u rn . Tab le 5 .3 : S erv ic e t y p e Serv ic e ty p e In put Thro u gh put Outp ut Outc o m e An a n ger- man ag em en t pro gra m f o r prim ary sc h ool ch ild re n Reso urc es: Pla nt: n om in ate d ro om i n s c h ool Fin ancia l: a ll pro gra m c o sts (s a la rie s, t r a v el, mate ria ls , ad vertis in g, o n co sts , p ro gra m man ag em en t c o sts ) Hum an Child re n — th eir pers o nalitie s, back gro und, co gnitiv e dev elo pm en t. S ta ff —one t e ach er a n d one s o cia l w ork er Pro gra m d esig n a n d lo gic Deliv ery o f p ro gra m ( i.e . a six -w eek p ro gra m co nsis tin g o f s ix o ne-h our module s d ev elo ped u sin g an ger-m an ag em en t t h eo ry an d k now le d ge). Deliv ere d o n s ite b y t w o tr a in ed p ers o nnel w ith t w o gro ups o f f iv e c h ild re n . Ten ch ild re n co m ple tin g th e pro gra m Low er r a te s of in ap pro pria te ex pre ssio n of a n ger. Susta in ed beh av io ura l ch an ge. A hap pie r sc h ool a n d hap pie r ch ild re n . A d om estic 71 vio le n ce su pport se rv ic e A g en era lis t co unse llin g se rv ic e A d is a b ility su pport se rv ic e TH E S O CIA L R ELA TIO NS O F M ANAG EM EN T I N FO RM ATIO N SY ST EM S Man ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m s a n d o rg an is a tio nal d ata -g ath erin g d o n ot o ccu r i n a vacu um . H um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns— in f a ct, a ll o rg an is a tio ns— are p atte rn ed s e ts o f s o cia l re la tio ns i n w hic h p ow er i s a k ey v aria b le . M ost h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns i n volv e hie ra rc h y t o s o m e d eg re e, e v en i f t h ey a re c o m mitte d t o d em ocra tic p ro cesse s. W here t h ere i s hie ra rc h y, t h ere a re d if fe rin g d eg re es o f p ow er a n d, c o nvers e ly , a u to nom y. I n r e sp ect o f man ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m s, p eo ple ( b ein g p eo ple ) w ill o fte n a ttr ib ute m otiv es t o man ag em en t t h at m an ag em en t m ay n ot h av e i n te n ded . T his i s o ne a sp ect o f w hat w e m ean when w e i n voke t h e n otio n o f t h e s o cia l r e la tio ns o f m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m s. I n t h is se ctio n, w e r e tu rn t o t h e w ork o f B urto n a n d v an d en B ro ek ( 2 006) a n d a u gm en t i t b y re fe re n ce t o a s tu dy c o nducte d b y D earm an ( 2 005) a s w ell a s t h e w ork o f M cD onald a n d Mars to n ( 2 008b), n om in ate d e arlie r. Burto n a n d v an d en B ro ek ( 2 006) n ote t h at m an y o f t h eir s tu dy p artic ip an ts r e la te d t h e man ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m t o c o ntr o l— in p artic u la r, t o c o ntr o l m ech an is m s t h at affe cte d t h e n atu re o f t h eir w ork . T alk in g a b out c o m pute ris e d s y ste m s, t h e p artic ip an ts i n o ne of t h e s tu die s r e p orte d b y B urto n a n d v an d en B ro ek t a lk ed a b out ‘ B ig B ro th er’, s u ggestin g th at t h e m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m h ad i n cre ase d t h e l e v el o f m an ag em en t s u rv eilla n ce of t h eir w ork . T his s tu dy w as s itu ate d i n a c all c en tr e , a m ode o f o pera tio ns i n cre asin gly ev id en t i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es. C all c en tr e s’ d ep lo ym en t o f c o m pute ris e d t e ch nolo gy r a p id ly ex pan ds t h e c ap acity o f t h e s y ste m t o t r a ck m in ute d eta ils o f a ctiv ity . M atc h ed , f o r e x am ple , with t h e g ro w th o f k ey p erfo rm an ce i n dic ato rs d ic ta tin g l e n gth o f c alls , w ork ers f e lt t h at t h eir au to nom y a n d p ro fe ssio nalis m w ere s ig nif ic an tly b ein g e ro ded b y t h e m an ag em en t in fo rm atio n s y ste m . S im ila rly , p ro fe ssio nal n otio ns o f a cco unta b ility h ad b een s u bsu m ed b y bure au cra tic a cco unta b ility . F urth erm ore , t h e r e sp onden ts i n t h ese s tu die s c la im ed t h at t h ey ofte n h ad l ittle i n put i n to d efin in g w hat d ata w as c o lle cte d . F in ally , w ork ers s u ggeste d t h at th ere w as o fte n l ittle r e alis a tio n o f t h e t im e t a k en t o o pera tio nalis e t h e m an ag em en t in fo rm atio n s y ste m . Sim ila r c la im s w ere m ad e b y s o cia l w ork ers w ork in g f o r C en tr e lin k, r e p orte d i n a s tu dy b y Dearm an ( 2 005). I n h is a n aly sis o f t h e i m pact o f t h e C en tr e lin k S ocia l W ork I n fo rm atio n Syste m ( S W IS ) o n s o cia l w ork ers , D earm an c la im s t h at t h e s y ste m s ig nif ic an tly c h an ged t h e co nduct o f s o cia l w ork i n te rv ie w s a n d t h eir f o llo w -u p, a s w ell a s r e str u ctu rin g t h e re la tio nsh ip b etw een t h e s o cia l w ork ers a n d t h e a d m in is tr a tiv e s ta ff. O ne r e sp onden t, f o r ex am ple , c la im ed t h at t h e S W IS i n ap pro pria te ly s h ap ed h er w ork i n t h at s h e t e n ded t o f o cu s more o n t h ose i te m s o f w ork t h at w ere r e co rd ed o n t h e s y ste m t o t h e n eg le ct o f o th ers t h at were n ot. F urth er, t h e s o cia l w ork ers t o w hom D earm an t a lk ed w ere w ary o f t h e w ay t h e d ata would b e u se d , p artic u la rly i n r e la tio n t o w ork lo ad d is tr ib utio n. I n c o nclu sio n, D earm an 72 su ggests t h at t h e S W IS c h alle n ged s o cia l w ork ers ’ s e n se o f p ro fe ssio nal a g en cy a n d in dep en den ce. T hat s a id , D earm an a ls o a ck now le d ges t h at t h e S W IS d ata p ro ved i m men se ly use fu l i n ‘ s e llin g’ t h e s o cia l w ork s e rv ic e i n t h e e n tr e p re n eu ria l c o rp ora tis e d ‘ b usin ess’ w orld of C en tr e lin k, a n d c o ntr ib ute d p ositiv ely t o i n cre ase d w ag e c la im s. In a n oth er e x am ple , M cD onald a n d M ars to n ( 2 008b) f o und i n t h eir w ork o n t h e J o b Serv ic es A ustr a lia n etw ork o f e m plo ym en t s e rv ic es t h at a v ery c o nsis te n t t h em e w as sig nif ic an t u nhap pin ess w ith t h e h ig h ( fro m t h eir p ers p ectiv e, e x cessiv e) a d m in is tr a tiv e l o ad pro duced b y t h e m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m i m pose d b y t h e f u ndin g d ep artm en t. I t would b e a lm ost i m possib le t o o vers ta te t h e c en tr a lity o f t h is t o t h e c ase m an ag ers ’ ex perie n ce, a n d t h e r e su ltin g d eg re e o f f ru str a tio n a n d j o b d is sa tis fa ctio n. A n um ber o f c ase man ag ers c la im ed t h at t h ey s p en t u p t o a n d s o m etim es o ver 5 0 p er c en t o f t h eir t im e man ag in g a d m in is tr a tiv e r e q uir e m en ts . C ase m an ag ers c la im ed t h at t h e a d m in is tr a tiv e overlo ad w as s e v ere ly h in derin g t h eir c ap acity t o w ork w ith p eo ple t o t h e l e v el o f i n te n sity re q uir e d t o a ctu ally a ssis t t h em t o o verc o m e t h eir b arrie rs a n d g et i n to w ork : We n eed t o t a ke t h e e m phasis o ff t h e d em andin g a dm in is tr a tiv e e xp ecta tio ns s o t h at t h e J o b S erv ic es Austr a lia c a n f o cu s o n t h e s e rv ic e u se r a nd f in din g s u sta in able e m plo ym en t, r a th er t h an p erc en ta ges, sta tis tic s, r e fe rra ls a nd s o f o rth . . . T he p rio rity s h ould b e o ur s e rv ic e u se rs, n ot w heth er w e a re doin g e n ough t o w ork a d iffic u lt- to -in te rp re t s y ste m j u st t o k eep o ur j o bs. ( 2 008b: 1 10) Very o fte n , t h e c o ncern s a b out t h e a d m in is tr a tiv e l o ad w ere c o uch ed i n t e rm s o f t h e outc o m es f o cu s o f t h e J o b S erv ic es A ustr a lia c o ntr a cts . T he p ro ble m i s n ot w ith d eliv erin g em plo ym en t o utc o m es per s e , b ut t h e q uan tita tiv e o utp ut a p pro ach t o r e ach in g a n d m easu rin g defin ed t a rg ets . T hat f o cu s a d ds s ig nif ic an t p re ssu re t o c ase m an ag ers t o t h e p oin t t h at i t i s ‘n ot e n jo yab le t o w ork h ere a n ym ore ’. I n o th er w ord s, t h e p ro cesse s u se d t o a ch ie v e su ccessfu l e m plo ym en t o utc o m es a re l o st i n t h e d riv e t o m eet p erfo rm an ce t a rg ets . These i s su es w ere w id ely r e fle cte d i n t w o B ritis h s tu die s o f s o cia l w ork i n S ocia l S erv ic e Dep artm en ts u nderta k en b y C are y ( 2 003) a n d H arris ( 2 003). I n a n e th nogra p hy o f c are man ag ers ’ p ra ctic e i n l o cal a u th oritie s, C are y i d en tif ie s f o ur p rim ary d im en sio ns o f i n te re st. Fir s t, t h e m ajo rity o f p ra ctic e i n volv ed r e sp ondin g t o f o rm al p ap erw ork a n d o th er bure au cra tic p ro cesse s w ith in a r ig id a n d h ig hly f o rm alis e d i n fo rm atio n t e ch nolo gy-d riv en sy ste m . S eco nd, t h e s ty le o f m an ag em en t p ro vid ed b y s o cia l w ork m id dle m an ag ers h as sh if te d a w ay f ro m t h e d ev elo pm en ta l a n d s u pportiv e f o cu s o f p ro fe ssio nal s u perv is io n to w ard s a m ore t r a d itio nal b usin ess s ty le e m phasis in g a u th orita ria n is m , c o m plia n ce a n d dis c ip lin e. T hir d , t h e a ctu al p ra ctic es o f c are m an ag ers w ere ‘ b udget l e d ’, a s e v ery in te rv en tio n w as d efin ed b y t h e ( u n)a v aila b ility o f f in an ces. F in ally , t h e a d optio n o f c are man ag em en t i n a c o nte x t o f c o nstr a in ed r e so urc es p ro duces a n i n cre asin gly d e- pro fe ssio nalis e d a n d i m poveris h ed s e rv ic e t o v uln era b le g ro ups. Acco rd in g t o H arris ( 2 003: 6 6), B ritis h s o cia l w ork ers a re n ow ‘ ru nnin g t h e b usin ess’ with in a ‘ q uasi- c ap ita lis t r a tio nality ’, i n w hic h s o cia l w ork ers a re ‘ c are managers , p uttin g to geth er packa ges o f c are f ro m t h e q uasi- mark et f o r i n div id ual cu sto m ers ’ ( 2 003: 6 7, i ta lic s in o rig in al) . H ere , t h e l a n guag e o f ‘ b usin ess’ u se d b y H arris i llu str a te s h ow t h e r a tio nalitie s o f su ch d ev elo pm en ts c o ntr a st w ith t h ose u su ally a sso cia te d w ith t h e t r a d itio nal p ro fe ssio nal orie n ta tio n o f s o cia l w ork . I n t h is c ase , t w o p ro cesse s s ta n d o ut: f ir s t, t h e i n te n sif ic atio n o f work a s m id dle m an ag ers e x ert p re ssu re t o e x tr a ct t h e m ax im um a m ount o f e ffo rt; a n d se co nd, a n arro w in g a n d s ta n dard is a tio n o f t h e w ork p ro cesse s a lo ng w ith i n cre ase d s c ru tin y an d c o ntr o l o f p erfo rm an ce, p artic u la rly t h ro ugh t h e u se o f s ta n dard is e d m an ag em en t in fo rm atio n s y ste m s o ftw are p ack ag es a n d i n fo rm atio n t e ch nolo gy. Desp ite t h ese n eg ativ e s to rie s a b out t h e s o cia l r e la tio ns o f m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n sy ste m s, i t i s p ossib le f o r a n o rg an is a tio n t o d ev elo p o r m odif y a s y ste m t o b e e ffic ie n t, effe ctiv e, r e sp onsiv e a n d i n clu siv e. I n t h e ‘ R eso urc es’ s e ctio n a t t h e e n d o f t h is c h ap te r, w e 73 hav e l is te d a n um ber o f g en eric m an ag em en t s ite s f o r c o m munity -b ase d o rg an is a tio ns t h at pro vid e i n fo rm atio n o n t h e d ev elo pm en t o f s o und m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m s. In fo rm atio n m an agem en t i n t h e m ix ed e co n om y o f w elf a re Earlie r i n t h e c h ap te r, w e a llu ded t o t h e n otio n t h at t h e c o nte m pora ry e n vir o nm en t i n w hic h hum an s e rv ic es a re d eliv ere d i s n ot p artic u la rly f rie n dly . T his h as i m plic atio ns f o r a ll a sp ects of h um an s e rv ic e m an ag em en t a n d p ra ctic e, b ut i t a ls o h as i m plic atio ns f o r h ow o rg an is a tio ns are r e q uir e d t o c o lle ct a n d s u pply i n fo rm atio n. W e r e fe rre d e arlie r t o t h e w ork o f M cD onald an d M ars to n ( 2 008a) o n t h e J o b S erv ic es A ustr a lia n etw ork . T his s y ste m r e p re se n ts a n ex tr e m e e x am ple o f t h e c u rre n t r e la tio ns b etw een t h e f u ndin g d ep artm en ts a n d s e rv ic e deliv ery o rg an is a tio ns— re la tio ns w hic h a re , u nfo rtu nate ly , p uttin g s ig nif ic an t p re ssu re o n se rv ic e d eliv ery o rg an is a tio ns. I n t h e J o b S erv ic es A ustr a lia n etw ork ( a n d l a rg ely d ue t o t h e man ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m i m pose d o n J o b S erv ic es A ustr a lia m em bers ), t h e d ata e n tr y re q uir e m en ts a re e x te n siv e a n d a re u se d t o o vers e e a ctiv ity , e n fo rc e c o m plia n ce a n d i n fo rm co ntr a ct r o unds b y a sse ssin g m em ber o rg an is a tio ns’ e ffic ie n cy a n d e ffe ctiv en ess. T his i s ex perie n ced a s h ig hly c o ntr o llin g, i n tr u siv e a n d e x pen siv e, a n d i s h eld t o b e d etr im en ta l t o th e J o b S erv ic es A ustr a lia m em bers ’ c ap acity t o p ro vid e a m ean in gfu l s e rv ic e. It i s a ls o e x pen siv e t o a d m in is te r. M urra y ( 2 006), f o r e x am ple , h as c alc u la te d t h e c o sts t o th e D ep artm en t o f E ducatio n, E m plo ym en t a n d W ork pla ce R ela tio ns ( D EEW R) o f ad m in is te rin g t h e J o b S erv ic es A ustr a lia a t $ 252 m illio n, w hic h w as o ver 1 5 p er c en t o f t h e to ta l $ 1658 m illio n s p en t o n t h e p ro gra m . N orm ally , a d m in is tr a tiv e c o sts f o r r u nnin g a pro gra m w ould r u n t o a ro und 1 0 p er c en t. H e a ls o c alc u la te d t h at, u sin g t h e m an ag em en t in fo rm atio n s y ste m , 1 200 d ep artm en ta l s ta ff s u perv is e 1 100 s ite s ( th at i s , 1 .1 s ta ff m em bers per s ite , o r 1 1.6 p er p ro vid er o rg an is a tio n). O vera ll, a d m in is tr a tiv e a n d c o m plia n ce c o sts t o pro vid ers a re a ls o v ery h ig h ( T hom as, 2 007). U nder t h e l a st c o ntr a ct r o und, D EEW R h as esc ala te d i ts a d m in is tr a tiv e o vers ig ht o f t h e J o b S erv ic es A ustr a lia n etw ork , p artic u la rly i n re la tio n t o w hat i s k now n a s t h e J o b S eek er A cco unts , m onito rin g h ow p ro vid ers s p en d t h em . This h as a ls o b ooste d c o sts . EX ER CIS E • W hat e x te rn al i n fo rm atio n d oes o ur s y ste m c ap tu re ? • W hat i m porta n t e x te rn al i n fo rm atio n i s l e ft o ut? • W hat i n te rn al i n fo rm atio n d oes o ur s y ste m c ap tu re ? • W hat i m porta n t i n te rn al i n fo rm atio n i s l e ft o ut? • F or w hat i s t h e i n fo rm atio n u se d ? • A re t h e l in ks b etw een t h e s y ste m a n d e v ery day p ra ctic e c le ar? • I s t h e s y ste m i n te rfa ce u se r-frie n dly ? • A re i n puts , t h ro ughputs , o utp uts a n d o utc o m es d ata c o lle cte d ? • I s t h e s y ste m e ffic ie n t f ro m t h e p ers p ectiv e o f t h e f ro nt- lin e s ta ff? • W ere f ro nt- lin e s ta ff i n volv ed i n t h e d ev elo pm en t o f t h e m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m ? • A re f ro nt- lin e s ta ff i n volv ed i n a n y r e v ie w o f t h e m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m ? • A re n ew s ta ff g iv en c o m pre h en siv e t r a in in g a b out a n d o n t h e m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m ? • W hat i m pact d o f u nder-im pose d d ata r e q uir e m en ts h av e o n t h e o rg an is a tio n? • O vera ll, w hat a re t h e s o cia l r e la tio ns o f t h e m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m ? We h av e n ote d t h at t h e J o b S erv ic es A ustr a lia n etw ork i s a n e x tr e m e e x am ple , b ut t h e re ality i s t h at, i n t h e c o nte m pora ry e ra , m ost f u ndin g d ep artm en ts w ill r e q uir e e x te n siv e 74 in fo rm atio n f ro m f u nded o rg an is a tio ns, t h e g en era tio n o f w hic h i m pose s s ig nif ic an t c o sts o n se rv ic e d eliv ery o rg an is a tio ns. W hile p eak o rg an is a tio ns r e p re se n tin g t h e c o m munity s e cto r co ntin uously m ak e r e p re se n ta tio ns t o g overn m en ts a b out t h is a n d r e la te d i s su es, i t i s s till im porta n t t h at o rg an is a tio ns a n d w ork ers m onito r t h e i m pact o f i m pose d d ata r e q uir e m en ts o n th eir e v ery day w ork . At t h is s ta g e, w e a re r e ad y t o p ose a n um ber o f q uestio ns t h at a w ork er m ig ht a sk a b out h is or h er o w n o rg an is a tio n’s s y ste m . W e h av e i n clu ded t h ese i n t h e p re v io us e x erc is e t o a ssis t work ers ’ e v alu atio ns o f t h e s y ste m a n d t o e n co ura g e d ia lo gue a b out t h e s y ste m a t t h e f ro nt lin e. CO NCLU SIO N In t h is c h ap te r, w e h av e d elib era te ly t a k en a s p ecif ic p ositio n i n r e la tio n t o i n fo rm atio n dev elo pm en t a n d m an ag em en t i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es, p artic u la rly i n c o m munity -b ase d hum an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns. W e h av e a ssu m ed t h at m ost b eg in nin g w ork ers w ill n ot b e dir e ctly i n volv ed i n t h e d ev elo pm en t o f a m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m . W e h av e a ls o assu m ed t h at a ll w ork ers w ill n ev erth ele ss b e a sk ed t o w ork w ith o ne, l a rg ely b ecau se o f dev elo pm en ts i n t h e r e la tio nsh ip s b etw een f u ndin g b odie s a n d s e rv ic e p ro vid er o rg an is a tio ns. Our i n itia l p re m is e w as t h at, b ecau se o f t h eir d eep c o m mitm en ts t o t h e p eo ple w ith w hom th ey w ork , m an y w ork ers a re r e lu cta n t t o e n gag e i n a t im ely a n d p ro fe ssio nal m an ner w ith th eir o rg an is a tio n’s m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m . W e h av e g iv en r e ad ers a n um ber o f re aso ns w hy w e t h in k t h is i s a n i n ap pro pria te r e sp onse — la rg ely c o uch ed i n t e rm s o f o ur eth ic al r e sp onsib ility t o p ro m ote t h e v ery b est s e rv ic e a n o rg an is a tio n c an d eliv er w ith in fu ndin g a n d o th er c o nstr a in ts . W e t h en e x am in ed d if fe re n t t y pes o f i n fo rm atio n— fo cu sin g o n ex te rn al a n d i n te rn al i n fo rm atio n, a n d t h e c o ncep tu al b lo ck s c o ntr ib utin g t o a n e ffe ctiv e man ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m . H ere w e n ote d t h e d if fic u lty m an y h um an s e rv ic e org an is a tio ns h av e i n a ccu ra te ly a n d e ffic ie n tly d ete rm in in g o utc o m es o f i n te rv en tio ns. T he ch ap te r m oved o n t o t h e s o cia l r e la tio ns o f m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m s, s u ggestin g t h at th ese c an b e h ig hly i n flu en tia l i n h ow w ell a m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m w ork s. I n co nclu sio n, w e n om in ate d a s e rie s o f q uestio ns t h at f ro nt- lin e w ork ers c an a sk a b out t h eir ow n o rg an is a tio n’s m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m . W e d id s o t o i llu str a te t h at f ro nt- lin e work ers ’ e x perie n ce o f a n o rg an is a tio n’s s y ste m i s a n e x tr e m ely i m porta n t s o urc e o f in fo rm atio n f o r m an ag ers w is h in g t o e v alu ate t h e f u nctio nin g o f t h is v ery i m porta n t a n d ubiq uito us p art o f e v ery day o rg an is a tio nal p ra ctic e. Chap te r r ev ie w q uestio n s 5.1 W hy s h ould f ro nt- lin e h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers e n gag e w ith m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n sy ste m s? 5.2 G iv e t w o r e aso ns w hy f ro nt- lin e h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers d is lik e m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n sy ste m s. 5.3 W hat a re t h re e e x am ple s o f e x te rn al i n fo rm atio n? 5.4 W hat a re t h re e e x am ple s o f i n te rn al i n fo rm atio n? 5.5 W hat i s a p erfo rm an ce g uid an ce s y ste m ? 5.6 W hat i s t h e d if fe re n ce b etw een a p ro gra m ’s o utp ut a n d o utc o m e? 5.7 W hat i s m ean t b y t h e s o cia l r e la tio ns o f a m an ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m ? 5.8 W hat i s t h e r o le o f f ro nt- lin e w ork ers i n r e la tio n t o t h e d ev elo pm en t a n d m an ag em en t o f a man ag em en t i n fo rm atio n s y ste m ? 75 OTH ER R ESO URCES Vic to ria n R eg is tr a tio n o f C om munity S erv ic e O rg an is a tio ns, < www.c y f.v ic .g ov.a u /e v ery - ch ild -e v ery -c h an ce/r e g is tr a tio n-o f-c o m munity -s e rv ic e-o rg an is a tio ns >. Quality I m pro vem en t a n d C om munity S erv ic es A ccre d ita tio n ( In c), < www.l a tr o be.e d u.a u /a ip c/q ic sa >. IR IS ( In te g ra te d R ep orts a n d I n fo rm atio n S yste m ), < www.c y f.v ic .g ov.a u /f a m ily - se rv ic es/ir is -fa m ily -s e rv ic es-u se r-m an ual >. Man ag em en t S upport O nlin e, < www.m an ag em en ts u pporto nlin e.c o m .a u >. Austr a lia n I n stitu te o f C om munity P ra ctic e a n d G overn an ce, < www.m an ag em en ts u pporto nlin e.c o m .a u >. KEY R EA DIN G S Carrilio , T . 2 005, ‘ M an ag em en t I n fo rm atio n S yste m s: W hy a re T hey U nderu tiliz ed i n t h e Socia l S erv ic es? ’, Adm in is tr a tio n i n S ocia l W ork , v ol. 2 9, n o. 2 : 4 3–61. Gin sb erg , L .H . 2 001, Socia l W ork E va lu atio n: P rin cip le s a nd M eth ods , A lly n a n d B aco n, Bosto n. Kettn er, P .M . 2 002, Ach ie vin g E xcelle n ce i n t h e M anagem en t o f H um an S erv ic e Org anis a tio ns , A lly n a n d B aco n, B osto n. 76 C H APT ER S IX Build in g a n d m ain ta in in g p ro fe ssio n al r ela tio n s S U M MARY A fte r e sta b lis h in g w hy a f o cu s o n i n te r-p ers o nal r e la tio nsh ip s i s v ita l t o p ro ducin g g ood h um an s e rv ic e o utc o m es, t h is c h ap te r f o cu se s o n t h re e k ey d im en sio ns o f p ro fe ssio nal a n d c o lle g ia l r e la tio nsh ip s: t h ose b etw een c o lle ag ues w ith in a h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio n; t h ose w ith c o lle ag ues i n o th er o rg an is a tio ns; a n d t h ose w ith s ig nif ic an t o th ers s u ch a s b oard s a n d v olu nte ers . W e a ls o d is c u ss w ork in g w ith c u ltu ra l d iv ers ity a n d t e ch niq ues f o r w ork in g w ith i n te rp re te rs . T he c o re a ssu m ptio n d riv in g t h e c h ap te r i s t h at g ood p ro fe ssio nal r e la tio nsh ip s d on’t j u st h ap pen a u to m atic ally , b ut r e q uir e y ou t o a p ply c o ntin uous p urp ose fu l a tte n tio n. D EV ELO PIN G P R O FE SSIO NAL R ELA TIO NSH IP S W IT H IN O RG ANIS A TIO NS M an y p eo ple a ssu m e t h at b ecau se a n o rg an is a tio n p ro vid es h um an s e rv ic es, a n d a s s u ch i s d ed ic ate d t o i m pro vin g t h e w ellb ein g o f v ario us g ro ups o f p eo ple , t h e i n te rn al o rg an is a tio nal r e la tio nsh ip s m ust b e g ood. T his n otio n i s o fte n r e in fo rc ed b y t h e f a ct t h at m an y o f t h e s ta ff i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns h av e p ro fe ssio nal q ualif ic atio ns i n a re as s u ch a s s o cia l w ork , y outh w ork a n d p sy ch olo gy, w hic h p re su m ab ly p re d is p ose t h em t o b eh av in g w ell. U nfo rtu nate ly , n eith er c o nditio n h as a ll t h at m uch i m pact o n t h e w ay s i n w hic h o rg an is a tio ns a ctu ally f u nctio n. A t s o m e p oin t, m ost o f u s h av e h ad c o nta ct w ith o r w ere e n gag ed i n a g ro up o r o rg an is a tio n i n w hic h t h e r e la tio nsh ip s w ere ‘ to xic ’. I f s o , r e ad ers w ill b e a w are o f j u st h ow d estr u ctiv e t h is c an b e i n div id ually , a s w ell a s h ow t h ese c ir c u m sta n ces h av e a t e rrib le i m pact o n t h e s ta ff a n d o n t h e q uality o f t h e s e rv ic es t h e o rg an is a tio n p ro vid es f o r s e rv ic e u se rs . While i t i s g en era lly u nders to od t h at o rg an is a tio nal c u ltu re i s l a rg ely d eriv ed f ro m t h e o rg an is a tio n’s l e ad ers h ip , i t i s o ur c o nte n tio n t h at e v ery w ork er h as a r e sp onsib ility t o b eh av e p ro fe ssio nally a n d t o f o ste r g ood c o lle g ia l r e la tio ns, n o m atte r a t w hat l e v el o ne i s e m plo yed . I n a d ditio n, m an y h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns a re l o cate d i n t h e n on-p ro fit s e cto r, s o o fte n h av e a g overn in g b oard . W hat s o rt o f r e la tio nsh ip s h ould s ta ff h av e w ith a b oard ? F urth erm ore , m ost h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns h av e v olu nte ers — gen era lly , h ig hly 77 co m mitte d p eo ple w ho v alu e a d d i n a ll s o rts o f w ay s, a n d w ith out w hom t h e o rg an is a tio n would b e a m uch p oore r p la ce. A gain , h ow s h ould t h e r e la tio nsh ip b etw een s ta ff a n d volu nte ers b est b e m an ag ed ? Hum an s e rv ic e w ork ers o fte n a ssu m e t h at h um an s e rv ic e d eliv ery s y ste m s ( th at i s , t h e ra n ge o f o rg an is a tio ns p ro vid in g h um an s e rv ic es i n a n y p artic u la r l o cal a re a) f u nctio n i n a co ord in ate d m an ner. U nfo rtu nate ly , t h is i s o fte n n ot t h e c ase . R ese arc h i n dic ate s t h at f ro m a se rv ic e u se r p oin t o f v ie w , i n te r-o rg an is a tio nal r e la tio nsh ip s c an b e p atc h y a n d f ra ctu re d ( s e e, fo r e x am ple , S pall e t a l., 2 005; M cD onald a n d Z etlin , 2 004), a n d t h at s e rv ic e u se rs c an e asily fa ll t h ro ugh t h e c ra ck s. A s a c o nse q uen ce o f t h is , a n oth er i m pera tiv e i s t h at w ork ers i n h um an se rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns d o a ll t h ey c an t o c re ate a n e ffe ctiv e a n d i n te g ra te d s e rv ic e d eliv ery sy ste m . A m ong o th er t h in gs, t h is i n volv es d ev elo pin g a n d m ain ta in in g g ood r e la tio nsh ip s with c o lle ag ues i n o th er o rg an is a tio ns. W e b eg in t h is c h ap te r w ith t h e f ir s t o f t h ese i s su es: how w e d ev elo p g ood r e la tio nsh ip s w ith o ur w ork m ate s. Pro fe ssio n al r ela tio n sh ip s w it h c o lle a gu es Understa n din g y o u rse lf Self -a w are n ess i s t h e f u ndam en ta l b uild in g b lo ck t o d ev elo pin g g ood i n tr a -o rg an is a tio nal re la tio nsh ip s w ith y our c o lle ag ues. S pecif ic ally , i t i s i m porta n t t h at w ork ers u nders ta n d t h e im pact t h ey h av e o n o th er p eo ple . T his i s n ot p ossib le w ith out a n a w are n ess o f y our pers o nality , y our s ty le o f e n gag em en t a n d c o m munic atio n, y our s tr e n gth s, y our w eak nesse s, your b lin d s p ots a n d y our f e ars . W hile i t i s r a re ly p ossib le t o ‘ re m ak e’ o urs e lv es e n tir e ly , i t i s possib le — th ro ugh s e lf -a w are n ess— to a p pre cia te a n d m onito r w hen s o m e a sp ect o f y ours e lf is h av in g a n i m pact ( p ositiv e o r n eg ativ e) o n a s itu atio n o r a r e la tio nsh ip . A w ork er c an a ls o le arn t o m odif y h is o r h er b eh av io ur. There a re v ario us w ay s o f g oin g a b out d ev elo pin g s e lf -a w are n ess— fo r e x am ple , e n gag in g in s tr u ctu re d s e lf -re fle ctio n a n d o bta in in g f e ed back f ro m o th ers . I n Chap te r 7 , w e d is c u ss su perv is io n i n s o m e d ep th , b ut i t i s i m porta n t t o n ote h ere t h at f o rm al s u perv is io n i s a n im porta n t m ean s o f d ev elo pin g s e lf -a w are n ess. A s w ell a s s u perv is io n, w ork ers n eed t o dev elo p a c ap acity t o a sk q uestio ns o f t h em se lv es— fo r e x am ple , a b out h ow o ne t y pic ally re sp onds t o v ario us s itu atio ns, o r w hat m otiv ate s s o m eo ne t o w ork i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es fie ld . S om e e x am ple s m ig ht b e: • H ow d o I r e sp ond w hen s o m eo ne c ritic is e s m e? • H ow d o I r e sp ond t o a n ger? • H ow d o I r e sp ond t o a u th ority ? • H ow c o m fo rta b le a m I s h arin g i d eas? • A m I a t e am p la y er o r a l o ne r a n ger? • T o w hat e x te n t d o s te re o ty pes s h ap e m y p erc ep tio n o f o th ers ? • H ow d o I p ro cess i n fo rm atio n? • T o w hat e x te n t a m I ‘ o th er a w are ’? • W ith w hom d o I f e el c o m fo rta b le ? • W ith w hom d o I f e el u nco m fo rta b le ? • A m I a n e x tr o vert o r a n i n tr o vert? • W hat i n m y b ack gro und m ig ht i m pact o n h ow I d o m y j o b? • W hat i n m y b ack gro und c o ntr ib ute s t o m y v alu es f ra m ew ork ? • A m I a lw ay s r e lia b le ? • H ow o pen a m I t o d iv ers ity ? 78 EX ER CIS E Write d ow n y our p ers o nal a n sw ers t o f o ur o f t h e q uestio ns a b ove. S how t h e q uestio ns a n d y our an sw ers t o a f rie n d a n d a sk f o r t h eir f e ed back . An e sse n tia l i n gre d ie n t t o b uild in g e ffe ctiv e p ro fe ssio nal r e la tio nsh ip s i s t o h av e t r u st i n oth ers , a s w ell a s i n t h e o rg an is a tio n. T ru stin g r e la tio nsh ip s d ep en d o n a n um ber o f t h in gs: in te g rity , c o m pete n ce, c o nsis te n cy , l o yalty a n d o pen ness. I f y ou c an e x hib it t h ese ch ara cte ris tic s, t h en i t i s l ik ely t h at y our c o lle ag ues w ill b e a b le t o d ev elo p a g ood re la tio nsh ip w ith y ou. F urth erm ore , i f y our e m plo yin g o rg an is a tio n c an e x hib it t h ese ch ara cte ris tic s i n o rg an is a tio nal o pera tio ns, t h e o vera ll c o nte x t i s s e t f o r c o lle g ia lity . In ev ita b ly , w hen w ork in g i n a n y o rg an is a tio n o r a n y w ork c o nte x t, t h ere w ill b e p eo ple who a re q uite d if fe re n t i n b ack gro und a n d t e m pera m en t. A s a c o nse q uen ce, o ne o f t h e im porta n t f o undatio ns f o r g ood w ork in g r e la tio nsh ip s i s t h e a b ility t o a ccep t a n d v alu e div ers ity . B arrie rs t o a ccep tin g d iv ers ity a re : • p re ju dic es o ne m ig ht h old • e th nocen tr is m ( th e t e n den cy t o r e g ard o ne’s o w n g ro up o r c u ltu re a s s u perio r— or e v en t o o nly b e co m fo rta b le w ith p eo ple o f o ne’s o w n c u ltu re ) • s te re o ty pes • d is c rim in atio n. Again , p eo ple w ork in g i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns f ir s t h av e t o a d m it t h at t h ey d o h av e pre ju dic es a n d d o h old s te re o ty pes. T he r e ality i s t h at i t i s a lm ost i m possib le t o a v oid t h em , whic h i n t u rn c re ate s t h e i m pera tiv e t o c h alle n ge a n d r e d uce t h em . F urth er, w e n eed t o activ ely l e arn h ow d iv ers ity p la y s o ut i n t e rm s o f d if fe re n ces i n v erb al a n d n on-v erb al co m munic atio n s ty le s a n d i n h ow t o c o nduct o nese lf i n p ublic p la ces. R ead t h e c ase s tu dy belo w a n d a n sw er t h e q uestio ns p ose d . Case s tu dy: C ult u ra l d iv ersit y Ja n et i s h opin g t o a p ply f o r a j o b w ith a n o rg an is a tio n p ro vid in g s e rv ic es t o n ew ly a rriv ed re fu gees f ro m a n um ber o f c o untr ie s. S he c h eck s t h e o rg an is a tio n o ut a n d f in ds o ut t h at S udan ese an d a B urm ese p ers o n w ork t h ere , p lu s a n um ber o f v olu nte ers f ro m v ario us A fric an c o untr ie s. She i s a w are t h at s h e w ill p ro bab ly b e a sk ed a b out h er k now le d ge a b out c u ltu ra l d iv ers ity a n d h er sk ills i n w ork in g w ith d iv ers ity . P ers o nally , h av in g b een b ro ught u p i n a v ery ‘ A nglo ’ p art o f t h e city a n d a tte n din g a p riv ate s c h ool, s h e h as l ittle e x perie n ce. W hile t h ere w as p le n ty o f c u ltu ra l div ers ity a t u ni, s h e h ers e lf h ad l ittle c o nta ct w ith p eo ple f ro m o th er c u ltu re s a n d b ack gro unds. Dis c u ssio n q uestio n • H ow s h ould J a n et a n sw er t h e q uestio n w hen i t i s p ose d i n t h e i n te rv ie w ? WORK IN G I N T EA M S In ev ita b ly , p eo ple w ork in g i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns w ill b e p art o f a t e am . T here a re sig nif ic an t b en efits i n volv ed i n w ork in g w ith a t e am . I t c an , f o r e x am ple , i n cre ase c re ativ ity an d a ssis t i n p ro ble m -s o lv in g a n d i n novatio n; i t c an f o ste r h ig her-q uality d ecis io ns; i t c an im pro ve p ra ctic e a n d s e rv ic e d eliv ery p ro cesse s; i t c an i n cre ase t h e q uality o f s e rv ic e deliv ery ; i t c an i m pro ve c o m munic atio n; i t c an r e d uce t u rn over a n d a b se n te eis m ; a n d i t c an 79 in cre ase w ork er m ora le . F urth er, t e am s t h at w ork w ell a re v ery r e w ard in g. H ow ev er, r e al te am work d oes n ot c o m e n atu ra lly t o m ost p eo ple , b ut n eed s t o b e d ev elo ped a n d l e arn ed . Refle ctin g o n e ach o f o ur p asts w ill i llu str a te t h at w e a ll b rin g d if fe re n t e x perie n ces o f t e am s with u s. S ee t h e e x erc is e . EX ER CIS E Refle ct o n t e am s w ith w hic h y ou h av e e n gag ed i n t h e p ast. T ry t o i d en tif y t h e t h in gs t h at y ou lik ed a b out t h ose t e am s, a n d t h in gs t h at y ou d id n ot l ik e. W hat r o le d id y ou p la y i n c re atin g t h e te am ‘ a tm osp here ’? Successfu lly f u nctio nin g i n a t e am i s a n i m porta n t f a cto r i n a w ork er’s p ro fe ssio nal dev elo pm en t. P erh ap s t h e m ost f u ndam en ta l e le m en t i n p ro m otin g g ood t e am work i s h av in g re sp ect f o r t h e o th er m em bers a n d v alu in g t e am m em bers ’ s tr e n gth s w hile c o m pen sa tin g f o r th eir w eak nesse s. T here a re s e v era l m ore e le m en ts t o a t e am ’s s u ccess. T he f ir s t o f t h ese i s when a t e am i s a b le t o b uild a f o rm o f i n te rd ep en den ce t h at i s pro ductiv e . S eco nd, a t e am work s i f i ts m em bers p ull t h eir w eig ht. T hir d , a g ood t e am i s o ne i n w hic h i ts m em bers en co ura g e a n d m otiv ate e ach o th er. F ourth , t e am m em bers w ho h av e g ood g ro up s k ills c re ate an e ffe ctiv e t e am . F in ally , g ood t e am s c o ntin uously ( b ut n ot o bse ssiv ely ) f o cu s o n t h e g ro up pro cess, m onito rin g t h e t e am ’s f u nctio nin g. S om e o th er c h ara cte ris tic s o f g ood t e am s a re : • h av in g a c o m mon p urp ose a n d c o m mon g oals • d elin eatin g c le ar r o le s • h av in g s u pportiv e l e ad ers h ip • f o ste rin g t r u st. Team s g o t h ro ugh s ta g es w hen t h ey a re f o rm in g. O ne o f t h e m ost f a m ous m odels o f t e am fo rm atio n— th e T uck m an ( 1 965) m odel— nom in ate s f o ur: f o rm in g, s to rm in g, n orm in g a n d perfo rm in g. Form in g r e fe rs t o t h e i n itia l s ta g e w hen p eo ple s iz e e ach o th er u p. L ittle t a n gib le work i s d one i n t h is p hase , b ut a g ood g ro up w ould f o cu s o n g oals a n d g ro und r u le s. I n t h e sto rm in g p hase , t h e g ro up l e ts i ts g uard d ow n a n d w ork s t o w ard s c o nstr u ctiv e d is a g re em en t an d c o nte sta tio n. G ro ups w ho c an not m ove b ey ond t h is m ay c o lla p se i n to d estr u ctiv e co nflic t. A ccep ta n ce o f d if fe re n ce a n d b uild in g f o cu s o n t h e t a sk a t h an d c h ara cte ris e su ccessfu l a tta in m en t o f t h e norm in g s ta g e. F in ally , i n t h e perfo rm in g p hase , t h e g ro up mem bers t r u st e ach o th er, e n jo y t h e g ro up, a n d e n gag e i n c re ativ e a n d i n novativ e p ro ble m – so lv in g. A noth er f a m ous m odel o f t e am d ev elo pm en t s ta g es i s t h e C og l a d der o f g ro up dev elo pm en t— a m odel t h at n om in ate s f iv e s te p s. T hese a re : t h e ‘ p olite ’ s ta g e, t h e ‘ w hy a re we h ere ?’ s ta g e, t h e ‘ b id f o r p ow er’ s ta g e, t h e ‘ c o nstr u ctiv e’ s ta g e a n d t h e ‘ e sp rit’ s ta g e— each o f w hic h i s m ore o r l e ss s e lf -e x pla n ato ry . De J a n asz a n d c o lle ag ues ( 2 006: 1 92–3) n om in ate t h e f o llo w in g t ip s f o r e ffe ctiv e t e am s: • B e f o cu se d . • H an dle c o nflic t d ir e ctly . • F ocu s o n b oth p ro cess a n d c o nte n t. • A ctiv ely p artic ip ate . • K eep s e n sitiv e i s su es p riv ate . • C om munic ate o pen ly a n d p ositiv ely . • T ak e t im e t o e sta b lis h o pera tin g g uid elin es. • M onito r w hat’ s g oin g o n w ith t h e t e am . • P ra ctis e g iv in g a n d r e ceiv in g e ffe ctiv e f e ed back . • W ork w ith u nder-p erfo rm ers . 80 • E nerg is e t h e t e am . • B e r e lia b le a n d c o nsc ie n tio us. • W hen n eed ed , g iv e d ir e ctio n t o t h e t e am ’s w ork . • B e s u pportiv e o f y our t e am m em bers . EX ER CIS E In r e sp ect o f t h e l is t a b ove l is t, n om in ate : • t h e o ne o r t w o a re as t h at a re m y s tr e n gth s • t h e o ne o r t w o a re as w here I n eed t o i m pro ve • t h e o ne t h in g I c o uld d o t o i m pro ve i n t h is a re a. Nav arra a n d c o lle ag ues ( 1 990) i d en tif y a n um ber o f ‘ id eal’ r o le s t h at p eo ple c an p la y i n te am s. T hese a re : • In fo rm atio n s e eker. L ooks f o r f a cts a n d c la rif ic atio n. • Opin io n s e eker. E xpose s t h e v alu es t h at u nderlie t e am d ecis io ns. • In fo rm atio n g iv er. G iv es f a cts b ase d o n k now le d ge a n d e x perie n ce. • Opin io n g iv er. E xpre sse s b elie fs a n d v alu es, a n d s u ggests t h em t o t h e g ro up. • Ela bora to r. E xpan ds, c la rif ie s a n d a n tic ip ate s t h e o utc o m es. • Conducto r. C om bin es, c o ord in ate s a n d s u ggests t h e r e la tio nsh ip a m ong i d eas. • Orie n te r. S urv ey s t h e p ro cess, r a is e s q uestio ns a n d p ro vid es d ir e ctio n. • Eva lu ato r. C om pare s t h e g ro up p ro cess w ith p erfo rm an ce. • Reco rd er. D ocu m en ts t e am p ro cess t o a llo w t h e g ro up t o s e e t a n gib le r e su lts . EX ER CIS E Nom in ate w hic h o f t h ese r o le s y ou a re m ost l ik ely t o a d opt. DEV ELO PIN G P R O FE SSIO NAL R ELA TIO NSH IP S B ETW EEN ORG ANIS A TIO NS Lik e ‘ c o m munity ’, p artn ersh ip i s a w ord o f o bvio us v ir tu e ( w hat s e n sib le p erso n w ould c h oose co nflic t o ver c o lla bora tio n?). ( C la rk e a n d G le n din nin g, 2 002: 3 3) Hughes a n d W earin g ( 2 007: 1 13) n om in ate a r a n ge o f d if fe re n t n am es g iv en t o i n te r- org an is a tio nal r e la tio nsh ip s: c o lla b ora tio n, p artn ers h ip s, m ulti- d is c ip lin ary a n d i n te r- dis c ip lin ary w ork . H ere , w e w ill f o cu s o n c o lla b ora tio n a s a c atc h -a ll p hra se f o r a ll o f t h e ab ove. B ein g a b le t o c o lla b ora te w ith c o lle ag ues i n o th er o rg an is a tio ns i s a n e sse n tia l co m ponen t i n t h e s u ccess o f h um an s e rv ic e i n te rv en tio n. H ughes a n d W earin g n om in ate t h e fo llo w in g r e aso ns: • t o s h are k now le d ge • t o i m pro ve t h e r e fe rra l p ro cess • t o f a cilita te h olis tic c are • t o i m pro ve c o ntin uity o f c are • t o e n han ce c re ativ ity a n d p ro ble m -s o lv in g. The r e ality i s t h at p eo ple w ho u se a h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio n’s s e rv ic es h av e m ore 81 co m ple x i s su es a n d n eed s t h an t h e p re se n tin g p ro ble m t h ey b rin g t o y ou, a n d m ost p eo ple will n eed m ore s u pport ( p ro bab ly o f a d if fe re n t t y pe) t h an y ou c an p ro vid e. I n c erta in f ie ld s of p ra ctic e, p artn ers h ip s a n d i n te r-p ro fe ssio nal n etw ork s a re m an date d ( fo r e x am ple , i n c h ild pro te ctio n a n d f a m ily s u pport) . T hat s a id , m uch n eed s b e d one a t t h e g ro und l e v el i n o rd er t o brin g t h e c o lla b ora tiv e p hilo so phy i n to a w ork in g r e ality . I n deed , t r y in g t o b rid ge t h e g ap betw een t h e d if fe re n t t y pes o f s e rv ic e d eliv ery s y ste m s i n w hic h p eo ple e n gag e— fo r ex am ple , h ealth a n d c o m munity w elf a re — can b e c h alle n gin g. Colla b ora tio n c an r a n ge f ro m i n fo rm al p artn ers h ip s t o f o rm ally p la n ned r e la tio nsh ip s— th at i s , t w o w ork ers i n d if fe re n t o rg an is a tio ns m ig ht d is c o ver t h at t h ey a re t r y in g t o s e t u p a sim ila r g ro up p ro je ct. A fte r l e arn in g a b out e ach o th er, t h ey m ig ht d ecid e t o c o lla b ora te a n d offe r o ne p ro je ct f o r b oth s e ts o f p ote n tia l g ro up m em bers . A lte rn ativ ely , t w o o rg an is a tio ns mig ht h av e a f o rm al m em ora n dum o f u nders ta n din g ( M OU) b etw een t h em t h at s tip ula te s t h at (g iv en r e so urc e c ap acity ) t h ey w ill a ccep t r e fe rra ls f ro m e ach o th er. ( S ee t h e O th er r e so urc es se ctio n a t t h e e n d o f t h e c h ap te r f o r a g uid e t o w ritin g a n d u sin g M OUs.) Gen era lly , t h e c h ara cte ris tic s o f i n te r-p ro fe ssio nal c o lla b ora tio n a re t h at i t: • i s v olu nta ry i n n atu re • p ro m ote s c o m munal t r u st • h as c o lle ctiv e i n volv em en t • h as s h are d g oals a n d c o lle ctiv e r e sp onsib ility • n om in ate s c le ar r o le s • d ev elo ps s o und p ro ced ure s • a g re es a b out p ro ble m -s o lv in g r o utin es • d ev elo ps c o lla b ora tiv e r e so urc es • m ain ta in s c o nfid en tia lity . Bris to w e t a l. ( 2 003) i d en tif y t h re e k ey r e aso ns w hy c o lla b ora tio n o ccu rs : 1. t o i n cre ase e ffic ie n cy 2. t o i m pro ve i n clu siv en ess 3. t o a ch ie v e i n te g ra tio n. Som e o th er a d van ta g es t h at i n te r-p ro fe ssio nal c o lla b ora tio n c an p ro m ote i n clu de: • s h are d p ro fe ssio nal c o m pete n ce a n d e x perie n ce • c o lle ctiv e r e sp onsib ility • i n te r-p ro fe ssio nal c o m munic atio n • i n cre ase s i n r e so urc e a v aila b ility . That s a id , s o m e d is a d van ta g es o f i n te r-p ro fe ssio nal c o lla b ora tio n c an b e: • c o m munic atio n d if fic u ltie s • t im e • c o m mitm en t • r e sis ta n ce • d if fe rin g p ro fe ssio nal v ie w s • l a ck o f c o lla b ora tiv e s k ills • p oor q uality o f d ecis io ns • l a ck o f r e so urc es • r o le a m big uity a n d d uplic atio n o f e ffo rt • l o w l e v el o f e x perie n ce • v olu nta ry n atu re o f c o lla b ora tio ns. We k now t h at c o lla b ora tio n i s n ot a lw ay s e asy , i n t h at w ork ers n eed t o c h an ge t h e w ay 82 th ey m ig ht b e u se d t o t h in kin g a n d b eh av in g. T here i s n o ‘ rig ht’ w ay t o i m ple m en t i n te r- pro fe ssio nal c o lla b ora tio n. I t i s h oped , h ow ev er, t h at t h e f o llo w in g d is c u ssio n, d ra w in g ex plic itly f ro m t h e w ork o f t h e E arly C hild hood R ese arc h I n stitu te ( 1 995) w ill p ro vid e u se fu l guid elin es f o r w ork ers a n d o rg an is a tio ns i n te re ste d i n i n itia tin g s im ila r e ffo rts . If o ne o rg an is a tio n w is h es t o d ev elo p a r e la tiv ely f o rm al p artn ers h ip w ith a n oth er, t h ere a re a n um ber o f k ey t a sk s t h at n eed t o b e u nderta k en . T he f ir s t i s t o i d en tif y s ta k eh old ers i n a n y pote n tia l p artn ers h ip . K ey p la y ers n eed t o b e i n volv ed i n i d en tif y in g a s h are d v is io n a n d co m mon g oals f o r a ll p artic ip an ts , a v is io n t h at p ro vid es a f o undatio n f o r c o lla b ora tio n. While e sp ecia lly i m porta n t t o t h e e arly s ta g es o f c o lla b ora tio n, t h is p ro cess i s c ru cia l f o r a ll phase s o f i n te r-p ro fe ssio nal c o lla b ora tio n. D ev elo pin g a c o lle ctiv e v is io n a n d a m is sio n sta te m en t, t h en d ra ftin g o pera tio nal g oals , w ill h elp t o c la rif y t h e r o le s a n d r e sp onsib ilitie s o f ev ery one i n volv ed . T his p ro cess a llo w s i n div id uals t o g et t o k now o ne a n oth er o n a m ore pers o nal b asis b y p ro vid in g t im e f o r c o m munic atin g p ers p ectiv es, b elie fs a n d a ttitu des. The s u ccess o f a n y c o lla b ora tiv e v en tu re r is e s o r f a lls o n t h e b asis o f t h e n atu re o f t h e pers o nal r e la tio nsh ip s e sta b lis h ed . M ore o ver, t h e q uality o f c o lla b ora tiv e r e la tio nsh ip s re fle cts t h e c h ara cte ris tic s o f t h e r e la tio nsh ip s o f t h e p artn ers . T he p ro cess o f i d en tif y in g sh are d g oals b ase d o n c o m patib le o r s h are d v alu es a llo w s r e la tiv e s tr a n gers t o j o in o ne an oth er t o w ork t o w ard s a c o m mon g oal. T im e s p en t d ev elo pin g r e la tio nsh ip s b etw een in div id uals s h ould b e u nders to od a s a n i n vestm en t i n f u tu re c o lla b ora tiv e w ork . T he i n te r- pers o nal j o in in g i n here n t i n d ev elo pin g s h are d v is io ns a n d g oals m ay w ell p ro vid e t h e g lu e th at h old s i n div id uals t o geth er w hen i n ev ita b le d if fe re n ces a ris e . It s h ould a ls o b e n ote d t h at t h e p ro cess o f d ev elo pin g a s e n se o f s h are d m is sio n n eed s t o occu r a t t h e l e v el o f m an ag em en t and a t t h e l e v el o f s e rv ic e d eliv ery . A cco rd in gly , g oals f o r co lla b ora tio n n eed t o b e d ev elo ped a n d c o nso lid ate d b y t h ose i n volv ed i n d ir e ct s e rv ic e deliv ery . T his m ean s i n co rp ora tin g t im e i n b usy w ork lo ad s f o r i n te r-p ro fe ssio nal w ork ers t o dis c u ss a n d d ev elo p m is sio n s ta te m en ts a s w ell a s t o i d en tif y g oals f o r w ork in g t o geth er. Ele m en ts o f c o lla b ora tiv e p ra ctic e s h ould b e i n clu ded i n j o b d esc rip tio ns f o r a ll s ta ff t o valid ate a n d e m phasis e t h e i m porta n ce o f c o lla b ora tiv e p ra ctic e. Colla b ora tio n c an not b e i m pose d f ro m a b ove, b ut s h ould n ev erth ele ss b e s tr o ngly en co ura g ed a s a n i m porta n t t h em e i n t h e o rg an is a tio n’s c u ltu re a n d o pera tio nal p ro ced ure s. While i t i s i m porta n t t h at c o lla b ora tio n i s s u pporte d a n d p ro m ote d a d m in is tr a tiv ely , i t i s critic al t h at c o lla b ora tiv e w ork in g r e la tio nsh ip s e v olv e f ro m t h e g ro und u p. A s f ro nt- lin e sta ff, h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers s h ould b e e m pow ere d t o c re ate a n d i m ple m en t t h eir o w n t e am polic ie s a n d p ro ced ure s. T eam -b uild in g, t h en , m ust b e s a n ctio ned a s a l e g itim ate a n d necessa ry c o m ponen t o f s e rv ic e d eliv ery b y t h e o rg an is a tio nal m an ag em en t. T his m ean s t h at tim e m ust b e s e t a sid e f o r t e am m em bers t o c u ltiv ate a n d i m pro ve t h eir w ork in g r e la tio nsh ip s with o ne a n oth er. C olla b ora tio n i s n ot f o r e v ery one, a n d n ot e v ery one i s w ell s u ite d t o te am work . P erfo rm in g e ffe ctiv ely o n a n i n te r-p ro fe ssio nal t e am r e q uir e s a u niq ue s e t o f pro fe ssio nal s k ills a n d, i n o rd er f o r t h e t e am t o f u nctio n o ptim ally , i n div id ual t e am m em bers must p osse ss t h e c ap acity t o w ork w ith in s u ch a m odel. All h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers s h ould g iv e c are fu l c o nsid era tio n t o t h e d ev elo pm en t o f t h eir co lla b ora tiv e s k ills , a s t h ey a re j u st a s i m porta n t t o g ood o utc o m es a s t h eir i n te rv en tio n s k ills . A t e am m em ber m ust p osse ss s o lid p ro fe ssio nal a n d p ers o nal s k ills t h at w ill a llo w h im o r h er to f u nctio n e ffe ctiv ely w ith in t h e f ie ld o f p ro fe ssio nal e x pertis e a s w ell a s t h e c ap acity t o work w ith o th ers i n s u ch a w ay a s t o e n han ce o vera ll t e am f u nctio nin g. T ra its l ik e p atie n ce, pers is te n ce, i n itia tiv e, f le x ib ility , r is k -ta k in g, e m path y, s e lf -a ssu ra n ce a n d s e lf -re alis a tio n a re im porta n t. In a d ditio n, w ork ers w ho a re n on-d efe n siv e a n d o pen t o o th er p oin ts o f v ie w , w ho a re aw are o f t h eir o w n p ers o nal b ia se s, a n d w ho r e fle ct r e sp ect f o r d if fe re n ces w ill c o ntr ib ute t o a co lla b ora tiv e e n vir o nm en t. T here a re a ls o o th er q ualitie s i n clu din g t h e c ap acity t o c o nvey a 83 se n se o f p ers o nal w arm th a n d t r u stw orth in ess t h at c o ntr ib ute t o e ffe ctiv e c o lla b ora tiv e pra ctic e. A g ood s e n se o f h um or w ill g o a l o ng w ay t o d efu sin g c o nflic ts t h at m ay a ris e . T hat sa id , o ne ‘ to xic ’ t e am m em ber c an c o m pro m is e t h e e ffic acy o f t h e e n tir e t e am , a n d t h ere i s a dan ger t h at t e am f u nctio nin g w ill d ro p t o t h e f u nctio nin g l e v el o f t h e w eak est t e am m em ber. If c o lla b ora tio n i s t o w ork , e ach i n div id ual c o lla b ora to r m ust b e c o m mitte d t o t h e p ro cess. Hughes a n d W earin g ( 2 007) a ls o n ote t h e g ro w in g t r e n d i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns fo r w ork ers t o b e e x pecte d t o w ork i n p artn ers h ip w ith s e rv ic e u se rs a n d f a m ilie s. T his wholly a d m ir a b le g oal p ose s a d ditio nal c h alle n ges. M ost h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns w ould arg ue t h at t h ey d o w ork i n p artn ers h ip w ith t h eir s e rv ic e u se rs , b ut t h e r e ality i s o fte n v ery dif fe re n t. C le arly , s e rv ic e u se rs h av e l im ite d p ow er i n s e rv ic e d eliv ery r e la tio nsh ip s. Reco gnis in g t h is a n d r e sp ondin g t o t h e e th ic al i m pera tiv e t o w ork r e sp ectf u lly w ith s e rv ic e use rs , i n Chap te r 9 w e d is c u ss t h e n atu re o f p ow er i n w ork er– use r r e la tio nsh ip s, a n d e x plo re so m e t e ch niq ues f o r w ork in g a cro ss p ow er d if fe re n tia ls . H ere w e m ere ly n ote t h at w ork in g i n partn ers h ip w ith s e rv ic e u se rs i s e x pecte d a n d o fte n r e q uir e d i n a g ro w in g n um ber o f s e rv ic e dom ain s. L ook a t t h e f o llo w in g c ase s tu dy. WORK IN G W IT H B O ARDS A ND V O LU NTEER S A s ig nif ic an t p ro portio n o f h um an s e rv ic e w ork i s u nderta k en i n t h e n on-p ro fit s e cto r, i n co m munity -b ase d o rg an is a tio ns o r i n r e lig io us o r s e cu la r c h aritie s. T he m ajo rity o f t h ese org an is a tio ns w ill h av e a b oard o f m an ag em en t ( o fte n k now n a s a m an ag em en t c o m mitte e), in m an y i n sta n ces b ecau se t h e p arlia m en ta ry A ct t h at g iv es t h em l e g al i d en tity s tip ula te s t h at th ey s h ould . H um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns v ary e n orm ously i n t h e w ay b oard s o pera te . I n so m e o rg an is a tio ns— ofte n s m all l o cal o rg an is a tio ns— th e b oard i s d ra w n f ro m t h e l o cal co m munity o r f ro m i n te re ste d p ers o ns c o m mitte d t o t h e a ctiv ity t h e o rg an is a tio n i s underta k in g— eith er b ecau se t h ey h av e n eed ed t h e s e rv ic e t h em se lv es o r b ecau se t h ey k now so m eo ne w ho d oes. I n a d ditio n, i t i s n ot a t a ll u nco m mon ( p artic u la rly i n r u ra l a n d r e g io nal co m munitie s) t h at h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers w ill s it o n a n oth er b oard i n t h eir c o m munity . I n su ch i n sta n ces, b oard m em bers c an b e q uite i n tim ate ly i n volv ed w ith d aily a ctiv ity a n d t h e re la tio nsh ip s d ev elo ped c an b e q uite c lo se a n d f rie n dly ; s a d ly , i n s o m e i n sta n ces r e la tio nsh ip s can b eco m e q uite c o nflic tu al. Case s tu dy: D ev elo p in g a p artn ersh ip Han if a i s w ork in g a s a f a m ily s u pport w ork er i n a c o m munity -b ase d n on-p ro fit o rg an is a tio n t h at re ceiv es r e fe rra ls f ro m t h e l o cal s ta te g overn m en t C hild P ro te ctio n T eam . F am ily s u pport w ork ers are e x pecte d t o d ev elo p a n i n te rv en tio n p la n w ith a r e fe rre d f a m ily t h at r e co gnis e s t h eir p re se n tin g is su es, s ta te s w hat t h e f a m ily n eed s a n d w an ts , t h eir g oals , t h eir c o ncern s, a n d t h e e x pecta tio ns held o f e ach p artn er i n t h e p la n . W ork ers a re e x pecte d t o u pdate t h is p la n r e g ula rly . Han if a r e ceiv es a r e fe rra l a b out t h e W atte rs f a m ily : m um K are n ( 2 8), d ad B ill ( 3 2) a n d t h eir th re e c h ild re n ( S herrie , 1 0; J a m ie , 6 ; a n d C aro l- A nn, 2 ). S herrie h as b een i n f o ste r c are b ut w as re u nite d w ith h er f a m ily a l ittle o ver t w o y ears a g o, j u st b efo re C aro l- A nn w as b orn . J a m ie w as t h e su bje ct o f u nsu bsta n tia te d a lle g atio ns w hen h e w as i n k in derg arte n . K are n h as b een a sse sse d a s bord erlin e i n te lle ctu ally d is a b le d a n d B ill h as a v ery i n te rm itte n t a tta ch m en t t o t h e l a b our m ark et, is f u nctio nally i llite ra te , a n d h as l im ite d i m puls e c o ntr o l. B oth p are n ts h ad c o nta ct w ith c h ild welf a re a u th oritie s w hen t h ey w ere c h ild re n , a n d a re q uite h ostile t o C hild P ro te ctio n. Sherrie ’s s c h ool h as a g ain n otif ie d C hild P ro te ctio n. T hey v is it a n d a sse ss t h e f a m ily , b ut d ecid e th at r a th er t h an f o rm ally p la cin g t h e f a m ily i n to t h e c h ild p ro te ctio n s y ste m , t h e b est c o urs e o f actio n i s t o r e fe r t h e f a m ily t o H an if a ’s o rg an is a tio n. T hey n ote , h ow ev er, t h at t h e t w o-y ear-o ld se em ed a l ittle l is tle ss, a n d w as n ot a b le t o m ain ta in e y e c o nta ct. W hen H an if a a rriv es w ith a co lle ag ue t o u nderta k e h er o w n a sse ssm en t, K are n i m med ia te ly a sk s h im w heth er C hild P ro te ctio n 84 se n t h im . Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s • H ow s h ould H an if a g o a b out d ev elo pin g a p artn ers h ip w ith t h e f a m ily ? • W hat a re t h e f a cto rs t h at w ill h in der t h is p ro cess? In o th er i n sta n ces, p artic u la rly i n l a rg e o rg an is a tio ns, t h e b oard m ay c o nta in p eo ple d ra w n fro m q uite d if fe re n t c ir c le s, o fte n f ro m b usin ess, p olitic s, t h e l a w o r a cad em ia . T hese b oard s opera te v ery d if fe re n tly f ro m t h e s m alle r c o m munity -b ase d b oard s i n t h at t h eir i n te re sts l ie prim arily i n f o rm al g overn an ce, n ot i n t h e d aily a ctiv ity o f t h e o rg an is a tio n. T hese b oard s’ prim ary r e la tio nsh ip w ith t h e o rg an is a tio n i s t h ro ugh t h e c h ie f e x ecu tiv e o ffic er ( C EO ). S uch board s a re l ik ely t o h av e a f o rm al r o le a n d a s e t o f o pera tio nal p ro ced ure s m ap ped o ut, a n d are d riv en b y a f o rm al s tr a te g ic p la n . W hile t h e d ecis io ns o f b oard s a re u su ally a v aila b le public ly , m an y b oard s w ill o pera te u nder p rin cip le s o f b oard c o nfid en tia lity . B oard m em bers ’ lia b ilitie s a n d r is k s a re a ctiv ely m an ag ed t h ro ugh b oard p ro ced ure s. A s s u ch , t h ese b oard s a re in ev ita b ly m ore f o rm al i n t h eir o pera tio ns. Acco rd in gly , t h e a ctu al c o nduct o f b oard m eetin gs c an b e v ery d if fe re n t i n e ach t y pe o f board . I n t h e s m alle r ‘ w ork in g’ b oard , t h e m eetin gs m ig ht b e q uite i n fo rm al; d is c u ssio n c an be w id e-ra n gin g, p erh ap s l o ose ly f o llo w in g a n a g en da, o fte n a llo w in g s id e-b ars a n d s e g ues. The o th er b oard s a re u su ally m uch m ore f o rm al, w ith s tr ic t a g en das a n d s ta n dard is e d r e p orts an d p ro ced ure s. N eith er b oard i s n ecessa rily b ette r t h an t h e o th er; t h e s m all, l e ss f o rm al b oard is w ell s u ite d t o t h e e arly b eg in nin gs o f a n o rg an is a tio n t h at i s r e sp ondin g t o l o cal i s su es a n d need s. S uch b oard s o fte n n eed t o k eep f ir m ly l in ked t o t h e c o m munity . A s a g en era l r u le , t h e old er a n d l a rg er a n o rg an is a tio n g ets , t h e m ore l ik ely i ts b oard w ill b e t o t e n d t o w ard s t h e la tte r, m ore f o rm al s ty le . E ith er w ay , a ll b oard s h av e a s e rie s o f i m porta n t r e sp onsib ilitie s, an d t h e s m alle r, l e ss f o rm al b oard s a re n o l e ss a cco unta b le t h an t h e l a rg e, f o rm al b oard s. In fo rm ality i s n o e x cu se f o r a n u nbusin esslik e a p pro ach t o t h e r u nnin g o f t h e o rg an is a tio n. Ultim ate ly , t h e b oard i s t h e e n tity h eld a cco unta b le i n l a w f o r t h e o pera tio ns o f t h e org an is a tio n. M em bers o f t h e b oard h av e c erta in l e g ally r e q uir e d d utie s. T he A CT C ouncil o f Socia l S erv ic e ( < www.a ctc o ss.o rg .a u /o ik /in fo sh eets /g overn an ce/f id ucia ry .h tm l >) n ote s t h at board m em bers h av e f iv e k ey d utie s i n c arry in g o ut t h eir r e sp onsib ilitie s. T heir f ir s t d uty i s t o act i n t h e b est i n te re st o f t h e o rg an is a tio n— a d uty o f c are , l o yalty a n d o bed ie n ce t o t h e org an is a tio n’s p urp ose , i n k eep in g w ith i ts p hilo so phy a n d o bje ctiv es. T heir s e co nd d uty i s t o act h onestly . T heir t h ir d d uty i s t o t a k e c are a n d a ct w ith d ilig en ce, a b id in g b y t h e org an is a tio n’s c o nstitu tio n a n d c o m ply in g w ith l e g al r e q uir e m en ts . T heir f o urth d uty i s t o main ta in c o nfid en tia lity i n r e sp ect o f a ll o rg an is a tio nal a n d b oard i n fo rm atio n. T heir f if th duty i s t o d ecla re a n y c o nflic t o f i n te re st. R ead t h e c ase s tu dy a b ove a n d a n sw er t h e q uestio ns pose d . Case s tu dy: C on flic t o f i n te rest? Evie i s a m em ber o f t h e m an ag em en t c o m mitte e o f h er l o cal c h ild -c are c en tr e . T he c h ild -c are cen tr e n eed s t o h av e s o m e f a ir ly e x te n siv e p lu m bin g w ork d one b ut i s h av in g t r o uble g ettin g a plu m ber t o c o m e a n d q uote . F in ally , t h e c en tr e d ir e cto r g ets a q uote b ut i t i s m ore e x pen siv e t h an th e c o m mitte e e x pecte d . E vie s a y s s h e k now s a p lu m ber ( h er b ro th er-in -la w , C hris to s) w ho s h e co uld a sk t o p ro vid e a n oth er q uote . T he c o m mitte e s a y s y es, s o E vie r in gs C hris to s a n d t e lls h im th e s to ry a n d a sk s h im t o c o m e a n d l o ok a t t h e j o b a n d t o a d vis e a r e aso nab le q uote e stim ate . Chris to s d oes s o , b ut h e a ls o d eliv ers a q uote c o nsid era b ly l o w er t h an t h e f ir s t o ne. Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s 85 • H as E vie c re ate d a c o nflic t o f i n te re st i n t h is s itu atio n? • W hat s h ould E vie h av e d one? • W hat s h ould s h e d o n ow ? In m eetin g t h ese d utie s, b oard s h av e ‘ o pera tio ns’: a ctiv itie s u nderta k en b y t h e b oard . T hese can i n clu de t h e d ev elo pm en t a n d e n actm en t o f b oard b y-la w s a n d o th er b oard p olic ie s; t h e re cru itm en t o f m em bers ; t r a in in g a n d o rie n ta tio n o f b oard m em bers ; o rg an is in g b oard a n d co m mitte e m eetin gs; a n d c o nductin g b oard e v alu atio ns. S pecif ic ally , b oard s: • d ir e ct t h e p ro cess o f p la n nin g f o r t h e o rg an is a tio n • a p pro ve l o ng-ra n ge g oals • a p pro ve a n nual o bje ctiv es • m onito r t h e a ch ie v em en t o f g oals a n d o bje ctiv es • o vers e e t h e e v alu atio n o f p ro gra m s a n d s e rv ic es • f in alis e a n d a p pro ve t h e b udget • s o lic it c o ntr ib utio ns i n f u ndra is in g c am paig ns • a p pro ve e x pen ditu re s o uts id e o f t h e a u th oris e d b udget • i n su re a n a n nual a u dit o f t h e o rg an is a tio n’s a cco unts • e m plo y t h e C EO • m ak e d ecis io ns a b out i n cre ase s i n s ta ff p ro file • i n te rp re t t h e o rg an is a tio n t o t h e b ro ad er c o m munity • d ev elo p a c o m mitte e s tr u ctu re t o m an ag e t h e w ork o f t h e b oard • a p poin t c o m mitte e m em bers • s ig n l e g al d ocu m en ts • s e ttle a n y c o nflic t o r c la sh es b etw een c o m mitte es. How m uch c o nta ct s h ould t h ere b e b etw een a b oard a n d a h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio n’s sta ff? C EO s s o m etim es f e el t h at i n dep en den t b oard –sta ff c o nta ct u nderm in es t h eir a u th ority . Board s u su ally w an t t o r e sp ect t h e a u th ority o f t h eir C EO , b ut t h ey a ls o v alu e t h e in dep en den t v ie w poin t s ta ff c an b rin g. S om e b oard s r e g ula rly a sk p ro gra m m an ag ers t o g iv e pre se n ta tio ns t o t h e b oard — fo r e x am ple , b y a sk in g a f in an cia l c o unse llin g p ro gra m w ith in th e o rg an is a tio n a b out t h e i m pact o f a n e co nom ic d ow ntu rn . S om e b oard s a ssig n a b oard mem ber t o e ach p ro gra m m an ag er. R estr ic tin g c o nta ct b etw een b oard m em bers a n d s ta ff c an re su lt i n s u sp ic io n o n t h e p art o f t h e b oard a n d r e se n tm en t f ro m t h e s ta ff. H ere a re s o m e guid elin es t o c o nsid er: • T here i s n o r e str ic tio n o n c o nta ct, b ut t h e C EO s h ould b e i n fo rm ed a b out m eetin gs. • B oard m em bers c an r e q uest i n fo rm atio n a n d r e p orts ( s u ch a s l a st m onth ’s i n ta k e s ta tis tic s), b ut m ust sto p s h ort o f d ir e ctin g s ta ff w ork b y a sk in g f o r r e p orts n ot a lr e ad y p re p are d . • P ers o nnel g rie v an ces m ust g o t h ro ugh t h e c h an nels s p ecif ie d b y o rg an is a tio nal p olic y . • T here s h ould b e a d efin ed c h an nel v ia w hic h s ta ff c an e x pre ss c o ncern s t o t h e b oard a b out t h e C EO , pre fe ra b ly t h ro ugh t h e b oard p re sid en t o r c h air p ers o n. T he b oard p re sid en t c an c h oose t o r a is e t h e co ncern s t o t h e C EO , o r t o b rin g t h em t o t h e b oard f o r i n vestig atio n. Fin ally , i t i s i m porta n t t h at w ork ers i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns r e m em ber t h at b oard mem bers i n n on-p ro fit o rg an is a tio ns a re n ot r e m unera te d . I n o th er w ord s, t h ey a re v olu nte ers —volu nte ers w ho t a k e o n t h e n ot i n co nsid era b le r is k s o f b ein g l e g ally a n d f in an cia lly acco unta b le f o r a n o rg an is a tio n. A t t h ose t im es w hen a w ork er f e els f ru str a te d b y w hat m ig ht se em t o b e a r is k -a v ers e s ta n ce b y a b oard o r b y b oard c au tio n i n t h e b udgeta ry p ro cess, i t i s worth r e m em berin g t h at t h ey a d opt t h at s ta n ce f o r v ery g ood r e aso ns. T hat s a id , w ell- ru n board s a n d w ell- m an ag ed o rg an is a tio ns u su ally h av e p ote n tia l r is k s w ell c o ntr o lle d , a n d man ag e t o k eep t h e o rg an is a tio n a flo at f in an cia lly . 86 While b oard m em bers a re v olu nte ers , t h eir r e la tio nsh ip w ith t h e o rg an is a tio n i s q uite dif fe re n t f ro m m ost o f t h e o th er v olu nte ers i n a t y pic al h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio n. Som etim es t h e r e la tio nsh ip b etw een w ork ers a n d v olu nte ers c an b e a l ittle u nse ttle d . W ork ers may f e el t h re ate n ed b y t h e p re se n ce o f v olu nte ers , a n d m ig ht w an t t o c o nfin e t h eir a ctiv itie s to a re as t h at d o n ot i m pin ge o n t h eir ‘ p ro fe ssio nal’ d om ain . I f t h is o ccu rs , i t i s a ctu ally a g re at pity b ecau se v olu nte ers c an a d d a n i n valu ab le d im en sio n t o h um an s e rv ic e i n te rv en tio n i n partic u la r, a n d s e rv ic e d eliv ery o vera ll. T hat s a id , v olu nte ers n eed t o b e c are fu lly m an ag ed , not o nly t o m ax im is e t h eir e n gag em en t i n a n d c o m mitm en t t o t h e o rg an is a tio n, b ut a ls o t o en su re t h at i n ap pro pria te b eh av io urs d o n ot o ccu r. Cre y to n a n d c o lle ag ues ( n .d .) a rtic u la te t w elv e p rin cip le s f o r e ffe ctiv ely w ork in g w ith volu nte ers . T hese a re t o : 1. e n su re t h at v olu nte ers a re c o nsid ere d a n i n te g ra l p art o f t h e m is sio n a n d c u ltu re o f t h e org an is a tio n 2. e n su re t h at t h e o rg an is a tio n h as g ood p olic ie s a n d p ro ced ure s, a d m in is tr a tiv e a n d r e co rd in g sy ste m s i n r e la tio n t o v olu nte ers 3. e n su re t h at t h e v olu nte er-re cru itm en t p ro cesse s i n volv e i d en tif ic atio n o f a n i n div id ual’ s s k ills , in te re sts a n d p ote n tia l, a n d t h at t h ese a re e ffe ctiv ely m atc h ed t o o pportu nitie s w ith in t h e org an is a tio n 4. d ev elo p i n clu siv e p ra ctic es i n r e la tio n t o v olu nte ers 5. p ro vid e o ngoin g o pportu nitie s f o r v olu nte ers t o b e i n volv ed i n o rg an is a tio nal p la n nin g a n d decis io n-m ak in g 6. p ro vid e t h e s a m e d eg re e o f l e arn in g a n d d ev elo pm en t o pportu nitie s t o v olu nte ers a s a re p ro vid ed to s ta ff 7. e n su re t h at v olu nte er c o ntr ib utio ns a re s ig nif ic an tly a n d a p pro pria te ly v alu ed a n d r e co gnis e d a t all l e v els o f t h e o rg an is a tio n 8. e n su re t h at t h e s u pport p ro vid ed t o v olu nte ers i s a ccessib le , f le x ib le a n d a p pro pria te 9. e n su re t h at t h e o rg an is a tio n c re ate s a n e n ab lin g e n vir o nm en t a n d m ean in gfu l w ork f o r v olu nte ers 10. e n su re t h at t h e b oundarie s b etw een p aid w ork ers a n d v olu nte ers a re c le ar a n d d efin ed , w hile a t th e s a m e t im e m ak in g a n a ctiv e e ffo rt t o r e d uce u nnecessa ry d is tin ctio ns a n d t o c re ate t e am work betw een p aid w ork ers a n d v olu nte ers 11. r e co gnis e a n d e n su re t h at t h e v olu nte er e ffo rt c o ntr ib ute s t o o vera ll c o m munity c ap acity -b uild in g 12. d ev elo p a n d i m ple m en t a p pro pria te e v alu atio n a n d p erfo rm an ce m easu re s, a n d u se i n fo rm atio n gen era te d b y t h ese t o f e ed b ack t o v olu nte ers a n d t h e o rg an is a tio n t o i n fo rm c o ntin uous im pro vem en t o f t h e v olu nte er c o ntr ib utio n. EX ER CIS E Mak e a n a p poin tm en t w ith a n on-p ro fit h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio n i n y our l o cal a re a t h at h as volu nte ers w ork in g w ith t h em . V is it t h e o rg an is a tio n a n d, u sin g t h e a b ove l is t a s p ro m pts , a sk how t h e o rg an is a tio n w ork s w ith i ts v olu nte ers . Wheth er w ork in g w ith c o lle ag ues, b oard s, v olu nte ers o r s e rv ic e u se rs , a n oth er r e ality i s th at i n m ultic u ltu ra l A ustr a lia , a ll h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers n eed t o l e arn a b out h ow t o w ork with p eo ple f ro m o th er c o untr ie s a n d o th er c u ltu re s. I n a d ditio n, p ro fe ssio nalis m i n h um an se rv ic e p ra ctic e m ean s u nders ta n din g t h e i m porta n ce o f p ers o nal b oundarie s. Work in g w it h c u lt u ra l d iv ersit y What i s c u ltu re a n d w hat d o w e m ean b y c u ltu ra l d iv ers ity ? C ultu re c an b e d efin ed a s a 87 co lle ctio n o f i d eas, v alu es a n d n orm s s p ecif ic t o o ne p artic u la r g ro up o f p eo ple . E very one h as a c u ltu re . A s p ecif ic c u ltu re c an i n clu de l a n guag e, r a ce, e th nic b ack gro und, c o untr y o r r e g io n of o rig in , d re ss, v alu es, r e lig io ns, n otio ns o f f a m ily — th e l is t g oes o n a n d o n. C ultu re i s w hat goes i n to d efin in g u s a s b elo ngin g t o a p artic u la r g ro up. C ultu ra l d iv ers ity , h ow ev er, i s unders to od o fte n a s a b ro ad g ro up o f p eo ple w ho a re ‘ o th er’ t h an t h e m ain g ro up i n t h at partic u la r s o cie ty . W hen w e t h in k a b out c u ltu ra l d iv ers ity i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es i n dustr y , w e are o fte n t h in kin g a b out g ro ups o f p eo ple w ho a re n ot p art o f t h e m ain str e am g ro up i n o ur so cie ty . I f y ou t h in k a b out i t f ro m t h at p ers p ectiv e, c u ltu ra l d iv ers ity i n t h e h um an s e rv ic e fie ld m ean s t h at y ou w ill b e w ork in g w ith p eo ple w hose s e x uality o r a g e, c la ss o r g en der, ab ility o r r a ce, i s d if fe re n t t o t h at o f t h ose b elo ngin g t o t h e d om in an t c u ltu re . If w e t h in k b ack t o w hat w as s a id a b out t h e p ra ctic e o f c ritic al r e fle ctio n a t t h e b eg in nin g of t h is b ook, w e a sk h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers t o r e fle ct o n t h e r o le p la y ed b y t h eir s o cia l lo catio ns i n t h eir u nders ta n din g a n d i n te rp re ta tio n o f v ario us i s su es a n d s itu atio ns. I n a w ay , th is i s a r e fle ctio n o f y our c u ltu re a n d t h e r o le p la y ed b y t h e i d eas a n d n orm s o f t h e g ro ups t o whic h y ou b elo ng. I f y ou w ere t o c ritic ally r e fle ct o n y our c u ltu re , y ou w ould f ir s t i d en tif y what y our o w n c u ltu re i s . T hin k f o r a m om en t a b out y our g en der, y our c la ss, y our r a ce, y our ag e, y our s e x uality , r e lig io us b elie fs a n d a b ilitie s. N ow c o nsid er t h ose s a m e a sp ects o f t h e so cie ty i n w hic h y ou l iv e. W hat i s t h e d om in an t g en der ( th e o ne t h at h old s t h e p ow er, politic al, l e g al, a n d f in an cia l c o ntr o l) ? W ho i s r e w ard ed i n y our s o cie ty i n t e rm s o f c la ss, ra ce, a g e, s e x uality , r e lig io n, a b ility , a n d s o f o rth ? W hat a sp ects o f y our s o cia l l o catio n en su re t h at y ou b elo ng t o t h e d om in an t c u ltu re , a n d w here d o y ou d if fe r? W hat g ro ups i n o ur so cie ty a re t h e ‘ o th er’? W hat d oes t h is c u ltu ra l d iv ers ity m ean f o r t h e m em bers o f t h ese ‘o th ere d ’ g ro ups, a n d w hat i m plic atio ns d oes w ork in g w ith t h ese g ro ups t h en h av e f o r y ou a s a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er? Bou ndarie s Work in g i n t h e h um an s e rv ic e a re a c an b e b oth r e w ard in g a n d c h alle n gin g. Y ou w ill b e work in g w ith s e rv ic es u se rs w ho h av e c o m ple x a n d m ultip le i s su es, a n d w hose l iv es a re affe cte d o n a d aily b asis b y t h e s y ste m ic d is c rim in atio n t h at e x is ts w ith in t h e s tr u ctu re s o f o ur so cie ty . T his i s p hysic ally a n d e m otio nally d em an din g w ork , a n d y ou m ay f in d y ours e lf i n situ atio ns w here s e rv ic e u se rs a n d t h eir f a m ilie s e x pect o r n eed m ore f ro m y ou t h an y ou a re ab le t o g iv e i n y our r o le a s a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er. Y ou n eed t o k now w hat y ou c an o ffe r i n your r o le a n d w hat y ou c an ’t. Y ou n eed t o b e a b le t o s e t l im its f o r b oth t h e s e rv ic e u se r a n d yours e lf — in s h ort, y ou n eed t o b e a b le t o f o rm h ealth y b oundarie s. Boundarie s c an b e s e en a s a n i n vis ib le p ro te ctio n b etw een o urs e lv es a n d s o m e o f t h e dem an ds m ad e o n u s i n t h is w ork t h at w e d o. B oundarie s a llo w u s t o m ain ta in p ers o nal a n d pro fe ssio nal a sp ects o f o urs e lv es, a n d a llo w u s t o p ro te ct b oth o urs e lv es a n d o ur s e rv ic e use rs . M an y d is c o urs e s a n d d is c u ssio ns o n p ro fe ssio nal a n d p ers o nal b oundarie s l a ck a n unders ta n din g o f t h e c o m ple x itie s i n tr o duced b y i s su es s u ch a s t h e c u ltu re , g en der, c la ss, a g e, ab ility o r s e x uality o f b oth t h e w ork er a n d t h e s e rv ic e u se r g ro up. W e w ill d is c u ss m uch o f th is f u rth er w hen w e b eg in t o l o ok a t w ork in g w ith in y our o w n c o m munity . W hile pro fe ssio nal e th ic s ( d is c u sse d l a te r i n t h is b ook) a re o fte n c o ncre te a n d l e g is la te d , b oundarie s ofte n e x is t i n a g re y a re a w here n o ‘ o ne s iz e f its a ll’ r u le a p plie s. R eg ard le ss o f a ll t h e co m ple x itie s, t h e b asic p rin cip le r e m ain s t h at h ealth y b oundarie s o f s o m e d esc rip tio n a re necessa ry f o r w ork ers i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es a re a. W ith out h ealth y b oundarie s, h um an s e rv ic e work ers w ill b urn o ut a n d s e rv ic e u se rs m ay n ot g et t h e p ro fe ssio nal a ssis ta n ce t o w hic h t h ey are e n title d . Som e b asic i d eas a b out h ow t o k eep h ealth y b oundarie s f o r y ours e lf a n d y our c lie n ts 88 would b e: • E nsu re t h at b oth y ou a n d y our s e rv ic e u se r u nders ta n d y our r o le , w hat y ou c an d o a n d w hat y ou can ’t d o a t t h e b eg in nin g o f t h e r e la tio nsh ip . ( Y ou m ay n eed t o r e v ie w t h is f ro m t im e t o t im e.) • A ll w ork ers w ill h av e a d if fe re n t v ie w a b out s e lf -d is c lo su re . S om etim es, d is c u ssin g a n i n cid en t o r id ea f ro m y our o w n l if e c an a ssis t a s e rv ic e u se r, s h orte n t h e d is ta n ce b etw een y ours e lf a n d y our se rv ic e u se r, o r a ssis t i n d ev elo pin g e m path y. S om e h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers w ould i n sis t t h at t h ere is n ev er a n y s e lf -d is c lo su re . A g ood r u le o f t h um b i s o fte n t o t h in k a b out w hat y ou a re a b out t o sh are a n d a sk y ours e lf w ho i t w ill b en efit. W ill t h is h elp y our s e rv ic e u se r o r i s i t f o r y ou? I f i t i s f o r you, k eep i t t o y ours e lf . • A sk f o r h elp w hen y ou n eed i t. R eg ula r s u perv is io n i s e sse n tia l i n t h is a re a o f w ork . • R em em ber t o t a k e t im e a w ay f ro m t h e a g en cy w hen o pportu nitie s f o r t r a in in g a n d w ork sh ops pre se n t t h em se lv es. • M ain ta in y our b eg in ner’s m in d— alw ay s l e arn f ro m c o lle ag ues a n d c lie n ts . T ry t o a lw ay s b e le arn in g s o m eth in g; i t i s i m porta n t t o h av e t h e f re ed om s o m ew here i n y our l if e t o n ot k now t h e an sw er— to t a k e i n a n d n ot g iv e o ut s o y ou c an c o ntin ue t o b e n urtu re d a n d k eep y our m in d o pen . • R em em ber, y ou a re n ot ‘ it’ . You a re n ot t h e a n sw er. B ein g r e sp onsiv e t o t h e p ain o f o th ers w ill mak e a d if fe re n ce t o t h em , b ut y ou a re n ot r e sp onsib le f o r t h eir l iv es. WORK IN G W IT H Y O UR O W N C O M MUNIT Y Man y w ork ers i n t h e h um an s e rv ic e i n dustr y c o m e f ro m a s p ecif ic c o m munity a n d f in d th em se lv es w ork in g f o r a n d o n b eh alf o f m em bers o f t h at s p ecif ic c o m munity . T his c an p ose its o w n i s su es, a n d m an y a sp ects o f t h e d is c u ssio n o n b oundarie s f ro m t h e p re v io us s e ctio n need t o b e l o oked a t i n a d if fe re n t l ig ht. S im ple i d eas ( s u ch a s n ot g iv in g o ut y our h om e phone n um ber o r n ot t e llin g s e rv ic e u se rs w here y ou l iv e) m ay b e i r re le v an t i f y ou a re f ro m th e s a m e s m all o r r u ra l c o m munity . C ultu ra l n orm s a b out p artic ip atio n i n e ach o th er’s l iv es, ab out s h arin g e v ery th in g f ro m f o od t o f a m ily , n eed t o b e t a k en i n to c o nsid era tio n. O fte n work ers i n t h is s itu atio n a re m ore m otiv ate d , m ore p assio nate a n d m ore c o m mitte d t o t h eir se rv ic e u se rs t h an o th er h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers . T hey h av e a u niq ue r o le t o p la y i n a d vocacy fo r a n d s u pport o f m em bers o f t h eir c o m munity . T hey a ls o f a ce u niq ue c h alle n ges w hen i t co m es t o u nders ta n din g a n d d if fe re n tia tin g b etw een t h eir r o le a s w ork ers a n d t h eir p la ce i n th eir c o m munity . I f, a s a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er, y ou a re i n t h is p ositio n, t h en i t i s i m porta n t fo r y ou t o h av e a g ood u nders ta n din g o f w hy y ou a re d oin g t h e w ork y ou a re d oin g, w hat y ou lik e a b out i t a n d w hat t h e c h alle n ges a re f o r y ou. As s ta te d e arlie r, b oundarie s c an b e s e en a s a n i n vis ib le p ro te ctio n b etw een o urs e lv es a n d th e o ute r w orld t h at c an p ro vid e a s p ace f o r u s t h at i s j u st o ur o w n. B oundarie s a llo w u s t o main ta in p ers o nal a sp ects o f o urs e lv es a n d a llo w u s t o p ro te ct o urs e lv es. B oundarie s c an usu ally s a y , ‘ T his i s m e a s a w ork er’, a s o ppose d t o ‘ T his i s m e a s a m em ber o f m y co m munity ’. H ow ev er, o th er m em bers o f y our c o m munity m ay n ot u nders ta n d t h is a s c le arly as i t i s s ta te d h ere , a n d w ork ers f ro m s p ecif ic c o m munitie s o fte n f in d t h em se lv es t r e ad in g a fin e l in e b etw een w ork er a n d c o m munity m em ber. The p re ssu re t o w ork f o r y our c o m munity o uts id e o f y our j o b m ay a ls o c o m e f ro m w ith in your o rg an is a tio n. M an y o rg an is a tio ns p ut p re ssu re o n w ork ers f ro m s p ecif ic c o m munitie s t o in te rp re t; i t i s e asy a n d a m oney s a v er i f t h e i n te rp re tin g b udget i s t ig ht o r t h e m onth ly allo w an ce i s g one. A gain , c ritic al r e fle ctio n c an a ssis t y ou t o d efin e h ealth y b oundarie s i f y ou are i n t h is s itu atio n. A sk y ours e lf w hy y ou a re d oin g t h e w ork y ou a re d oin g, w hat s tr e n gth s you c an b rin g t o t h e p ositio n a s a m em ber o f t h e c o m munity , a n d w hat c h alle n ges t h is m ig ht pose . C an c o m in g f ro m t h e s a m e c o m munity b lin d y ou a t t im es t o s o m e a sp ects o f t h e s e rv ic e use r’s d ile m ma? W hat c an y ou d o t o b eco m e a w are o f t h is i f i t h ap pen s, a n d w hat s te p s c an you t a k e t o a d dre ss i t? 89 Case s tu dy: W ork in g f r o m w it h in a c o m munit y You a re t h e o nly I n dig en ous s u pport w ork er f o r a r e g io nal d om estic v io le n ce p ro gra m . Y our r o le is t o w ork w ith I n dig en ous w om en w ho a re e sc ap in g v io le n ce a n d a b use . Y ou o ffe r s u pport, ad vic e, a d vocacy i n c o urt, a d vocacy w ith t h e p olic e a n d l ia is o n w ith t h e r e fu ge. Y ou o fte n k now th e w om en , o r k now o f t h e w om en , w ho c o m e t o y ou f o r a ssis ta n ce a n d t h is c an s o m etim es b e a bit t r ic k y, b ut y ou h av e g ood s u perv is io n f ro m b oth y our a g en cy a n d a r e sp ecte d f e m ale e ld er i n your c o m munity . H ow ev er, o ne d ay a w om an c o m es t o y ou f o r a ssis ta n ce w ho h as b een v ery bad ly t r e ate d b y y our o w n c o usin . T his i s g oin g t o m ak e t h in gs v ery d if fic u lt f o r y ou a t h om e. Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s • I d en tif y w hat t h e i s su es a re f o r y ou i n t h is s itu atio n t h at a re s p ecif ic t o y ou b elo ngin g t o t h is co m munity . • I d en tif y w hat y our r o le i s i n t h is s itu atio n i n t e rm s o f y our w ork a s a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er. • H ow w ill y ou w ork o ut t h e d if fe re n ces a n d w ho w ill y ou n eed t o t a lk t o a b out t h is s itu atio n? Work in g w it h i n te rp rete rs In cre asin gly , m ore a n d m ore w ork i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es a re a w ill r e q uir e y ou t o w ork w ith in te rp re te rs . T his w ork c an b e d em an din g, a n d t h ere a re s o m e s im ple g uid elin es y ou w ill need t o f o llo w . R ead t h e f o llo w in g c ase s tu dy. This s c en ario i s r e p eate d d aily i n A ustr a lia i n t h e h um an s e rv ic e a re a b ecau se h um an se rv ic e w ork ers l a ck k now le d ge o f t h e p ro per p olic ie s a n d p ro ced ure s n eed ed t o f a cilita te th ese s o rts o f s itu atio ns. T his p ra ctic e i s r u de, i g nora n t a n d o fte n r a cis t. Most a g en cie s a n d o rg an is a tio ns w ill h av e p olic ie s a n d p ro ced ure s f o r p ro vid in g in te rp re te rs i n w ork in g w ith s e rv ic e u se rs . I t i s y our r e sp onsib ility t o k now w hat t h ese a re f o r your p artic u la r o rg an is a tio n, a n d t o a d vocate f o r b ette r s e rv ic es i f t h ey f a ll s h ort o f e ffe ctiv e pra ctic e. I t i s g overn m en t p olic y i n m ost h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns t o u se q ualif ie d in te rp re te rs i n s itu atio ns w here c o m munic atio n i s d if fic u lt, b oth w ith m ig ra n ts a n d w ith d eaf peo ple . Case s tu dy: W ork in g w it h i n te rp rete rs 1 Im ag in e f o r a m in ute t h at y ou a re t o urin g t h ro ugh a f o re ig n c o untr y w here y ou g et i n to s o m e k in d of t r o uble , e ith er w ith y our h ealth o r l e g ally . T his i s n ot a n E nglis h -s p eak in g c o untr y , a n d y ou a re tr y in g t o m ak e y ours e lf u nders to od t o t h ose w ho c an a ssis t y ou; h ow ev er, t h ey d on’t s p eak a w ord of E nglis h a n d y ou d on’t s p eak a w ord o f t h eir l a n guag e. T hey b rin g o ut a c o -w ork er f ro m a n oth er dep artm en t, w ho s p eak s a s tr a in o f E nglis h t h at h as n oth in g t o d o w ith y our u nders ta n din g o f t h e la n guag e, a n d y our o nly o ptio n i s t o u se y our s ix te en -y ear-o ld s o n w ho s p eak s a l ittle o f t h is la n guag e ( fro m h ig h s c h ool) b ut w ho d oesn ’t k now h ow t o c o m munic ate s o m e o f t h e l e g al o r health t e rm s u se d . T he p ers o n a t t h e f ro nt d esk i s g ettin g f ru str a te d w ith y ou a n d i s t a lk in g m ore an d m ore l o udly i n t h e h ope t h at a n i n cre ase i n v olu m e w ill s u dden ly m ean y ou u nders ta n d w hat th ey a re s a y in g. T hey h av e n o i d ea o f t h e o rd eal y ou h av e b een t h ro ugh t o e v en g et t o t h em f o r help , a n d t h ey a re n ow t a lk in g t o c o -w ork ers a n d l a u ghin g. Y ou k now i t i s a b out y ou. Qualif ie d i n te rp re te rs w ill h old a N atio nal A ccre d ita tio n A uth ority f o r T ra n sla to rs a n d In te rp re te rs ( N AATI) a ccre d ita tio n a cco rd in g t o t h eir l e v el o f c o m pete n ce. W ork ers s h ould not u se c o -w ork ers w ho a re n ot q ualif ie d i n te rp re te rs . O fte n , c o -w ork ers f ro m s o m e s m alle r co m munitie s w ill a ctu ally k now t h e s e rv ic e u se r, o r t h eir f a m ily o r t h eir c lo se f rie n ds. T his i s a b re ach o f c o nfid en tia lity , a n d s e rv ic e u se rs a re p ut i n a n i m possib le s itu atio n i f t h is i s t h e 90 case . C hild re n o f s e rv ic e u se rs s h ould n ev er b e u se d ; t h is i s n ot a n a p pro pria te s itu atio n. O ne of t h e a u th ors , f o r e x am ple , h as s e en m oth ers s tr u gglin g t o f in d w ay s t o d esc rib e a s u sp ecte d mis c arria g e, t r y in g n ot t o s a y w ord s t h at w ill s ta rtle t h eir c h ild re n ( o r e v en t e ll t h eir c h ild re n what i s g oin g o n), r e su ltin g i n m ed ic al s ta ff d is m is sin g t h em . Qualif ie d i n te rp re te rs a re h ig hly s k ille d i n E nglis h a n d o th er l a n guag es; t h ey a re b ound b y a c o de o f e th ic s, w hic h m ean s t h ey p ra ctis e i m partia lity , c o nfid en tia lity a n d a ccu ra cy . T hey als o u nders ta n d m an y c u ltu ra l n orm s a n d p ra ctic es t h at b elo ng t o t h e s p ecif ic g ro up f o r w hic h th ey a re i n te rp re tin g. M ost a g en cie s a n d o rg an is a tio ns w ill h av e p olic ie s a n d p ro ced ure s f o r th e b ookin g a n d u se o f i n te rp re te rs , s o e n su re t h at y ou a re f a m ilia r w ith t h em . Som e ‘ d os’ a n d ‘ d on ’ts ’ w hen u sin g f a ce-to -fa ce o r ‘ o n -s it e ’ i n te rp rete rs When s e ek in g a n i n te rp re te r: • D o o nly u se s u ita b ly q ualif ie d i n te rp re te rs a n d b ook t h ro ugh a ccre d ite d i n te rp re tin g a g en cie s. • D o t r y t o a sc erta in w hat l a n guag e d ia le ct y our c lie n t n eed s b efo re b ookin g a n i n te rp re te r. T he clie n t’ s c o untr y o f b ir th m ay m ean v ery l ittle . • D o r e m em ber t o r e q uest t h e s p ecif ic g en der o f t h e i n te rp re te r. M atte rs t h at a re p artic u la rly s e n sitiv e or c lie n ts f ro m s p ecif ic r e lig io ns w ill o fte n r e q uir e ‘ s a m e-g en der’ i n te rp re te rs . • D o r e m em ber t o a llo w e x tr a t im e f o r a n i n te rv ie w s u ch a s t h is . • D on ’t e v er u se c h ild re n , r e la tiv es, f rie n ds, n eig hbours o r t h e h ead o f t h eir p artic u la r c h urc h , e v en i f th ey a re a v aila b le a n d i t w ill s a v e t im e. A n a ccre d ite d i n te rp re te r r e sp ects t h e n eed f o r i m partia lity an d c o nfid en tia lity . S om etim es a c lie n t w ill n ot b e h ap py w ith t h e c h oic e o f i n te rp re te r ( i.e . f ro m th e s a m e s m all c o m munity o r a d is ta n t r e la tiv e). T his s h ould b e r e sp ecte d a n d a n oth er i n te rp re te r arra n ged . Befo re t h e i n te rv ie w • D o b rie f t h e i n te rp re te r o n t h e c ase b efo re h an d, i f t h is i s a p pro pria te . • D on ’t a ssu m e t h at i n te rp re tin g i s a s im ple c ase o f m atc h in g t h e n on-E nglis h w ord o r e x pre ssio n with a n E nglis h m ean in g. S om etim es e q uiv ale n ts d on’t e x is t. • D on ’t e x pect t h e i n te rp re te r t o b e a w alk in g d ic tio nary . T here w ill b e t im es w hen t h e i n te rp re te r will n eed t o s e ek c la rif ic atio n o r a sk y ou t o e x pla in c erta in c o ncep ts . Durin g t h e i n te rv ie w • D o i n tr o duce y ours e lf t o y our c lie n t. • D o u se t h e c o nse cu tiv e s ty le o f i n te rp re tin g. T hat i s , p au se t o a llo w t h e i n te rp re te r t o i n te rp re t a fte r ev ery f e w s e n te n ces. • D o e x pla in c le arly w ho y ou a re a n d w hat t h e p urp ose o f t h e s e ssio n i s . T he c lie n t s h ould n ot b e co nfu se d a b out y our r o le , y our i n te re st i n t h eir a ffa ir s o r w hat y ou c an o ffe r. • D o m ain ta in c o ntr o l o f t h e i n te rv ie w . You m ust a sk t h e q uestio ns a n d h ear t h e r e p lie s f u lly . T he in te rp re te r’s j o b i s t o a ssis t i n c o m munic atio n, n ot t o c o nduct t h e i n te rv ie w a lo ne. • D o p ositio n y ours e lf i n a w ay t h at a llo w s y ou t o h av e m ax im um e y e c o nta ct w ith t h e c lie n t. A sk questio ns d ir e ctly t o t h e c lie n t. • D on ’t i s o la te t h e c lie n t b y i d en tif y in g w ith t h e i n te rp re te r a n d e n gag in g t h em i n a d is c u ssio n. I f y ou need t o c la rif y o r d is c u ss s o m eth in g w ith t h e i n te rp re te r, r e q uest t h at t h is b e e x pla in ed t o t h e c lie n t fir s t. • D on ’t a lie n ate t h e c lie n t b y h av in g t h e i n te rp re te r s it t o o c lo se t o y ou. 91 How t o w ork w it h a n i n te rp rete r o n t h e t e le p hon e • I n tr o duce y ours e lf t o t h e i n te rp re te r. • M ak e s u re t h at y ou t e ll t h e i n te rp re te r a b out t h e k in d o f t e le p hone e q uip m en t y ou h av e ( c o nfe re n ce te le p hone, d ual- h an dse t, s in gle t e le p hone) a n d w here y ou a re ( c o unte r, o ffic e, h osp ita l o r w ard ). • I n tr o duce y ours e lf a n d t h e i n te rp re te r t o t h e c lie n t a n d d esc rib e t h e p urp ose o f t h e i n te rv ie w . • L im it y our c o m munic atio n t o s e ctio ns o f m an ag eab le l e n gth . • A gain , y ou w an t t o u se t h e c o nse cu tiv e s ty le o f i n te rp re tin g. • R em em ber, t h at w ith a n y t e le p hone c o unse llin g, t h e p ers o n o n t h e o th er e n d h as n o n on-v erb al c u es (s u ch a s b ody l a n guag e) t o a ssis t t h em . • C le arly i n dic ate t h e e n d o f t h e s e ssio n t o t h e i n te rp re te r. Case s tu dy: W ork in g w it h a n i n te rp rete r 2 Pete r i s a h ousin g w ork er i n a s m all c o m munity h ousin g a g en cy . T he w ork o f t h is o rg an is a tio n i s to a d vocate f o r c lie n ts w ho a re h ouse d i n D ep artm en t o f H ousin g a cco m modatio n. T he p re v io us afte rn oon, a 5 0-y ear-o ld w om an h ad a p pro ach ed t h e r e cep tio n d esk , a sk in g f o r s o m e a ssis ta n ce. She e x pla in ed i n b ro ken E nglis h t h at s h e n eed ed a b ig ger h ouse . S he s a id t h at h er h usb an d a n d h er th re e t e en ag e s o ns w ere i n a t w o-b ed ro om D ep artm en t o f H ousin g U nit a n d t h is w as t o o s m all. The r e cep tio nis t c o nta cte d P ete r i n h is o ffic e, a n d e x pla in ed w hat s h e t h ought t h e s itu atio n w as. Pete r h ad n o t im e t h at a fte rn oon, s o h e a rra n ged f o r t h e w om an t o c o m e b ack t h e f o llo w in g afte rn oon a n d a sk ed t h e r e cep tio nis t t o a rra n ge f o r a n i n te rp re te r t o b e p re se n t. T he f o llo w in g afte rn oon, P ete r m et w ith t h e i n te rp re te r p rio r t o t h e w om an c o m in g t o t h e o rg an is a tio n. The i n te rp re te r w as a m ale a n d w as a K urd is h i n te rp re te r. W hen t h e w om an c am e i n f o r h er ap poin tm en t, s h e b ecam e a g ita te d v ery q uic k ly . S he d id n ot w an t t o t a lk t o a m an ( e ith er a h ousin g work er o r a n i n te rp re te r) a n d s h e w as T urk is h . A lth ough t h e i n te rp re te r s a id h e w as f lu en t i n Turk is h , t h e w om an r e fu se d t o h av e a n yth in g t o d o w ith t h e i n te rp re te r, a s t h e c u ltu ra l c o nflic t betw een t h e T urk is h a n d t h e K urd is h c o m munitie s w here s h e h ad c o m e f ro m , w ould n ot b e overc o m e. Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s • I f y ou w ere P ete r, w hat w ould y ou d o a t t h is p oin t? • I n h in dsig ht, w hat s h ould h av e b een d one t o e n su re t h at d id n ot h ap pen ? CO NCLU SIO N This c h ap te r h as d em onstr a te d t h at t h e r e la tio nsh ip s w e h av e w ith c o lle ag ues w ith in o ur o w n org an is a tio n, b etw een o rg an is a tio ns, w ith o ur B oard o f D ir e cto rs a n d w ith o ur v olu nte ers a re cru cia l i n gre d ie n ts i n e ffe ctiv e h um an s e rv ic e w ork . A s w e i n dic ate d i n o ur i n tr o ductio n, th ese r e la tio nsh ip s d o n ot n ecessa rily c o m e n atu ra lly , b ut r e q uir e s u sta in ed a tte n tio n. Furth erm ore , h um an s e rv ic e d eliv ery i s m uch m ore t h an t h e r e la tio nsh ip b etw een a w ork er an d a s e rv ic e u se r. I n deed , t h at r e la tio nsh ip a n d i ts o utc o m es d ep en d u pon t h e v ia b ility a n d quality o f a ll t h e o th er r e la tio nsh ip s d is c u sse d h ere . F in ally , w e d is c u sse d c u ltu ra l d iv ers ity an d s u ggeste d t e ch niq ues f o r w ork in g w ith i n te rp re te rs . W e s u ggest t o y ou t h at e ach a n d ev ery h um an s e rv ic e w ork er h as a s ig nif ic an t p ro fe ssio nal r e sp onsib ility t o w ard s e n su rin g good r e la tio nsh ip s i n a ll d om ain s. Chap te r r ev ie w q uestio n s 6.1 W hat i s t h e f u ndam en ta l p re co nditio n t o d ev elo pin g g ood r e la tio ns? 6.2 W hat a re t h e b en efits o f w ork in g i n t e am s? 92 6.3 W hat a re s o m e c o m mon p itf a lls o f w ork in g i n t e am s? 6.4 W hat a re t h e b en efits o f p ro m otin g i n te r-o rg an is a tio nal c o lla b ora tio n? 6.5 W hat a re t h e c h ara cte ris tic s o f i n te r-p ro fe ssio nal c o lla b ora tio n? 6.6 I d en tif y s ix r o le s o f a b oard o f d ir e cto rs . 6.7 A rtic u la te s ix p rin cip le s f o r w ork in g w ith v olu nte ers . 6.8 W hat a re f o ur k ey t ip s f o r w ork in g w ith i n te rp re te rs ? OTH ER R ESO URCES Writin g a n d u sin g m em ora n da o f u nders ta n din g, < http ://e zin eartic le s.c o m /? W ritin g-a n d- Usin g-M em ora n da-o f-U nders ta n din g-(M OUs)a n did = 144781 >. Work in g i n t e am s, < www.m an ag em en th elp .o rg /g rp _sk ll/te am s/te am s.h tm >. Build in g s tr o nger c o m munity o rg an is a tio ns— board s, < www.o urc o m munity .c o m .a u /b oard s/b oard s_ artic le .j s p ?artic le Id = 1309 >. Man ag in g v olu nte ers , < www.v olu nte erin gau str a lia .o rg /h tm l/s 1 2_co nte n t/d efa u lt.a sp ? tn id = 17an ddsb % 3D 440 >. Rig hts a n d r e sp onsib ilitie s i n r e la tio n t o v olu nte ers < www.v olu nte erin g.c o m .a u /w ork in g_w ith _volu nte ers /v olu nte erin g_is su es/v olu nte ers _ rig hts .a sp Vic to ria n D ep artm en t o f H um an S erv ic es, 2 006, Cultu ra l D iv ersity G uid e , < www.d hs.v ic .g ov.a u /m ultic u ltu ra l/d ow nlo ad s/c u ltu ra l_ div ers ity _guid e_ 2006.p df >. KEY R EA DIN G S Cre y to n, M ., M cG arric le , A . a n d O liv e, D . ( n .d .) , Work in g w ith V olu nte ers: A H um an Cen tr e d A ppro ach , V olu nte erin g Q ueen sla n d, < www.v olu nte erin g- queen sla n d.o rg .a u /f o rm s/B ookC hap te r1 .p df >. Darlin gto n, Y ., F een ey , J .A . a n d R ix on, K . 2 004, ‘ C om ple x ity , C onflic t a n d U ncerta in ty : Is su es i n C olla b ora tio n i n C hild P ro te ctio n a n d M en ta l H ealth S erv ic es’, Child re n a nd Youth S erv ic es R evie w , v ol. 2 6: 1 175–92. Fis h al, C . 2 008, The B ook o f t h e B oard : E ffe ctiv e G overn ance f o r N onpro fits , F ed era tio n Pre ss, S ydney . Hughes, M . a n d W earin g, M . 2 007, Org anis a tio ns a nd M anagem en t i n S ocia l W ork , S ag e, London, p p. 1 12–20. Kasa r, J . a n d C la rk , E .N . 2 000, Develo pin g P ro fe ssio nal B eh avio urs , S L A CK I n c., Thoro fa re , N J. McL au ghlin , H . 2 004, ‘ P artn ers h ip s: P an acea o r P re te n ce?, Jo urn al o f I n te rp ro fe ssio nal Care , v ol. 1 8, n o. 2 : 1 03–13. 93 C H APT ER S E V EN Superv is io n a n d s u pport S U M MARY T his c h ap te r a ck now le d ges t h at o ngoin g s u perv is io n a n d s u pport a re e sse n tia l t o m ain ta in in g g ood s ta ff i n c o nte m pora ry i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns. I t l o oks a t w ay s t h at, a s a n ew h um an s e rv ic e w ork er, y ou c an u nders ta n d h ow t h e s tr e ss t h at c o m es w ith t h is t y pe o f w ork c an i m pact o n y ou, a n d m ore i m porta n tly , w hat y ou c an d o t o h elp m an ag e t h is a n d c o ntin ue t o w ork p ro ductiv ely . I t s ta rts w ith a n o verv ie w o f s u perv is io n i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns a n d t h e v ario us f u nctio ns t h is s e rv es, i n clu din g t h e c o m monly a ccep te d c o re e le m en ts o f a d m in is tr a tio n, e d ucatio n a n d s u pport. N ex t w e m ove o n t o l o ok a t s o m e o f t h e c h alle n ges o f w ork in g i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es a n d t h e i m pact t h is m ay h av e o n w ork ers . L in ked t o t h is i s a d is c u ssio n o f s e lf -c are a n d o f s tr a te g ie s y ou c an u se t o l o ok a fte r y ours e lf . W e t h en e x am in e m odels o f s u perv is io n t h at a re u se d i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es a n d d is c u ss w hat t h ey o ffe r a n ew w ork er; w e a ls o c o nsid er w here t h ey m ay f a il. F in ally , w e l o ok a t o th er w ay s o f p ro vid in g s u pport a n d s u perv is io n. I n p artic u la r, w e e x plo re p eer s u perv is io n a n d l o ok a t h ow t h is c an a ssis t w ith e d ucativ e a n d s u pport f u nctio ns a n d a ssis t w ork ers i n t h eir j o bs. T hro ughout t h e c h ap te r, w e p re se n t a r a n ge o f c ase s tu die s t o h elp w ork ers u nders ta n d t h e i m porta n ce o f s u perv is io n a n d e x plo re h ow t h ey c an e n su re t h ey h av e a ccess t o t h e s u perv is io n a n d s u pport t h ey n eed . O VER VIE W O F S U PE R VIS IO N A ND W HY I T I S I M PO RTA NT M ost w ork ers i n t h e h um an s e rv ic e f ie ld w ill b e e n gag ed i n d if fic u lt, s o m etim es d is tr e ssin g a n d a lw ay s e m otio nally t a x in g w ork ; s u perv is io n a n d s u pport a re a m ong t h e k ey w ay s t h at t h is i s m an ag ed . A s d is c u sse d i n C hap te rs 1 a n d 2 , a ll o rg an is a tio ns n eed t o m an ag e t h e w ork o f t h eir s ta ff t o e n su re t h at t h ey p ro vid e t h e b est p ossib le s e rv ic e t o t h eir c lie n ts . I n s o cia l w ork , s u perv is io n i s t h e w ay t h at t h is t r a d itio nally h as b een d one. S uperv is io n i n h um an s e rv ic e w ork h as b een a ro und f o r o ver 8 0 y ears , a n d t h ro ughout t h is t im e i t h as s e rv ed a n um ber o f f u nctio ns ( T su i, 2 005). I n 1 976, A lf re d K ad ush in f ir s t p ublis h ed h is b ook o n s o cia l w ork s u perv is io n, i n w hic h h e a rtic u la te d t h e t h re e m ain a sp ects t h at r e m ain t o t h is d ay : a d m in is tr a tio n, e d ucatio n a n d s u pport ( K ad ush in a n d H ark ness, 2 002). T hese h av e b een w id ely a ccep te d a s d efin in g s u perv is io n. A n e x am ple o f t h eir u se c an b e s e en i n t h e A ASW s u perv is io n s ta n dard s ( 2 000), w hic h s ta te : 94 The p rim ary p urp ose o f p ro fe ssio nal s u perv is io n i s t o f a cilita te c o m pete n t, i n dep en den t p ra ctic e a nd not t o p erp etu ate d ep en den cy . . . S ocia l w ork s u perv is io n e n co m passe s a dm in is tr a tiv e, e d uca tio nal and s u pportiv e f u nctio ns, a ll o f w hic h a re i n te rre la te d . Adm in is tr a tio n This i s a m anagem en t f u nctio n w hic h i n clu des: t h e c la rific a tio n o f j o b r o le s; t h e p la nnin g a nd assig nm en t o f w ork ; t h e r e vie w a nd a sse ssm en t o f w ork ; a nd a cco unta bility a nd r e sp onsib ility f o r su perv is e e’s w ork . Educa tio n This i n vo lv es t h e p ro vis io n o f k n ow le d ge a nd s k ills , w hic h a re t h e w ork er’s n ecessa ry e q uip m en t f o r effe ctiv e p ra ctic e. I t i n clu des t h e d evelo pm en t o f s e lf- a w are n ess o f t h e s o cia l w ork er i n r e la tio n t o his /h er w ork . E duca tio nal s u perv is io n i s a c o re c o m ponen t i n t h e p ro fe ssio nal d evelo pm en t o f t h e work er. Support The s u pport f u nctio n o f s u perv is io n i s c o ncern ed w ith h elp in g t h e s u perv is e e d ea l w ith j o b-r e la te d str e ss, a nd w ith d evelo pin g a ttitu des a nd f e elin gs c o nduciv e t o m axim um j o b p erfo rm ance. I t h elp s su sta in w ork er m ora le , g iv es t h e s u perv is e e a s e n se o f p ro fe ssio nal s e lf w orth , a nd a f e elin g o f belo ngin g i n t h e a gen cy. Adm in is tr a tio n c an a ls o b e s e en a s m an ag em en t; t h is i s t h e c o m ponen t o f s u perv is io n t h at is f o cu se d o n e n su rin g t h at t h e w ork i s d one a n d t a sk s a re a llo cate d . I n m an y h um an s e rv ic e ag en cie s, t h is r o le i s n ow p erfo rm ed b y a m an ag er w ho m ay o r m ay n ot h av e f o rm al t r a in in g in h um an s e rv ic es a n d i s l e ss l ik ely t o b e a t r a in ed s o cia l w ork er. T his r o le i s a ls o s p ecif ie d i n jo b d esc rip tio ns a n d d uty s ta te m en ts . E ducatio n i s a n oth er c o m ponen t o f s u perv is io n, w hic h was o nce u nderta k en a s a f o rm o f ‘ o n-th e-jo b’ t r a in in g f o r s o cia l w ork ers a n d w elf a re s ta ff. In t h e 1 920s, u niv ers itie s a n d c o lle g es t o ok o n t h e r o le o f t r a in in g s o cia l w ork ers , b ut t h ere was s till a s tr o ng w ork -b ase d f o cu s a n d t h is c o ntin ues i n to t h e c u rre n t p ra ctic e o f s tu den t su perv is io n. F ie ld e d ucatio n i s a n e x am ple o f t h e e n durin g m aste r– ap pre n tic e m odel t h at w as fir s t d ev elo ped a s t h e m ean s o f s o cia l w ork e d ucatio n p rio r t o t h e e x is te n ce o f a n y s o cia l work s c h ools i n u niv ers itie s. T he f in al a sp ect o f s o cia l w ork s u perv is io n i s s u pport. Tra d itio nally , t h is f o rm ed p art o f t h e m ix o f s u perv is io n p ro vid ed b y a n a g en cy s u perv is o r, usu ally a s o cia l w ork er, w ith a f o cu s o n h elp in g t h e w ork er t o a d ju st t o j o b-re la te d s tr e ss (K ad ush in a n d H ark ness, 2 002). WHAT A RE S O M E O F T H E C H ALLEN G ES A ND H OW M AY T H EY IM PA CT? An i m porta n t i s su e t o c o nsid er i s t h at, w ith r e cen t c h an ges i n t h e p ro vis io n o f h um an se rv ic es, t h e r o le o f t h e p ro fe ssio nal s u perv is o r h as b eco m e m ore c o m ple x , a s c o nflic tin g a n d ofte n u nre alis tic d em an ds a re p la ced o n t h em ( J o nes, 1 999; B ed doe, 1 997). B ed doe ( 1 997: 10) s u m s i t u p i n t h is w ay : ‘ S ocia l w ork s u perv is io n h as s u ffe re d g re atly i n t h is c o nte x t a n d has b eco m e i n cre asin gly f o cu se d o n a d m in is tr a tiv e a n d m an ag eria l s e rv ic es t o t h e n eg le ct o f ed ucativ e a n d s u pport f u nctio ns.’ S he o utlin es t h e n eed t o p ro vid e t r a in in g f o r b oth n ew gra d uate s a n d s u perv is o rs i n a sp ects o f s u perv is io n t h at a re r e le v an t t o t h e f ie ld . T he c en tr a l purp ose o f s u perv is io n i s t o e n su re b est p ra ctic e, w ith a n eed t o f o cu s m ore o n s e rv ic e deliv ery a n d a cco unta b ility . A lo ngsid e t h is c o ncern f o r t h e n eed f o r i m pro vem en t i n t h e w ay su perv is io n i s p ro vid ed , t h ere h av e a ls o b een w id e-ra n gin g c o ncern s e x pre sse d a b out tr a d itio nal f o rm s o f s u perv is io n ( J o nes, 1 999: 8 1–2). T hese i n clu de b ein g t o o h ie ra rc h ic , fo ste rin g d ep en den ce, b ein g c o nduciv e t o r a cis t a n d s e x is t p ra ctic es, a n d i n ducin g c o nflic t 95 betw een t h e v ario us f u nctio ns. The c h an ges i n s e rv ic e d eliv ery i n W este rn h um an s e rv ic es h av e p la ced i n cre ase d p re ssu re on t h e t r a d itio nal s o cia l w ork s u perv is io n s tr u ctu re ( J o nes, 1 999; B ed doe, 1 997). J o nes m ak es th e p oin t t h at t r a n sfo rm atio n o f s u perv is io n p ra ctic es i s r e q uir e d t o r e sp ond t o t h e co m ple x itie s a n d c h alle n ges o f t h e c u rre n t e n vir o nm en t. H e c o nclu des w ith t h e v ie w t h at ex pecta tio ns o f s u perv is o rs n eed t o b e r e alis tic a n d w ork ers s h ould n ot a ssu m e t h e su perv is o rs a re s u perh ero es. C la re ( 2 001) h as a ls o w ritte n a b out t h e t e n sio ns a n d co m ple x itie s i n volv ed i n s o cia l w ork s u perv is io n d urin g t im es o f i n cre ase d a cco unta b ility . H e su ggests a m odel o f ‘ d ev elo pm en ta l s u perv is io n’ t h at, i n h is w ord s, a v oid s t h e ‘ q uic k f ix ’ o f mak in g d ecis io ns f o r w ork ers . H e s tr e sse s t h e i m porta n ce o f u sin g s u perv is io n t o e n co ura g e new w ork ers t o t a k e t h e t im e t o t h in k t h ro ugh t h eir o w n s o lu tio ns a n d t h ere b y a d dre ss t h eir ed ucatio nal a n d s u pport n eed s. C la re s e es t h is m eth od a s h elp in g t o o verc o m e t h e t e n den cy to w ard s i n cre asin g p ow erle ssn ess a n d d ep en den cy o f n ew w ork ers . H ughes a n d W earin g (2 007: 1 22) a ls o d is c u ss t h e d an ger o f a d optin g a ‘ p ro ble m -s o lv in g’ a p pro ach i n s u perv is io n, whic h m ay r e d uce t h e o pportu nitie s f o r l o nger t e rm l e arn in g a n d p ro fe ssio nal d ev elo pm en t. Oth er s ig nif ic an t i s su es t o c o nsid er w ith s u perv is io n a re p ow er i s su es w here p erfo rm an ce i s bein g a sse sse d , d if fe re n ces i n l e arn in g s ty le s ( H ughes a n d W earin g, 2 007) a n d p ers o nality dif fe re n ces t h at w ill a ffe ct h ow s o m eo ne w ork s w ith o th er t e am m em bers a n d t h eir su perv is o r ( G ard ner, 2 006). The v ie w s d is c u sse d a b ove h ig hlig ht t h e w id e r a n ge o f p ers p ectiv es a b out t h e r o le o f a su perv is o r a n d w hat c o nstitu te s g ood s u perv is io n; t h ey a ls o s h ow t h at t h ere a re m an y f a cto rs th at w ill i m pact o n y our p re fe rre d l e arn in g a n d s u pport n eed s. F ro m t h is w e s u ggest t h at i t can b e q uite u nre alis tic t o r e ly o n y our s u perv is o r t o m eet a ll y our s u pport a n d e d ucatio nal need s, a n d t h at a s a n ew w ork er y ou s h ould t a k e r e sp onsib ility f o r u nders ta n din g w hat t h ese need s a re a n d g en era tin g i d eas a b out h ow y ou c an m eet t h em . L ate r i n t h is c h ap te r, w e w ill fo cu s o n s o m e f o rm s o f s u perv is io n a n d s u pport t h at c an b e u se d . Case s tu dy: S uperv is io n Leila i s a n ew w ork er i n a g overn m en t w elf a re a g en cy ; s h e i s i n volv ed i n d oin g i n ta k e asse ssm en ts . L eila h as r e g ula r w eek ly s u perv is io n w ith h er t e am l e ad er, J im , w here s h e d is c u sse s case s t h at h av e b een r e fe rre d t o h er. A t t h ese s e ssio ns, L eila i s a sk ed t o a d vis e w here s h e i s u p t o with e ach c ase a n d t o m en tio n a n y r e fe rra ls a b out w hic h s h e i s u nsu re . J im i s v ery s u pportiv e a n d keen t o e n su re t h at L eila d oes n ot f e el o verw helm ed b y a n y c ase s a ssig ned t o h er. H e w ill s u ggest way s t o c o m ple te t h e a sse ssm en t o r o ffe r t o t a k e o n w ork h im se lf , o r h e w ill r e fe r t o a m ore ex perie n ced w ork er i f n eed b e. Jim i s v ery b usy , a s t h e t e am i s e x pecte d t o c o m ple te a s e t n um ber o f a sse ssm en ts p er w eek ; how ev er, h e i s a lw ay s a v aila b le f o r t h e o ne-h our s u perv is io n s e ssio n. D esp ite J im ’s s u pport, L eila sta rts t o f e el w orrie d b y h er w ork . S he i s b eg in nin g t o f e el u ncerta in o f h er a b ilitie s a n d a ls o wonders w heth er s h e i s d oin g t h e r ig ht t h in g b y w ork in g i n t h is s e ttin g, a s s h e d oes n ot f u lly unders ta n d o r e v en a ccep t s o m e o f t h e g uid elin es w ith w hic h s h e n eed s t o w ork . W hen s h e r a is e s her c o ncern s w ith J im , h e t e lls h er t h at m an y n ew w ork ers f e el t h is w ay a n d t h at i f s h e i s n ot co m fo rta b le w ith a n y p artic u la r c ase s t o t e ll h im a n d h e w ill r e assig n t h em . Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s • W hat f u nctio n o f s u perv is io n i s b ein g c o vere d h ere ? • I s t h is m eetin g L eila ’s n eed s? W hy o r w hy n ot? • W hat i s b ein g l e ft o ut? • W hy m ig ht L eila b e l o sin g c o nfid en ce a n d h av in g d oubts ? • H ow c o uld t h is b e a d dre sse d ? 96 ST R ESS A ND S E LF-C ARE Work in g i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es c an p ose m an y c h alle n ges f o r s ta ff ( G ard ner 2 006: 7 ; T su i, 2005: 8 3). N ot o nly a re w ork ers o fte n d ealin g w ith t h e m ost d is a d van ta g ed a n d m arg in alis e d peo ple , b ut t h ey w ill a ls o n eed t o w ork w ith in a g en cy ( a n d f u ndin g) g uid elin es t h at m ay l im it th eir r o le a n d p la ce r e str ic tio ns o n w ork in g i n t h e w ay s t h ey f e el w ill m ost b en efit t h e s e rv ic e use r. A ls o , w ork ers a re o fte n f a ced w ith c o m ple x s itu atio ns w ith w hic h t h ey m ay h av e h ad n o sp ecif ic e x perie n ce o r a re r e q uir e d t o w ork w ith in g uid elin es t h ey d o n ot f u lly u nders ta n d o r with w hic h t h ey m ay n ot c o m ple te ly a g re e. A ll o f t h is c an r e su lt i n a h ig h d eg re e o f uncerta in ty a n d s tr e ss. D ra w in g o n a r a n ge o f a u th ors , T su i ( 2 005: 8 3) d efin es s tr e ss a s ‘ a neg ativ e f e atu re o f t h e e n vir o nm en t t h at i m pin ges o n t h e i n div id ual’ a n d b urn out a s ‘ a c lu ste r of p hysic al a n d e m otio nal m ala d ap tiv e r e actio ns t o h ig h l e v els o f w ork -re la te d s tr e ss’. T su i has i d en tif ie d m ajo r s o urc es o f w ork s tr e ss: t h e n atu re o f t h e d em an ds o f t h e j o b; o verw ork ; jo b i n se cu rity ; p oor p hysic al e n vir o nm en t; a l a ck o f c le ar g uid elin es f o r d ecis io n-m ak in g; a n d fin ally i n te r-p ers o nal d if fic u ltie s b etw een s ta ff. As w ell a s s tr e ss f ro m t h e n atu re o f w ork u nderta k en a n d t h e r e actio ns o f i n div id uals with in t h is , t h e w ay t h e o rg an is a tio n f u nctio ns a n d i s s tr u ctu re d c an a ls o h av e a p ositiv e o r neg ativ e i m pact o n t h e s tr e ss l e v els o f i ts s ta ff. T hom pso n a n d c o lle ag ues ( 1 996) u nderto ok a stu dy l o okin g a t t h e e ffe ct o f o rg an is a tio nal c u ltu re o n t h e s tr e ss l e v els o f s o cia l w ork ers . They c o nclu ded t h at t h e o rg an is a tio n i ts e lf , o r s ta ff g ro ups w ith in i t, c an d ev elo p a f o rm o f co lle ctiv e b urn out t h at t h ey d esc rib e a s ‘ o rg an is a tio nal s tr e ss’ ( T hom pso n e t a l., 1 996). T hey co nducte d r e se arc h w ith t w o g ro ups o f s o cia l w ork s ta ff i n d if fe re n t b ra n ch es o f t h e s a m e org an is a tio n u nderta k in g v ery s im ila r w ork a n d f o und t h at t h e g ro ups e x perie n ced q uite dif fe re n t l e v els o f s tr e ss, e v en t h ough t h e c lie n t w ork t h ey u nderto ok w as t h e s a m e. F ro m t h is th ey c o nclu ded t h at w hen w ork i s p oorly o rg an is e d w ith m ore t im e p re ssu re , a n d w here work ers h av e l e ss m otiv atio n a n d m ore d oubt a b out t h eir e ffe ctiv en ess, t h ey w ill e x perie n ce hig her l e v els o f w ork -re la te d s tr e ss. T hey n ote t h at w ork ers i n t h is s itu atio n w ill h av e a hig her n eed o f s u pport, i n p artic u la r a n eed f o r m ore a ck now le d gem en t f ro m t h eir s u perv is o rs of t h e s tr e sso rs o f t h eir j o b. T heir r e se arc h a ls o s h ow ed t h at r e la tio nsh ip s w ith f e llo w w ork ers were o f p rim e i m porta n ce t o j o b s a tis fa ctio n. The w ork o f T hom pso n e t a l. ( 1 996) h ig hlig hts t h e i m porta n ce o f h av in g a n u nders ta n din g of t h e c u ltu re i n w hic h y ou w ill w ork a n d t h e q uality o f t h e r e la tio nsh ip s a n d s u pport t h at w ill be p ro vid ed . A ll h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers ( b ut p artic u la rly t h ose w ith l im ite d e x perie n ce) n eed to h av e t h e o pportu nity t o b e p ro vid ed w ith o ngoin g e d ucatio n a n d s u pport f o r u nderta k in g th eir j o b. T hey n eed s o m eo ne t o k eep a n e y e o n t h eir w ork lo ad a n d e n su re n ot o nly t h at t h ey are n ot o verlo ad ed , b ut t h at t h ey a re n ot h an dlin g c ase s w ith w hic h t h ey d o n ot h av e t h e ex perie n ce t o d eal e ffe ctiv ely . B ro dy ( 1 993: 2 50–2) a rg ues t h at m an y o rg an is a tio nally gen era te d s tr e sse s c an b e a d dre sse d , a n d i t i s t h e r e sp onsib ility o f t h e o rg an is a tio n t o a d dre ss su ch s tr e sso rs a s r o le a m big uity , o verlo ad ( o r u nderlo ad ) o f w ork , c o ntr a d ic to ry e x pecta tio ns, poor p la n nin g, a l a id -b ack a tm osp here , a n d p oor m atc h es b etw een s ta ff a n d j o bs. H um an se rv ic e w ork ers n eed t o k now t h at t h ey a re n ot a lo ne w ith t h eir c o ncern s a n d s h ould f e el a b le to r a is e d oubts a n d s e ek s u pport a s n eed ed . W ith out t h is , t h ey w ill b eco m e s tr e sse d a n d f a ce what i s c o m monly k now n a s ‘ b urn out’ ( T su i, 2 006: 8 3). Burn ou t: A s ta te o f e m otio nal, m en ta l, a n d p hysic al e x hau stio n c au se d b y e x cessiv e a n d p ro lo nged str e ss. I t o ccu rs w hen a w ork er f e els o verw helm ed a n d u nab le t o m eet c o nsta n t d em an ds. I f t h e s tr e ss co ntin ues, t h e w ork er b eg in s t o l o se t h e i n te re st o r m otiv atio n t h at l e d h im o r h er t o t a k e o n a c erta in ro le i n t h e f ir s t p la ce. Self -c are i s e m phasis e d i n s o cia l w ork a n d o th er c o urs e s; h ow ev er, i t c an s o m etim es hap pen t h at w ork ers g et s o c au ght u p i n t h e e m otio n o f t h eir w ork t h at t h ey f o rg et t o 97 im ple m en t s e lf -c are s tr a te g ie s. T he s tr e ssfu l n atu re o f h um an s e rv ic e w ork i s w ell k now n a n d has b een d is c u sse d b y m an y a u th ors . W hile t h e i m porta n ce o f l o okin g a fte r s ta ff s h ould b e a hig h p rio rity , t h e e x te n t t o w hic h a n a g en cy c an o r d oes l o ok a fte r i ts s ta ff w ill v ary . T he pro vis io n o f s u perv is io n i s t h e p rim ary m ean s b y w hic h t h e a g en cy i s f u lf illin g i ts re q uir e m en t t o s u pport w ork ers . T his m ean s t h at i t i s v ery i m porta n t t h at y ou, a s a n ew work er, c an i d en tif y y our o w n d ev elo pm en t a n d s u pport n eed s a n d t h at y ou h av e t h ought ab out w ay s t o a ch ie v e t h ese . I d en tif ic atio n o f e d ucatio nal n eed s i s i m porta n t a n d s e lf -c are i s a key i s su e. Chen ow eth a n d M cA ulif fe ( 2 008: 2 56) l is t s tr a te g ie s f o r s e lf -c are d ev elo ped b y a n ex perie n ced c h ild p ro te ctio n w ork er. W hile t h ese w ill n ot a ll b e r e le v an t t o e v ery one, t h ey d o pro vid e a g ood o verv ie w o f t h in gs t o k eep i n m in d a n d i d eas o n w hic h t o d ra w . T he s tr a te g ie s are : • M an ag e s tr e ss t h ro ugh p ro ble m -s o lv in g a p pro ach es, r e la x atio n, f u n, e x erc is e — or w hate v er e ls e work s f o r y ou. • D ev elo p a n d m ain ta in h ope a n d s p ir itu ality . • A ck now le d ge t h e t r o ublin g a n d d eb ilita tin g a sp ects o f y our w ork a n d a ls o a ck now le d ge y our in div id ual s u ccesse s, a ch ie v em en ts a n d t h e v ita l r o le t h at y ou p la y i n o ur s o cie ty . • A ccep t t h at f e elin gs o f a n ger a n d s o rro w a re a ll a sp ects o f a h ealth y p sy ch e. • E ngag e w ith y our c o m munity — fin d a s p ace t o p artic ip ate i n ‘ h ealth h um an ity ’. • M ain ta in c le ar b oundarie s b etw een y our w ork a n d y our p riv ate l if e . • K eep a l if e o uts id e w ork — pro te ct i t a n d n urtu re i t. • D ev elo p a n d u se s u pportiv e w ork pla ce r e la tio nsh ip s. • B e a sse rtiv e i n e x pre ssin g y our e m otio nal n eed s a t w ork . • U se l in e-m an ag em en t s u perv is io n t o p ro cess y our e m otio nal r e sp onse s t o w ork a n d t o a rtic u la te your c are n eed s. • B eco m e p olitic ally a ctiv e o n i s su es t h at a re i m porta n t t o y ou i n b oth y our p ers o nal a n d p ro fe ssio nal lif e . • A ccess e x te rn al p ro fe ssio nal s u perv is io n. • I f n eed ed , e sta b lis h o r j o in p eer s u perv is io n o r s u pport n etw ork s. • W rite a s e lf -c are p la n t h at o utlin es y our s tr e n gth s a n d v uln era b ilitie s, m ap s y our r e so urc es a n d su pports a n d m ak es c le ar c o m mitm en ts a b out w hat y ou c an d o a n d w hy. EX ER CIS E • D ra w in g o n t h ese s tr a te g ie s, c h oose t h re e t h at s e em p artic u la rly i m porta n t o r r e le v an t t o y ou. • T hin k o f e x am ple s o f h ow t h ese c an a p ply t o y our c ir c u m sta n ces. • I f y ou w is h , s h are t h is w ith a f e llo w s tu den t/w ork er. • B eg in t o w rite t h at s e lf -c are p la n ! At t im es, v ery t r o ublin g e v en ts c an o ccu r, o r y ou m ay f in d t h at w ork o r p ers o nal p re ssu re can r e su lt i n y ou f e elin g o verw helm ed ; y ou m ay e v en f e el t h at y ou c an not c o pe. I n t h ese case s, i t i s i m porta n t t o g et h elp . M an y o rg an is a tio ns h av e E m plo yee A ssis ta n ce P ro gra m s (E A Ps) t h ro ugh w hic h y ou c an a ccess c o nfid en tia l c o unse llin g a n d s u pport. I n s o m e situ atio ns, a w ork pla ce m ay a rra n ge f o r E A P p ro vid ers t o a tte n d t h e a g en cy i f t h ere h as b een a c ritic al i n cid en t o f s o m e s o rt, s u ch a s a n a ccid en t, w ork pla ce a g gre ssio n, o r i n ju ry t o o r t h e death o f a s e rv ic e u se r o r s ta ff m em ber. I t i s p art o f t h e o rg an is a tio n’s h ealth a n d s a fe ty oblig atio ns t o m ak e t h ese t y pes o f s e rv ic e a v aila b le t o s ta ff, a n d i t i s n ot a s ig n o f w eak ness to a v ail y ours e lf o f t h em — partic u la rly a s b y a d dre ssin g t h ese m atte rs e arly o n y ou h av e a gre ate r c h an ce o f d ealin g e ffe ctiv ely w ith t h em . 98 HOW I S S U PE R VIS IO N U SE D ? As a n ew w ork er i n a h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio n, y ou w ill e x perie n ce s o m e s im ila rity a n d man y d if fe re n ces f ro m t h e n atu re o f s u perv is io n a n d s u pport y ou w ill h av e e x perie n ced a s a stu den t. H opefu lly , a s a s tu den t o n p la cem en t, y ou w ill h av e h ad e x perie n ce o f s u perv is io n. Socia l w ork i n p artic u la r h as a v ery s tr o ng f o cu s o n t h e f ie ld e d ucatio n r o le a n d c le ar guid elin es o n w hat i s e x pecte d f o r s tu den ts i n p la cem en t. T hro ughout y our p la cem en t, w hile you m ay w ell h av e r e ceiv ed t r a in in g a n d s u pport t o w ork a s a b ase g ra d e w ork er i n t h e org an is a tio n, t h e m ain f o cu s w ill h av e b een o n y our l e arn in g. T here w ill h av e b een a n um ber of s o urc es o f i n fo rm atio n t o g uid e y ou a n d y our s u perv is o r i n t h is w ork , i n clu din g u niv ers ity outlin es o f e x pecta tio ns o f f ie ld p la cem en t, l e arn in g p la n s a n d t e x ts d ev elo ped s p ecif ic ally t o assis t w ith p la cem en t, s u ch a s Makin g t h e M ost o f F ie ld P la cem en t ( C le ak a n d W ils o n, 2007). A s p art o f p la n nin g f o r t h e t y pe o f j o b t h at w ill s u it y ou a n d t h e s u pports t h at y ou m ay need , i t m ay b e w orth r e v ie w in g t h ese a n d i n p artic u la r c o nsid erin g y our i n div id ual l e arn in g an d s u pport n eed s. When y ou t a k e u p a f o rm al p ositio n i n a n o rg an is a tio n, t h in gs c h an ge. Y ou a re r e q uir e d t o meet s p ecif ic g uid elin es r e g ard in g o utp ut o f y our w ork , o fte n d ic ta te d b y f u ndin g arra n gem en ts o rg an is a tio ns h av e w ith g overn m en ts . Y ou a re a ls o e x pecte d t o w ork m ore au to nom ously , a lth ough t h e d eg re e o f i n dep en den ce w ill v ary f ro m a g en cy t o a g en cy . A s a stu den t, y ou w ill h av e h ad a n i d en tif ie d s u perv is o r w ho h as a c le arly m an date d r o le t o su pport y ou a n d y our l e arn in g, a l ia is o n p ers o n w ho c an a ct t o a ssis t a n d i n te rv en e i f pla cem en t i s su es c an not b e r e so lv ed a t t h e l o cal l e v el, a n d a ls o a ccess t o t h e o th er u niv ers ity sta ff. A ls o , a s a s tu den t y ou w ill h av e h ad t h e s u pport o f y our s tu den t c o hort— both t h ro ugh fo rm al m ech an is m s s u ch a s i n te g ra tiv e s e m in ars a n d v ia i n fo rm al c atc h -u ps a n d s u pport gro ups. Once y ou b eg in e m plo ym en t, t h e a m ount a n d t y pe o f s u perv is io n y ou w ill r e ceiv e w ill b e se t b y t h e a g en cy . T he A ASW h as r e co m men ded s ta n dard s, w hic h s ta te t h at ‘ R ecen t gra d uate s ( le ss t h an t h re e y ears ’ f u lltim e e x perie n ce) s h ould r e ceiv e t h e e q uiv ale n t o f w eek ly in div id ual s u perv is io n o f a t l e ast o ne u nin te rru pte d h our p er w eek , t h is c an i n clu de g ro up su perv is io n’. H ow ev er, i t i s u p t o t h e o rg an is a tio n t o d ecid e w hat i t p uts i n p la ce. T he A ASW note s t h at w hile a tte n dan ce a t s ta ff m eetin gs, w ork sh ops a n d i n -h ouse t r a in in g i s a v alu ab le so urc e o f p ro fe ssio nal d ev elo pm en t, t h ese d o n ot r e p la ce s u perv is io n. A s a n ew w ork er, how ev er, i t i s e sse n tia l t o e n su re t h at y our p ro fe ssio nal d ev elo pm en t n eed s a re m et a n d t h at you a re l in ked i n w ith t h e r e st o f t h e o rg an is a tio n. P artic ip atio n i n t h ese v ario us org an is a tio nal f o ru m s h elp s y ou a tte n d t o s o m e o f y our o w n e d ucatio nal a n d s u pport n eed s. The o th er i s su e t h at c an a ls o o ccu r w ith s tu den t s u perv is io n i s a s itu atio n w here , a lth ough sta n dard s a re i n p la ce, t h ey a re n ot— fo r a v arie ty o f r e aso ns— ad here d t o . T he m ost c o m mon re aso n i s t h e w ork p re ssu re s o f e ith er o r b oth t h e s u perv is o r a n d t h e s u perv is e e. Unfo rtu nate ly , i t i s u su ally d urin g t h ese t im es o f h ig h p re ssu re a n d p eak w ork lo ad s t h at su perv is io n i s m ost n eed ed . Y ou c an g ain a n u nders ta n din g o f t h e e x te n t o f s u pport a n d au to nom y v ia t h e j o b d esc rip tio n a n d d uty s ta te m en t o f y our n ew j o b. T here m ay w ell a ls o b e work p la n s d ev elo ped t h at o utlin e s p ecif ic t a sk s a n d e d ucatio nal n eed s o r o pportu nitie s. These w ill h av e s o m e s im ila ritie s t o t h e l e arn in g p la n b ut w ill h av e a s tr o nger f o cu s o n j o b re q uir e m en ts . EX ER CIS E • T hin k a b out y our e x perie n ces o f s u perv is io n, e ith er d ir e ctly a s a s tu den t, o r t h ro ugh obse rv atio n/in fo rm atio n f ro m o th er s tu den ts o r y our e x perie n ce i n t h e w ork fo rc e. • W hic h s ty le s s u ite d y ou a n d w hic h d id y ou f in d d if fic u lt? 99 • Y ou m ay w is h t o r e fe r t o T ony M orris o n’s b ook o n Sta ff S uperv is io n ( 2 001: 7 6) f o r i d eas o n ‘s u perv is io n h is to rie s’. • D is c u ss t h is i n p air s , f o cu sin g o n w hat w ork ed w ell a n d w hat c o ntr ib ute d t o t h is . • I d en tif y w hat y ou w ould l ik e t o h av e i n t h e w ay o f s u perv is io n a n d s u pport. • T hin k a b out h ow y ou c an i d en tif y t h is i n a n ew j o b o r o bta in i t i n a c u rre n t p ositio n ( c o nsid er jo b c h oic e, o rg an is a tio nal s tr u ctu re /r e q uir e m en ts , o rg an is a tio nal c u ltu re a n d c o m mitm en t t o su perv is io n o r r e fle ctiv e p ra ctic e). • I f t im e p erm its , r e v ie w s o m e j o b d esc rip tio ns a n d l o ok u p t h e a g en cy d ocu m en ta tio n t o s e e what i s i n p la ce r e g ard in g o rg an is a tio nal s tr u ctu re , l in es o f a cco unta b ility a n d p olic y o n su perv is io n/tr a in in g. GUID ELIN ES F O R S U PE R VIS IO N Giv en t h e i n cre ase d f o cu s o n a cco unta b ility , y ou c an e x pect t o h av e a l in e m an ag er t o w hom you a re r e sp onsib le i n y our d ay -to -d ay p ra ctic e. W e w ill n ot d is c u ss t h ese a sp ects h ere a s th ey h av e b een c o vere d e ls e w here , e x cep t t o n ote t h at a d m in is tr a tiv e s u perv is io n w ill b e t h e co re f o rm o f s u perv is io n p ro vid ed i n y our w ork pla ce. H ow w ell t h is r e la tio nsh ip w ork s a n d wheth er t h e a d m in is tr a tiv e s u perv is io n i s a p pro pria te t o y our n eed s i s a n oth er m atte r. A t tim es, i t c an s e em a ttr a ctiv e t o h av e m in im al d ir e ctio n; h ow ev er, y ou n eed t o e n su re t h at y our basic w ork c o nditio ns a n d w ork a llo catio n a re c o vere d a n d t h at y ou k now w hat t o e x pect, a n d th at y ou h av e r e so urc es a n d s u pports i n p la ce t o u nderta k e y our j o b. W ith out t h is , y ou r is k th e s o rt o f w ork pla ce s tr e ss w e d is c u sse d e arlie r i n t h e c h ap te r. While t h e a d m in is tr a tiv e a sp ects o f s u perv is io n a re f a ir ly c le ar-c u t, t h ere h as b een a l o t o f deb ate a b out t h e p oin t a t w hic h c lo se s u perv is io n s h ould e n d. T he n otio n o f ‘ in te rm in ab le su perv is io n’ i s d is c u sse d b y T su i ( 2 005), w ho a rg ues t h at o nce w ork ers h av e a s ig nif ic an t am ount o f p ra ctic e t h ey s h ould b e f re e t o w ork l a rg ely u nsu perv is e d , s e ek in g c o nsu lta tio n a s th ey i d en tif y t h e n eed t o d o s o . T he o th er f a cto r t h at w ill i n flu en ce t h is i s t h e q uality o f y our re la tio nsh ip w ith y our s u perv is o r. T his c an b e q uite a n i n te n se r e la tio nsh ip , a n d i t i s w orth co nsid erin g w hat m ay p re v en t t h is . P ep per ( 1 996) h as w ritte n a b out f a cto rs t h at c an i m ped e a positiv e s u perv is o ry r e la tio nsh ip o r c au se t e n sio n i n a c o unse llin g s e ttin g. S he h as p re p are d re fe re n ce t a b le s t h at i d en tif y t h e k ey f a cto rs s h e b elie v es a re i m porta n t t o e ach o f t h e fu nctio ns o f s u perv is io n. S he t h en l is ts s tr a te g ie s f o r b uild in g a p ositiv e r e la tio nsh ip a n d str a te g ie s f o r a d dre ssin g t e n sio n a g ain st e ach o f t h em . Tony M orris o n h as w ritte n a v ery p ra ctic al b ook o n s ta ff s u perv is io n i n t h e f o rm o f a man ual ( 2 001). I n t h is b ook, M orris o n s e ts o ut g uid elin es f o r c o ntr a cts a n d s tr u ctu re s f o r in div id ual s u perv is io n ( 2 001: 9 9). I n clu ded i n t h is s e ctio n o f t h e c h ap te r a re p ra ctic al guid elin es f o r s e ttin g u p i n div id ual s u perv is io n a n d a l is t o f r ig hts a n d r e sp onsib ilitie s. Explic itly s ta tin g w hat i s e x pecte d o f e ach p arty i s o ne k ey w ay t o e n su re s u perv is io n i s co nstr u ctiv e a n d a v oid s s o m e o f t h e p itf a lls t h at c an o ccu r. ED UCATIO NAL A ND S U PPO RT N EED S: M ODELS O F SU PE R VIS IO N While i t i s c o m monly a ccep te d t h at t h e a d m in is tr a tiv e o r m an ag em en t f u nctio n o f s u perv is io n is u su ally p ro vid ed b y t h e s u perv is o r o r l in e m an ag er, t h e p ro vis io n o f e d ucatio n a n d s u pport is l e ss c le ar-c u t. T here h av e b een m an y a p pro ach es d ev elo ped t o a d dre ss w ork ers ’ ed ucatio nal a n d s u pport n eed s, s o m e d ev elo ped b y t h e h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns a n d oth ers i n itia te d b y w ork ers t h em se lv es. T here i s a ls o a r a n ge o f v ie w s a s t o w heth er t h ese 100 dif fe re n t m eth ods o ffe r i m pro ved o utc o m es o r a re a r e su lt o f l im ite d r e so urc es. S om e o f t h e oth er w ay s o f m eetin g t h e s u pport a n d e d ucatio nal n eed s o f w ork ers i n clu de g ro up su perv is io n, p eer s u perv is io n, r e fle ctiv e g ro ups, t r a in in g c o urs e s a n d e x te rn al s u perv is io n. Tsu i a n d H o ( 1 998: 1 89–92) o utlin e a r a n ge o f m odels o f s u perv is io n t h at c an b e im ple m en te d a t t h e a g en cy l e v el. T hese a re : • The c a se w ork m odel . T his i s a o ne-to -o ne r e la tio nsh ip a n d t h e m ost w id ely u se d m odel, e sp ecia lly fo r i n ex perie n ced w ork ers . I t e n co m passe s a ll t h re e f u nctio ns o f s u perv is io n i d en tif ie d e arlie r i n th is c h ap te r. • The g ro up s u perv is io n m odel . T his i s t h e s e co nd m ost p opula r m odel i n s o cia l w ork s u perv is io n. I t is o fte n u se d a s a s u pple m en t t o i n div id ual s u perv is io n. T he s u perv is o r f u nctio ns a s t h e g ro up le ad er a n d e n co ura g es s ta ff t o s h are d if fic u ltie s a n d i n sig hts . A s i t f o cu se s o n c o m mon n eed s, t h e gro up s h ould n ot b e t o o d iv ers e i n t e rm s o f t r a in in g o r e x perie n ce. T he b ala n ce o f p ow er i s m ore eq ual. M em bers a re e x pose d t o a w id e v arie ty o f l e arn in g e x perie n ces, a n d e m otio nal s u pport i s als o p ro vid ed . T his i s m ore e ffic ie n t t h an i n div id ual s u perv is io n b ut r e lie s o n l e ad ers h ip q ualitie s o f th e s u perv is o r a n d m otiv atio n o f s ta ff m em bers . • The p eer s u perv is io n m odel . T here i s n o d esig nate d s u perv is o r a n d a ll s ta ff p artic ip ate e q ually . E ach sta ff m em ber t a k es r e sp onsib ility f o r t h eir o w n w ork a n d t h ere i s n o r e g ula r i n div id ual s u perv is io n; co lle g ia l c o nsu lta tio ns a m ong s ta ff a re c o m mon. T his f o rm o f s u perv is io n c re ate s a n a tm osp here o f mutu al h elp a n d s h arin g. I t m ay n ot b e a g ood c h oic e f o r i n ex perie n ced s ta ff. • The t e a m s e rv ic e d eliv ery m odel . T he s u perv is o r t a k es o n t h e r o le o f t e am l e ad er b ut t h ere i s n o re g ula r s u perv is io n. T he t e am f o cu se s o n t h e w ork a n d c o lle ctiv e r e sp onsib ility i s u se d f o r d ecis io n- mak in g, a lth ough t h e t e am l e ad er h as t h e f in al s a y . R esp onsib ility f o r w ork a ssig nm en t, perfo rm an ce-m onito rin g a n d p ro fe ssio nal d ev elo pm en t r e sts w ith t h e t e am . • Auto nom ous p ra ctic e . F or e x perie n ced , p ro fe ssio nally t r a in ed w ork ers t h ere i s n o r e al n eed f o r su perv is io n. S ta ff a re r e sp onsib le f o r t h eir o w n p ro fe ssio nal p ra ctic e a n d p ro fe ssio nal d ev elo pm en t. (A dap te d f ro m T su i a n d H o, 1 998) As t h is o verv ie w o f t h e v ario us m odels i llu str a te s, a w id e r a n ge o f s u perv is io n arra n gem en ts e x is t. L ow e a n d G uy ( 1 999: 3 6) a rg ue t h at g ro up s u perv is io n i s t h e m ost co m mon f o rm o f s u perv is io n f o r c o unse llo rs , a n d t h at m an y c o unse llo rs w ill u se b oth g ro up an d i n div id ual s u perv is io n t o a d dre ss d if fe re n t n eed s. L ow e a n d G uy ( 1 999) p ut f o rw ard a model f o r m ovin g f ro m g ro up t o p eer s u perv is io n v ia t h e u se o f c o nsu lta n ts w ho g ra d ually move f ro m t h e p ositio n o f g ro up l e ad er t o o ccasio nal g uest. I n m an y h um an s e rv ic e org an is a tio ns, t h ere c an b e a m ix tu re o f i n div id ual a n d g ro up s u perv is io n a n d a t t im es p eer su perv is io n, d ep en din g o n c ir c u m sta n ces, n eed a n d t h e a ttr ib ute s a n d i n te re sts o f s ta ff. M ost co m monly , s e p ara te a d m in is tr a tiv e s u perv is io n i s i n p la ce, a s d is c u sse d e arlie r i n t h e c h ap te r. When y ou f ir s t s ta rt t o w ork i n a h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio n, i t i s i m porta n t t o t a k e t h e t im e to f in d o ut a b out t h e r a n ge o f s u perv is io n, e d ucatio n a n d s u pport o ptio ns t h at a re a v aila b le t o you. PE ER A ND G RO UP S U PE R VIS IO N As i n dic ate d e arlie r, o ne f o rm o f s u perv is io n t h at i s o fte n u se d i s g ro up s u perv is io n. I n t h is situ atio n, t h ere i s s till a n a d m in is tr a tiv e s u perv is o r/s e n io r w ork er w ho m eets w ith a g ro up o f sta ff t o u nderta k e s u perv is o ry f u nctio ns. W hile t h is c an e n co m pass a d m in is tr a tiv e f u nctio ns, it m ost c o m monly f o cu se s o n e d ucatio n a n d s u pport, w ith t h e s u perv is o r r e sp onsib le f o r se ttin g t h e a g en da a n d g uid in g t h e d is c u ssio n. Case s tu dy: D eb rie fin g s e ssio n s 101 Fara h h as r e cen tly b een e m plo yed a s a d ro p-in w ork er i n a m ultid is c ip lin ary t e am t h at w ork s w ith hom ele ss p eo ple . S he h as t w o y ears ’ e x perie n ce i n t h e h um an s e rv ic e f ie ld a n d r e cen tly l e ft h er jo b a s a c h ild p ro te ctio n w ork er d ue t o f e elin g o ut o f h er d ep th i n h er j o b. A t t h e n ew c en tr e , s h e i s one o f s e v era l s ta ff w ho h elp i n r u nnin g a ctiv itie s a n d w ho a re a v aila b le t o s u pport h om ele ss peo ple w ho c o m e i n t o p artic ip ate i n g ro ups o r t o h av e a m eal o r s h ow er. T he a g en cy h as a p olic y of a d eb rie fin g m eetin g a t t h e e n d o f e ach d ay , w here w ork ers a re a sk ed t o r e fle ct o n a n y sig nif ic an t i s su es t h at a ro se o r n ote a n y c o ncern s t h ey m ay h av e f o r s e rv ic e u se rs . T his s e ssio n i s ru n b y t h e a g en cy ’s d ru g a n d a lc o hol c o unse llo r. F ara h f in ds t h e s e rv ic e v ery b usy a n d d oes n ot yet f e el c o m fo rta b le w ith t h e w id e r a n ge o f i s su es w ith w hic h c lie n ts m ay p re se n t. A s t h ere i s n o fo rm al i n ta k e o r a p poin tm en t s e rv ic e, F ara h i s n ev er s u re w ho s h e w ill e n d u p s e ein g a n d a b out what. S he h as b een g iv en a l o t o f r e ad in g ( re so urc es, a g en cy g uid elin es a n d c ase n ote s) b ut h as n ot been a b le t o r e ad t h em d urin g t h e d ay . F ara h d ecid es t h at s h e d oes n ot n eed t o c o m e t o t h e se ssio ns a n d i n ste ad u se s t h e t im e t o c atc h u p o n h er r e ad in g. S he i s a n noyed w hen t h e s e rv ic e man ag er t e lls h er t h at s h e m ust a tte n d t h ese s e ssio ns. Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s • W hy d o y ou t h in k t h ese s e ssio ns a re i n p la ce? • W hat m ay b e F ara h ’s r e aso ns f o r n ot a tte n din g? • W hat i s F ara h r is k in g b y n ot a tte n din g? • W hat a sp ects o f s u perv is io n a re c o vere d b y t h is a p pro ach ? • W hat w ould y ou d o i f y ou w ere i n F ara h ’s p ositio n? Kad ush in a n d H ark ness ( 2 002: 3 91–402) o utlin e a r a n ge o f a d van ta g es a n d d is a d van ta g es of g ro up s u perv is io n: • I t p ro vid es a n o pportu nity f o r a w id er r a n ge o f t e ach in g a n d l e arn in g e x perie n ces. • G ro up m em bers c an p ro vid e a n i m porta n t s o urc e o f e m otio nal s u pport. • I t p ro vid es m ore v arie d a n d r ic h er s o urc es o f l e arn in g. • I t a ssis ts w ith m ora le b uild in g a n d t h e c re atio n o f a f e elin g o f b elo ngin g. • I t c an a ls o r e in fo rc e n eg ativ e v ie w s. • I t c an b e e asie r t o a ccep t c ritic is m a n d a d vic e f ro m p eers . • I t e n co ura g es i n te ra ctio n a n d g ro up c o hesio n. • I t a llo w s d ele g atio n o f d if fe re n t r o le s. • I t p ro vid es a g ra d ual s te p t o w ard s i n dep en den ce a n d p ow er s h arin g. • C om petitiv en ess a n d r iv alr y c an r e su lt. • I t m ay b e d au ntin g f o r i n ex perie n ced w ork ers . • A p eer g ro up m ay o rg an is e a g ain st t h e s u perv is o r: t h e s u perv is o r n eed s a h ig h l e v el o f p ers o nal se cu rity . • T here m ay b e s tr o ng p re ssu re t o c o nfo rm : i t m ay s tif le c re ativ ity . Gro up a n d i n div id ual s u perv is io n b oth o ffe r v arie d a n d q uite d if fe re n t o pportu nitie s, a n d fo r t h is r e aso n i t i s i m porta n t t o c o nsid er w here e ach i s a p pro pria te a n d u se t h em a s p la n ned co m ple m en ta ry p ro cesse s ( K ad ush in a n d H ark ness, 2 002: 4 02). K ad ush in a n d H ark ness (2 002: 4 06) o utlin e t h e p re fe rre d a rra n gem en ts f o r g ro up s u perv is io n, i n clu din g t h e s e t- u p o f th e r o om a n d n om in atin g a r e g ula r d ay a n d t im e t o a llo w p la n nin g a s w ell a s t o s ig nif y t h e im porta n ce o f t h e s e ssio ns. T hey a ls o n ote t h at w hile t h e s u perv is o r i n itia lly m ay t a k e re sp onsib ility f o r s e ttin g t h e a g en da a n d l e ad in g d is c u ssio ns, b y s h arin g t h is r e sp onsib ility with g ro up m em bers , p artic ip atio n a n d a u to nom y c an b e m ax im is e d . Follo w in g o n f ro m g ro up s u perv is io n, p eer s u perv is io n p ro vid es w ork ers w ith m ore au to nom y. I n p eer s u perv is io n, t h ere i s n o d esig nate d s u perv is o r; w ork ers a re a ll a b le t o partic ip ate e q ually a n d t a k e r e sp onsib ility f o r t h eir o w n w ork a n d l e arn in g. I t e n co ura g es s ta ff to b e m ore a w are o f t h e n eed s o f c o lle ag ues b y ‘ c re atin g a n a tm osp here o f m utu al h elp a n d 102 sh arin g’ ( T su i, 2 005: 2 6) T his f o rm o f s u perv is io n i s ‘ a p opula r f o ru m f o r t h e e x am in atio n o f pra ctic e e x perie n ces, p eer r e v ie w , t r a n sm ittin g n ew k now le d ge a n d p re v en tin g b urn out’ (K ad ush in a n d H ark ness, 2 002: 4 34). F or p eer s u perv is io n t o b e e ffe ctiv e, i t i s r e co m men ded th at n ot a ll w ork ers a re i n ex perie n ced a s t h ey w ould t h en n ot h av e t h e r e q uir e d k now le d ge fo r i n fo rm ed d is c u ssio n ( T su i, 2 005). K ad ush in a n d H ark ness b elie v e t h at p eer s u perv is io n work s b est w hen w ork ers h av e a s im ila r l e v el o f t r a in in g a n d e x perie n ce. F ro m t h is w e c an se e t h at t h e c o m positio n o f t h e p eer g ro up n eed s c are fu l c o nsid era tio n t o e n su re t h at t h e gro up i s c o nstr u ctiv e a n d p ro vid es a v alu ab le f o ru m f o r a ll. G ro ups, w heth er s tr u ctu re d a s i n peer s u perv is io n o r w ith t h e p re se n ce o f a s u perv is o r/s e n io r s ta ff m em ber, c an a ls o b e u se d fo r r e fle ctiv e p ra ctic e a n d c ase p re se n ta tio ns, a n d c an o ffe r v alu ab le w ay s t o f u rth er w ork ers ’ pro fe ssio nal d ev elo pm en t. Case s tu dy: G ro u p s u perv is io n Marta w ork s a s a t e am l e ad er i n a l a rg e, m ulti- s ite h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio n. T he o rg an is a tio n pro vid es s u pport t o p eo ple w ith d is a b ilitie s w ho a re l iv in g i n t h e c o m munity . T he o rg an is a tio n h as ju st r e ceiv ed a d ditio nal f u ndin g t o e x pan d i ts s e rv ic es t o o ld er p eo ple . S ev era l n ew w ork ers h av e been e m plo yed a t M arta ’s s ite a n d a t o th er s ite s a cro ss t h e m etr o polita n a re a. M arta h as b een giv en t h e t r a in in g p ortf o lio a n d h as s p en t a l o t o f t im e p ro vid in g o rie n ta tio n a n d t r a in in g t o t h ese new s ta ff. N ow t h at t h e o rie n ta tio n p erio d i s o ver, M arta h as d ecid ed t h at m an y o f t h ese n ew s ta ff will n eed c lo se s u perv is io n a n d s u pport t o h elp t h em l e arn t h e j o b r e q uir e d o f t h em . Marta i s a ls o a w are t h at s e v era l o f t h e e x perie n ced f ro nt- lin e s ta ff h av e b een m oved i n to n ew te am l e ad er p ositio ns, a n d b elie v es t h at t h ey a re n ot v ery c o nfid en t i n s u perv is in g s ta ff. D ue t o h er in volv em en t w ith t h e n ew w ork ers , M arta h as e n ded u p c an cellin g m an y o f t h e r e g ula r f o rtn ig htly su perv is io n s e ssio ns s h e p re v io usly c o nducte d f o r h er t e am m em bers . M arta h ears f ro m s o m e o f her t e am t h at t h ey m is s t h is o pportu nity t o r e fle ct o n t h eir p ra ctic e a n d p ic k s u p t h at t h ey a re re se n tin g t h e t im e s h e i s s p en din g w ith t h e n ew w ork ers . Marta d ecid es t o d o t w o t h in gs. S he s e ts u p f o rtn ig htly g ro up s u perv is io n f o r t h e n ew w ork ers an d i n vite s s o m e o f t h e t e am l e ad ers f ro m o th er s ite s t o a ls o p artic ip ate . S he a ls o m eets w ith t h e more e x perie n ced w ork ers i n h er t e am a n d s u ggests t h at t h ey d ev elo p a m onth ly p eer s u perv is io n gro up. S he s a y s t h at a r e g ula r t im e w ill b e s e t a sid e f o r t h is a n d t h at s h e c an c o m e a lo ng t o s o m e se ssio ns i f t h e w ork ers w is h . Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s • W hy d o y ou t h in k M arta h as s e t u p g ro up s u perv is io n f o r t h e n ew w ork ers ? • W hat w ill b e s o m e o f t h e a d van ta g es a n d d is a d van ta g es? • W hat p la n nin g o r o th er a rra n gem en ts a re r e q uir e d /d esir a b le ? • W hy d o y ou t h in k p eer s u perv is io n i s b ein g o ffe re d t o t h e m ore e x perie n ced s ta ff? • L is t s o m e t h in gs t h at w ill b e i m porta n t f o r t h e s u ccess o f t h is p ro gra m . • W hat m ay j e o pard is e i ts s u ccess? • D ra w u p a c h eck lis t o f h ow y ou w ould s e t u p p eer s u perv is io n i n y our w ork pla ce. I f y ou t h in k th is i s n ot a p pro pria te , s ta te w hy n ot. CO NCLU SIO N In t h is c h ap te r, w e h av e e m phasis e d t h e i m porta n ce o f s u perv is io n a n d s u pport f o r h um an se rv ic e w ork ers ; t h ese a re e sse n tia l t o e n su rin g r e fle ctiv e p ra ctic e a n d o ngoin g p ro fe ssio nal dev elo pm en t. W e h av e p re se n te d s o m e m odels o f s u perv is io n t h at c an b e u se d , a n d h av e en co ura g ed w ork ers t o t h in k a b out w hat i s , o r c o uld b e, e sta b lis h ed i n t h eir p la ce o f w ork . Cen tr a l t o t h is h as b een d ev elo pin g a n u nders ta n din g o f s e lf -c are a n d a n a ck now le d gem en t th at i t i s s e n sib le t o p la y a n a ctiv e r o le i n h av in g o ne’s o w n s u perv is io n a n d s u pport n eed s 103 met. Chap te r r ev ie w q uestio n s 7.1 W hy i s s u perv is io n i m porta n t t o h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers ? 7.2 W hat a re t h e t h re e c o m monly a g re ed a sp ects o f s u perv is io n? 7.3 W hat a re s o m e o f t h e c au se s o f w ork pla ce s tr e ss? 7.4 A s a n ew w ork er i n a h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio n, w hat c an y ou d o t o e n su re y ou h av e su perv is io n a n d s u pport t h at m eet y our n eed s? 7.5 W hat i s p eer s u perv is io n? L is t t h re e t h in gs t h at a re i m porta n t t o i ts s u ccess. 7.6 W hat o th er w ay s a re t h ere o f o bta in in g e d ucatio n a n d s u pport i n y our r o le ? OTH ER R ESO URCES Myse lf C are , < http ://m yse lf c are .o rg /in dex .h tm >. Coach in g a n d m en to rin g, N ew Z eala n d, < www.c o ach in gm en to rin g.c o .n z/r e so urc es/k ey w ord s/s u perv is io n/p eer-s u perv is io n >. KEY R EA DIN G S Austr a lia n A sso cia tio n o f S ocia l W ork ers ( A ASW ) 2 000, Natio nal P ra ctic e S ta ndard s o f t h e Austr a lia n A sso cia tio n o f S ocia l W ork ers: S uperv is io n , A ASW , C an berra . Kad ush in , A . a n d H ark ness, D . 2 002, Superv is io n i n S ocia l W ork , C olu m bia U niv ers ity Pre ss, N ew Y ork . Morris o n, T . 2 001, ‘ G ro up S uperv is io n’, i n Sta ff S uperv is io n i n S ocia l C are : M akin g a R ea l Diffe re n ce f o r S ta ff a nd S erv ic e U se rs, P av ilio n P ublis h in g, B rig hto n, U K. Tsu i, M . 2 005, ‘ E ducatio nal a n d S upportiv e F unctio ns’, i n Socia l W ork S uperv is io n: Conte xts a nd C oncep ts , S ag e, T housa n d O ak s, C A . 104 C H APT ER E IG HT Man agin g c o n flic t S U M MARY I n t h is c h ap te r, w e e x plo re t h e n atu re o f c o nflic t, p artic u la rly a s i t i s e x perie n ced i n c o m munity -b ase d n on-p ro fit h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns. W e e x am in e m odels o f c o nflic t a n d t h e c en tr a lity o f p ow er. M odels a n d s ta g es o f c o nflic t r e so lu tio n a re p re se n te d , t o geth er w ith k ey c o m munic atio n s k ills — sp oken a n d w ritte n — fo r m an ag in g c o nflic t. T he c h ap te r a d dre sse s h ow t o m an ag e a g gre ssio n a n d h ostility , a n d d is c u sse s t h e i m pera tiv e t o t a k e a cco unt o f d if fe re n ce— fo r e x am ple , t h at a ris in g f ro m a g e, g en der a n d c u ltu re . I N TR O DUCTIO N P eo ple o fte n m ak e u nfo unded a ssu m ptio ns a b out h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns, p artic u la rly a b out n on-p ro fit c o m munity -b ase d o rg an is a tio ns. T hey a ssu m e, f o r e x am ple , t h at b ecau se t h ese o rg an is a tio ns a re , i n t h e m ain , e sta b lis h ed a n d r u n w ith in a s tr o ng v alu es a n d b elie fs f ra m ew ork a n d t h at t h eir g oal i s t o a d dre ss d is a d van ta g e o r s o m e o th er f o rm o f h um an s u ffe rin g, t h en t h e o rg an is a tio nal c u ltu re m ust b e o ne i n w hic h e v ery one g ets a lo ng. N oth in g c o uld b e f u rth er f ro m t h e t r u th ! T hose w ho w ork i n c o m munity -b ase d n onpro fit o rg an is a tio ns e x perie n ce a ll t h e s a m e i s su es a ro und c o nflic t t h at p eo ple f a ce i n o th er c o nte x ts . I n s o m e w ay s, s m alle r c o m munity -b ase d o rg an is a tio ns a re m ore l ik ely t o b e p la g ued b y c o nflic t b ecau se t h e n orm al i n hib itin g f u nctio ns p la y ed b y f o rm al b ure au cra tic s tr u ctu re s d o n ot e x is t o r a re m uch w eak er i n t e rm s o f t h eir i m pact o n b eh av io ur. I n l a rg e b ure au cra cie s, e v ery one h as a c le are r r o le i n a f o rm al s tr u ctu re t h an i s u su ally t h e c ase i n s m alle r o rg an is a tio ns. R ela tio nsh ip s a re c o nstr u cte d b y t h at f o rm al s tr u ctu re — in p artic u la r b y h ie ra rc h y. P eo ple l o w er d ow n t h e h ie ra rc h y w ould r a re ly e n gag e i n o pen c o nflic t w ith t h ose h ig her u p, n ot l e ast b ecau se t h ey w ould b e s u bje ct t o q uite s tr ic t d is c ip lin e i f t h ey d id . I n c o m munity -b ase d o r o th er s m alle r n on-p ro fit o rg an is a tio ns, t h e h ie ra rc h y i s m uch l e ss p ro nounced a n d r e la tio nsh ip s t e n d t o b e m ore f lu id . Furth erm ore , m an y p eo ple w ho w ork i n c o m munity -b ase d n onpro fit o rg an is a tio ns o fte n e x hib it s tr o ng c o m mitm en ts : t o s e ts o f b elie fs , t o w ay s o f p ra ctis in g, t o a p artic u la r s e rv ic e u se r g ro up o r t o a s o cia l i s su e. P assio n a n d c o nflic t a re not s tr a n ge b ed fe llo w s. O fte n p eo ple w ill a rg ue f e v eris h ly o ver q uite m in or d if fe re n ces b ecau se o f t h ese b elie fs — arg um en ts t h at c an e asily t u rn i n to c o nflic t. F urth erm ore , w ork ers c an s o m etim es f in d t h em se lv es i n c o nflic t 105 —ofte n f rig hte n in g c o nflic t— with s e rv ic e u se rs . S m alle r c o m munity -b ase d n on-p ro fit h um an se rv ic e g ro ups a re o fte n c lo se r p hysic ally t o t h eir s e rv ic e u se rs . M an y l a rg e h um an s e rv ic e bure au cra cie s g o t o s o m e l e n gth s t o c re ate p hysic al b arrie rs b etw een t h em se lv es a n d t h eir se rv ic e u se rs , u su ally b ecau se o f p ote n tia l a n ger s p illin g o ver t o a g gre ssio n a n d e v en vio le n ce. T his i s n ot t h e c ase i n s m alle r n on-p ro fits . I n c ir c u m sta n ces w hen s e rv ic e u se rs a re an gry — re aso nab ly o r n ot— it i s i m porta n t t h at w ork ers h av e s tr a te g ie s i n p la ce t o m an ag e th at a n ger i n p ositiv e w ay s. UNDER ST A NDIN G C O NFL IC T Pow er a n d c o n flic t It i s i m possib le t o u nders ta n d c o nflic t w ith out a tte n din g t o t h e r o le o f p ow er— or, m ore im porta n tly , p ow er i m bala n ces. H ere , w e t a k e p ow er t o m ean p ow er i n s o cia l r e la tio nsh ip s. (N ote t h at w e d is c u ss p ow er m ore e x te n siv ely i n t h e n ex t c h ap te r.) C le arly o rg an is a tio ns a re , at t h eir v ery e sse n ce, c o nstitu te d b y s tr u ctu re d s o cia l r e la tio nsh ip s. A lth ough m an y o f u s mig ht a sp ir e t o e q uality i n m ost o f t h e s o cia l s e ttin gs i n w hic h w e e n gag e, t h e r e ality i s t h at th e s o cia l w orld i s m ore l ik ely c h ara cte ris e d b y i n eq uality t h an e q uality . O rg an is a tio ns— ev en th ose w ith f la t o rg an is a tio nal s tr u ctu re s a n d a sp ir a tio ns t o w ard s d em ocra tic f u nctio nin g— are in ev ita b ly h ie ra rc h ic al i n s o m e f o rm . I n deed , t h e l e g al f ra m ew ork t h at s u rro unds n on-p ro fit co m munity -b ase d o rg an is a tio ns s u ch a s t h e v ario us s ta te s’ Asso cia tio ns I n co rp ora tio ns A cts cre ate a d eg re e o f h ie ra rc h y. F urth erm ore , t h ere i s n early a lw ay s a h ie ra rc h ic al m an ag em en t str u ctu re . T his h as e sp ecia lly b een t h e c ase i n r e cen t t im es b ecau se o f t h e i m pact o f i n cre ase d ex te rn al a cco unta b ilitie s o n t h e w ay s i n w hic h o rg an is a tio ns s tr u ctu re t h em se lv es. M ost beg in nin g h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers a re a t t h e v ery b otto m o f t h e o rg an is a tio nal h ie ra rc h y, a n d as s u ch h av e l e ss f o rm al p ow er t h an t h eir b osse s. A s a c o nse q uen ce, i n c ir c u m sta n ces o f co nflic t t h e i m bala n ces o f p ow er m ak e i t d if fic u lt f o r t h e p artie s t o e n gag e o n a n e q ual fo otin g. The s itu atio n— th at i s , p ow er i m bala n ce— is e v en m ore m ark ed f o r s e rv ic e u se rs . F or m an y peo ple w ho u se t h e s e rv ic es o f h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns, t h eir l iv es h av e b een s h ap ed b y th e i m pact o f s o cia l s tr u ctu re s, o fte n r e su ltin g i n i n ju stic es a n d o ppre ssio n. F urth er, p eo ple ra re ly e n gag e w ith h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns u nle ss s o m eth in g i s g oin g b ad ly w ro ng i n th eir l iv es; t h eir i s su es c o uld r a n ge, f o r e x am ple , f ro m c h ro nic i lln ess a n d d is a b ility t o poverty a n d h om ele ssn ess. I n t h ese c ir c u m sta n ces, p eo ple n eed t h e o rg an is a tio n i n q uite a cu te way s a n d a re , a cco rd in gly , v ery v uln era b le . T he a cu te p ow er i m bala n ces c an , a s s u ggeste d i n th e c h ap te r i n tr o ductio n, i n duce s tr o ng r e actio ns s u ch a s a g gre ssio n a n d e v en v io le n ce— mostly a s a r e su lt o f d esp air a n d f e ar. Case s tu dy: M an agin g v io le n ce Gav in i s e m plo yed b y a m ed iu m -s iz ed f a m ily s u pport a g en cy t o p ro vid e s u pport s e rv ic es t o y oung peo ple w ho h av e b een r e le ase d f ro m s ta te c are . T hese y oung p eo ple h av e s ig nif ic an t n eed s a n d fe w s k ills i n n eg otia tin g t h e a d ult w orld ( o r e v en t h e c ity ). T hey n eed a l o t o f s u pport a n d a re o fte n a v ery d if fic u lt g ro up t o b e w ith b ecau se o f t h eir s u bsta n ce a b use i s su es a n d h ostility . T ah u i s 1 8, hom ele ss a n d h as r a p id ly d ev elo ped a d ru g h ab it. H e r e g ula rly d is a p pears i n to t h e s tr e ets a n d Gav in c an ’t f in d h im . O ne d ay h e c o m es t o t h e s u pport s e rv ic e w ith s e v era l c u ts a n d b ru is e s a n d, ju dgin g f ro m h is m ovem en ts , p ro bab ly s o m e b ro ken r ib s. G av in a sk s h im w hat h ap pen ed a n d Tah u j u st b lo w s u p. H e s ta rts y ellin g a n d s c re am in g a n d t h ro w in g f u rn itu re a ro und. I t i s o bvio us th at h e i s s till h ig h. G av in i s s ta rtle d a t t h e v io le n ce o f t h e r e actio n a n d n eed s t o d o s o m eth in g f a st. 106 Sev era l o th er k id s a re i n t h e r o om a n d t h ey l o ok d is tin ctly s c are d . Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s • W hat m ig ht h av e h ap pen ed t o T ah u? • W hat s h ould G av in d o i n t h e f ir s t i n sta n ce t o c alm T ah u d ow n? • W hat s h ould h e d o a fte r t h at? • I s i t e n tir e ly G av in ’s r e sp onsib ility t o m an ag e T ah u’s o utb urs t? • W hat s o rt o f p ro to co ls s h ould t h e o rg an is a tio n h av e i n p la ce t o m an ag e s u ch b eh av io ur? Mod els o f c o n flic t What e x actly i s c o nflic t? I n 1 987, P ete r C ondlif fe , o ne o f A ustr a lia ’s l e ad in g p ra ctitio ners an d a u th ors i n c o nflic t m an ag em en t, s u ggeste d t h at c o nflic t c o uld b e d efin ed a s: a f o rm o f r e la tin g o r i n te ra ctin g w here w e f in d o urse lv es ( e ith er a s i n div id uals o r g ro ups) u nder so m e s o rt o f p erc eiv ed t h re a t t o o ur p erso nal o r co lle ctiv e g oals . T hese g oals a re u su ally t o d o w ith our i n te rp erso nal w ants . T hese p erc eiv ed t h re a ts m ay b e r e a l o r i m agin ed . ( C ondlif fe , 1 987: 7 8) There a re t h re e i m porta n t e le m en ts i n t h is d efin itio n: ( 1 ) t h at c o nflic t u su ally i n volv es a pers o n o r a g ro up f e elin g t h re ate n ed ( ir re sp ectiv e o f w heth er a t h re at a ctu ally e x is ts ); ( 2 ) t h at co nflic t o ccu rs b etw een p eo ple ; a n d ( 3 ) t h at c o nflic t i s l in ked t o o ur w an ts o r d esir e s. How ev er, a s C ondlif fe p oin ts o ut e ls e w here ( 2 002), t h is d efin itio n i s u se fu lly a u gm en te d b y an oth er i m porta n t d im en sio n o f c o nflic t— it i s a ls o i n tr a -p ers o nal. W e a ll i n stin ctiv ely k now th is ; w e k now t h at w hen w e a re c au ght u p i n c o nflic t s itu atio ns w e f e el a r a n ge o f e m otio ns su ch a s f e ar, n erv ousn ess, f ru str a tio n a n d a n ger. C ondlif fe a ls o m ak es u se o f t h e i d eas o f an oth er p ro m in en t t h eo ris t, L ed era ch ( 1 995), w ho s u ggests t h at w e m ust t h in k a b out c o nflic t as a s o cia l p hen om en on, i n ev ita b ly c re ate d b y h um an b ein gs i n t h e c o nte x t o f s o cia l re la tio nsh ip s. B ecau se i t i s a s o cia l p hen om en on, a ll o f t h ose s a m e p ro cesse s t h at a ffe ct a n y so cia l r e la tio nsh ip a re i n flu en tia l i n s h ap in g c o nflic t— fo r e x am ple , c la ss, g en der, c u ltu re a n d ag e. Giv en t h e ( u nfo rtu nate ) u biq uity o f c o nflic t, i t s h ould c o m e a s n o s u rp ris e t h at s o cia l sc ie n tis ts h av e t h ought d eep ly a b out i t a n d h av e d ev elo ped d if fe re n t m odels o f h ow c o nflic t ev olv es a n d a ls o w hat c au se s i t. H ere w e w ill d is c u ss o ne, b y w ay o f e x am ple . T his m odel outlin es p hase s o f c o nflic t a n d i s d ra w n f ro m K im se y e t a l. ( 2 006). W e h av e c h ose n i t f o r t h is dis c u ssio n b ecau se i t w as d ev elo ped i n t h e c o nte x t o f a c h urc h . W hile c le arly n on-p ro fit co m munity -b ase d o rg an is a tio ns a re d if fe re n t f ro m c h urc h es, t h ey n ev erth ele ss h av e a n im porta n t c h ara cte ris tic i n c o m mon— peo ple p artic ip ate b ecau se o f t h eir c o m mitm en ts t o a se t o f v alu es a n d b elie fs , a n d t o a l a rg e d eg re e t h at p artic ip atio n h as v olu nta ris tic q ualitie s. This m odel ( lik e m ost o f t h ese m odels ) s u ggests t h at c o nflic t i s c y clic al a n d t h at i t d ev elo ps in p re d ic ta b le p atte rn s o f i n te ra ctio n. T he p hase s a re : • Obje ctific a tio n . P artie s t o t h e c o nflic t o bje ctif y e ach o th er a n d t h em se lv es a n d t a k e s id es. • Perso nific a tio n . I n te r-p ers o nal c o nvers a tio ns o ccu r t h at f o cu s o n t h e p erc eiv ed p ers o nal d efic its o f th e g ro up o r p ers o n w ho h as b een o bje ctif ie d . I n e ffe ct, t h is p ro je ctio n o f c h ara cte ris tic s o f t h e o th er party s e rv es t o r e in fo rc e o bje ctif ic atio n. • Magnific a tio n . A tte m pts a re m ad e t o t r a n sfo rm t h e p erc eiv ed a n d p ro je cte d d efic its o f t h e obje ctif ie d p artie s i n to ‘ fa cts ’, t h ere b y b ols te rin g t h e c o rre ctn ess o f o ne’s o w n p ositio n. • Glo rific a tio n . I n t h is p hase , t h e g lo rif ie rs b rin g i n to p la y e x am ple s o f o th er p eo ple , u su ally d ra w n fro m t h e p ast, w ho w ere ‘ w onderfu l’ . • Reific a tio n . C re atin g o r m an ufa ctu rin g s itu atio ns w hic h p ro vid e e v id en ce f o r t h eir o w n w orld -v ie w . • Sig nific a tio n . A t t h is p oin t, t h e p artie s t o t h e c o nflic t v ie w e v en ts ( o r n on-e v en ts , f o r t h at m atte r) a s 107 fu rth er e v id en ce o f t h e c ritic al c la im s m ad e. • Ju stific a tio n . V in dic atio n f o r t h e p urp ose o f l e g itim is in g e arlie r c la im s m ad e w ith n o t a n gib le ev id en ce. S ta g es 1 t o 6 p ro vid e t h e c ritic al m ass f o r t h eir c la im s a n d c ritic is m t o a ch ie v e a ‘ tr u th ’ sta tu s. How m ig ht t h ese p hase s p la y o ut i n a n on-p ro fit c o m munity -b ase d h um an s e rv ic e org an is a tio n? L ook a t Tab le 8 .1 . T he c o nte x t i s a f e m in is t c o unse llin g s e rv ic e f o r v ic tim s o f tr a u m a a n d a b use . Tab le 8 .1 : P hase s o f i n te ra ctio n Obje ctific a tio n One o f t h e l o nger t e rm s ta ff m em bers , R aq uel, t a k es u m bra g e a t t h e n ew dir e cto r, G ail, w ho w as r e cen tly a p poin te d b y t h e b oard . G ail i s r e p la cin g a p ers o n w ho h ad b een p art o f t h e s e rv ic e s in ce f o undatio n. R aq uel a ls o ap plie d f o r t h e p ositio n. S he c la im s G ail i s m ak in g c h an ges w ith out f u lly co nsu ltin g t h e s ta ff. Perso nific a tio n Raq uel i n itia te s i n fo rm al d is c u ssio ns w ith o th er s ta ff m em bers , questio nin g G ail’ s f e m in is t c o m mitm en ts m ore b ro ad ly . S he c ite s co m men ts m ad e b y s o m e u nnam ed s e rv ic e u se rs a b out t h eir i n te ra ctio ns with G ail. Magnific a tio n Every th in g G ail s a y s o r d oes i s v ie w ed t h ro ugh t h e l e n s o f h er ‘ p oor fe m in is t c o m mitm en ts ’. A tte m pts b y G ail t o g et s ta ff t o m ak e t im e f o r th eir a n nual s ta ff r e v ie w s a re s e en a s a n u nw arra n te d e x erc is e o f p ow er. Glo rific a tio n Raq uel r e m in is c es a b out J u lia , t h e p re v io us d ir e cto r, c la im in g t h at h er co m mitm en ts w ere a lm ost s a in tly . S he s p ecif ic ally a n d p ublic ly re m em bers J u lia ’s c o m mitm en t t o c o lle ctiv e d ecis io n-m ak in g. Reific a tio n Gail’ s r e la tio nsh ip w ith t h e b oard i s q uestio ned . I t i s s u ggeste d , f o r ex am ple , t h at s h e d elib era te ly s o ught o ut a m ale a cco unta n t t o b e t r e asu re r an d b etw een t h em t h ey h av e a tte m pte d t o i m port a b usin ess m an ag em en t model i n to t h e o rg an is a tio n. Sig nific a tio n Gail’ s f a ilu re t o f u lly r e p ort h er d is c u ssio ns w ith t h e f u ndin g d ep artm en t an d t o i n volv e s ta ff i n t h e d ra w in g-u p o f c o ntr a ct p ro vis io ns i s s e en a s fu rth er e v id en ce o f h er n on-c o lle g ia lity . S im ila rly , h er r e q uest t h at s ta ff mak e a p poin tm en ts w ith h er w hen t h ey w is h t o d is c u ss s o m eth in g a t le n gth i s v ie w ed a s u nderm in in g t h e c u ltu re o f t h e o rg an is a tio n. Ju stific a tio n All o f t h e s ta ff c all a m eetin g a n d p ro pose a m otio n o f n o c o nfid en ce i n Gail. Cle arly , t h ere a re l o ts o f d if fe re n t r e aso ns w hy c o nflic t e m erg es. C ondlif fe ( 2 002) c ite s t h e work o f B is n o ( 1 988), w ho a rg ues t h at t h ere a re f iv e s o urc es o f c o nflic t. T hese a re o utlin ed i n Tab le 8 .2 , w hic h h as a n a d ditio nal c o lu m n i n w hic h y ou m ig ht l ik e t o t h in k o f e x am ple s f ro m your o w n e x perie n ce. Tab le 8 .2 : S ou rces o f c o n flic t Sou rce Exp la n atio n Exam ple Bio so cia l so urc es Fru str a tio n-a g gre ssio n i s a s o urc e o f c o nflic t. F ru str a tio n o fte n re su lts i n a g gre ssio n t h at l e ad s t o c o nflic t. F ru str a tio n c an a ls o 108 hap pen w hen p eo ple e x pect t h in gs t o i m pro ve m ore r a p id ly t h an th ey d o. Pers o nality an d in te ra ctio nal so urc es These c an i n clu de p ers o nality t y pe, p sy ch olo gic al p ro ble m s, p oor in te r-p ers o nal s k ills , i r rita tio n, r iv alr y , j e alo usy , i n eq uitie s i n re la tio nsh ip s. Str u ctu ra l so urc es Conflic t a ris e s f ro m o rg an is a tio nal s tr u ctu re a n d s o cia l s tr u ctu re s. Dif fe re n ces i n p ow er a n d s ta tu s. Cultu ra l a n d id eo lo gic al so urc es Conflic ts c an a ris e f ro m d if fe re n ces i n s o cia l, c u ltu ra l, p olitic al an d r e lig io us b elie fs . Converg en ce Converg en ce o ccu rs w hen d if fe re n t s o urc es o f c o nflic t e m erg e i n one c o nte x t. T his i s p artic u la rly t h e c ase i n o rg an is a tio ns. EX ER CIS E Usin g t h e e x am ple o f t h e f e m in is t c o unse llin g s e rv ic e d is c u sse d a b ove, w hat a re t h e p ote n tia l so urc es o f t h e c o nflic t d esc rib ed ? Sty le s o f c o n flic t Each o f u s h as o ur o w n p artic u la r s ty le o f e n gag in g i n c o nflic t, a f u nctio n o f o ur u niq ue pers o nality a n d o ur u niq ue h is to ry . A s p ro fe ssio nals , b eco m in g a w are o f o ur o w n p artic u la r sty le i s a f o undatio nal p art o f l e arn in g t o e n gag e p ro ductiv ely w ith c o nflic t. B ars k y ( 2 007: 47–8) i d en tif ie s f iv e p ure s ty le s: Avo id ers . P eo ple w ho a re l o w o n c o ncern f o r s e lf a n d l o w o n c o ncern f o r o th ers . A void ers m ay d en y th at c o nflic t e x is ts . T hey m ay a ls o a ck now le d ge t h at c o nflic t e x is ts b ut d o w hat t h ey c an t o a v oid o r av ert t h e c o nflic t. Acco m modato rs . P eo ple w ho h av e l o w c o ncern f o r t h eir o w n n eed s a n d h ig h c o ncern f o r t h e n eed s o f oth ers . T hese p eo ple v alu e h ig hly p ositiv e r e la tio ns w ith o th ers . Com petito rs . P eo ple w ho a re l o w o n c o ncern f o r o th ers b ut h ig h o n c o ncern f o r t h em se lv es. T hese are p eo ple w ho a re o ut t o w in a n d w ho w ill s e le ct w hate v er s tr a te g y a ch ie v es t h at e n d. Com pro m is e rs . P eo ple w ho p ay s o m e a tte n tio n t o t h e n eed s o f o th ers a n d s o m e t o t h eir o w n n eed s. They f a v our s o lu tio ns t h at a re p artia l w in s f o r b oth p artie s. Colla bora to rs . P eo ple w ho h av e h ig h c o ncern s f o r t h eir o w n n eed s a n d t h e n eed s o f o th ers . T hey se ek o ut s o lu tio ns t h at a re m utu ally b en efic ia l. T hey e n co ura g e j o in t p ro ble m s o lv in g, a re r e sp ectf u l an d v alid atin g. Of c o urs e , t h ese a re p ure t y pes a n d w e d on’t n ecessa rily a ll c o nfo rm e x actly . W e c an a ls o beh av e d if fe re n tly i n d if fe re n t c ir c u m sta n ces. EX ER CIS E 109 Part 1 : T hin k a b out a c o nflic t s itu atio n i n w hic h y ou h av e f o und y ours e lf . W hat s ty le o r m ix o f sty le s m ost a p pro xim ate s y our r e sp onse ? Part 2 : C an y ou t h in k o f a n oth er e x am ple i n w hic h y ou d is p la y ed a d if fe re n t s ty le ? I f s o , w hat mad e i t d if fe re n t? Part 3 : I d en tif y t h e a d van ta g es a n d d is a d van ta g es o f t h e v ario us s ty le s l is te d a b ove. CO NFL IC T R ESO LU TIO N A ND M ED IA TIO N Mod els o f c o n flic t r eso lu tio n There a re m an y m ean s f o r a d dre ssin g c o nflic t. P erh ap s t h e l e ast h elp fu l i s t h at w hic h r e v erts to a c o m petitio n b etw een p artie s i n w hic h t h e m ost p ow erfu l e x erts t h eir p ow er a n d ‘ w in s’. This i s n ot a p artic u la rly h elp fu l s tr a te g y b ecau se t h e ‘ w in ’ i s a d ubio us o ne a t b est, a n d a s a ta ctic i t b re ed s r e se n tm en t. A n e x am ple f ro m A ustr a lia ’s r e cen t h is to ry i llu str a te s t h is p oin t. In 1 998, P atr ic k s S te v ed orin g s a ck ed a ll o f i ts d ock w ork ers i n M elb ourn e, l o ck ed t h em o ut usin g a p riv ate s e cu rity f ir m w ith m en acin g l o okin g d ogs a n d a tte m pte d t o u se n on-u nio n la b our o n t h e d ock s. T his a ctio n w as t a k en w ith t h e n ot i n co nsid era b le s u pport o f t h e H ow ard fe d era l g overn m en t o f t h e t im e a n d l e d t o a m ajo r i n dustr ia l c o nflic t— popula rly d ubbed a ‘w ar’. I t c re ate d g re at b itte rn ess a n d u nhap pin ess, a n d w as o ne o f t h e m ost d iv is iv e a cts o f what w as a d iv is iv e g overn m en t. T he u nio n m ovem en t n ev er f o rg ot a n d i n 2 007, n early a decad e l a te r, w eig hed i n to t h e e le ctio n c am paig n. I ts c o ntr ib utio n w as a d ecis iv e f a cto r i n t h at govern m en t l o sin g o ffic e. N ev erth ele ss, i t i s a n i n str u ctiv e e x am ple i n t h at i t s h ow s t h e u se o f la w a s a m ode o f r e so lv in g c o nflic t, i n t h at c ase b y r e fe rrin g t h e m atte r t o t h e H ig h C ourt o f Austr a lia . In t h is w ay , t h e a b ove e x am ple i llu str a te s a l e g al r e sp onse t o t h e c o nflic t i n q uestio n. T he th re e l e g al s tr a te g ie s t h at c an b e u se d t o m an ag e c o nflic t a re arb itr a tio n ( ‘th e h earin g o r dete rm in in g o f a d is p ute b etw een p artie s b y a p ers o n o r p ers o ns c h ose n , a g re ed b etw een t h em or a p poin te d b y v ir tu e o f a s ta tu to ry o blig atio n’, M acq uarie D ic tio nary , 2 000: 3 5), litig atio n (ta k in g a l a w su it t o c o urt) a n d le g is la tio n ( a g overn m en t e n actin g a l a w ). U sin g l a w , o r re v ertin g t o l a w a n d t h e c o urts , i s n ot o nly a h ig h-ris k s tr a te g y ( in t h at t h e p artie s c an r a re ly be c o m ple te ly s u re o f t h e o utc o m e), b ut i t i s o ne t h at i s c le arly o ut o f t h e r e ach o f m ost. Fortu nate ly , t h ere a re o th er m odels t h at h av e t h e a d van ta g e o f g re atly i n cre asin g t h e p ow er o f th e p artie s t o t h e c o nflic t t o m an ag e t h eir o w n p ro cess, s u ch a s n eg otia tio n a n d m ed ia tio n. O f th ese , t h e m ost p opula r t h ese d ay s, a n d t h e m ost r e le v an t t o c o nflic t i n o rg an is a tio ns, i s med ia tio n ( M artin , 2 007). Med ia tio n i s o ne o f t h e m ost c o nstr u ctiv e w ay s t o a d dre ss c o nflic t, a s i t i s a t o ol t o h elp peo ple s o lv e t h eir o w n p ro ble m s. W ith in t h e o vera ll g en re o f a ctiv ity , t h ere a re d if fe re n t models — fo r e x am ple , s e ttle m en t, f a cilita tiv e, e v alu ativ e a n d t h era p eu tic m ed ia tio n. A s Martin ( 2 007: 3 5) n ote s: • S ettle m en t m ed ia tio n i s d esig ned t o ‘ e n co ura g e i n cre m en ta l b arg ain in g i n a n e n deav our t o r e ach a co m pro m is e a t a m id poin t o f t h e d em an ds o f b oth p artie s’. • F acilita tiv e m ed ia tio n i s d esig ned t o ‘ n eg otia te i n t e rm s o f t h e p artie s’ n eed s a n d i n te re sts a s oppose d t o l e g al e n title m en ts ’. • E valu ativ e m ed ia tio n i s d esig ned t o ‘ re ach a s e ttle m en t i n a cco rd an ce w ith t h e l e g al r ig hts a n d en title m en ts o f b oth p artie s’. • T hera p eu tic m ed ia tio n i s d esig ned t o ‘ im pro ve r e la tio nsh ip s b etw een p artie s b y d ealin g w ith t h e underly in g c au se s o f c o nflic t’ . 110 Cle arly t h e l a st o f t h ese i s w ell s u ite d t o c o nflic ts t h at a ris e i n o rg an is a tio ns. T hat s a id , t h ere will b e m an y c ase s w here e v alu ativ e m ed ia tio n w ould b e a d opte d i n f o rm al d is p ute s b etw een em plo yers a n d e m plo yees o ver, f o r e x am ple , b eh av io ur. O th er a u th ors i d en tif y s o m e ad ditio nal m odels o f m ed ia tio n— fo r e x am ple , t r a n sfo rm ativ e m ed ia tio n, w hic h i s d esig ned t o ‘tr a n sfo rm t h e w ay p eo ple d eal w ith c o nflic t b y h elp in g t h em d ev elo p m utu al u nders ta n din g an d s e lf -e ffic acy ’ ( B ars k y, 2 007: 1 21) o r s o lu tio n-fo cu se d m ed ia tio n, w hic h i s d esig ned t o sh if t t h e f o cu s f ro m t h e p ro ble m t o t h e s o lu tio n a n d i n d oin g s o i s f u tu re r a th er t h an p ast orie n te d ( B an nin k, 2 007). I n a ll o f t h ese m odels , t h ere a re s im ila ritie s i n t h e w ay t h ey a re underta k en . Sta ges i n m ed ia tio n Condlif fe ( 2 002) o utlin es t h e s ta g es o f m ed ia tio n i n Tab le 8 .3 . Tab le 8 .3 : S ta ges i n m ed ia tio n Phase 1 : P rep ara tio n • A sse ssin g t h e n atu re o f t h e d is p ute • C heck in g t h e p artie s t o a d is p ute • C heck in g t h e a v aila b ility o f r e so urc es a n d a n a p pro pria te l o catio n Phase 2 : I n tr o d uctio n • I n tr o ductio n a n d s e atin g • O pen in g s ta te m en t b y m ed ia to r • C heck in g e x pecta tio ns • C onfir m in g b ack gro und c ase m ate ria l • D is c u ssin g a n d c la rif y in g t e rm s Phase 3 : S ta te m en ts • M ed ia to r e x pla in s p ro cess a n d g ro und r u le s • P artie s i n vite d t o d esc rib e a n d e x pla in t h eir p ers p ectiv e • M ed ia to r s u m maris e s p ers p ectiv es Phase 4 : A gen da • R eq uest p artie s t o s u ggest t o pic s f o r d is c u ssio n • W rite a m utu al l is t t h at i s v is ib le a n d l e g ib le • R efra m e t o pic s t o m utu al a n d p ositiv e l a n guag e Phase 5 : D ia lo gu e Phase 6 : N eg otia tio n • C re atin g a n d r e v ie w in g o pin io ns Phase 7 : A greem en t • C la rif ic atio n o f a g re em en ts m ad e • F orm alis a tio n o f a g re em en ts Phase 8 : Im ple m en ta tio n r ev ie w • R ev ie w • R ev is io n Sourc e: C ondlif fe ( 2 002) EX ER CIS E Exam in e t h e f o llo w in g c ase i llu str a tio n a n d p la n w hat y ou, a s a m ed ia to r, w ould d o i n P hase 2 . You a re a s o cia l w ork er i n a m en ta l h ealth s e rv ic e. Y our s e rv ic e r e g ula rly t a k es o n u niv ers ity stu den ts f ro m a v arie ty o f h um an s e rv ic e b ack gro unds f o r f ie ld e d ucatio n. O ne o f y our c o lle ag ues is s u perv is in g t w o s tu den ts b ut i s n ot g ettin g a lo ng w ith o ne o f t h em . R ela tio nsh ip s d ete rio ra te when y our c o lle ag ue ( B ria n ) c la im s t h at t h e s tu den t ( J a n een ) d id n ot c o m ple te s e v era l r e p orts o f hom e v is its s h e h ad u nderta k en . J a n een c la im s t h at s h e d id a n d t h at B ria n h as l o st t h em . B ria n ’s 111 his to ry w ith p ap erw ork i s n ’t g re at. J a n een i s v ery u pse t b ecau se s h e b elie v es h er p la cem en t i s i n je o pard y a n d t h at B ria n i s u sin g t h is a s a n e x cu se t o g et h er o ut o f t h e a g en cy . T he o th er s tu den t i s tr y in g d esp era te ly n ot t o t a k e s id es. Com munic a tio n s k ills f o r m an agin g c o n flic t Most p eo ple u nderta k in g a n e d ucatio n t o w ork i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es w ill i n ev ita b ly b e ex pose d t o t h e b asic s e ts o f m ic ro c o m munic atio n s k ills n ecessa ry f o r m an ag in g c o nflic t. These i n clu de a ctiv e l is te n in g o r t h e i n te n tio nal u se o f s e lf -ta lk t o d em onstr a te t o s o m eo ne th at y ou h av e h eard a n d u nders to od w hat t h ey h av e s a id . L is te n in g s k ills a re t h e c o re b uild in g blo ck o f s u ccessfu l c o nflic t m an ag em en t b ecau se c o nflic t o fte n a ris e s w hen p eo ple t h in k t h ey hav e n ot b een l is te n ed t o o r h av e b een m is u nders to od. G ood a ctiv e l is te n in g s e rv es m an y good f u nctio ns— fo r e x am ple , i t m eets t h e h um an n eed t o b e u nders to od a n d r e co gnis e d b y oth ers , i t c re ate s a s u pportiv e e n vir o nm en t f o r d ia lo gue, i t b uild s r a p port a n d t r u st, a n d i t pro vid es a m odel o f h ow c o m munic atio n s h ould b e u nderta k en . The s p ecif ic s k ills o f a ctiv e l is te n in g i n clu de a tte n din g, p ara p hra sin g, r e fle ctin g f e elin gs an d s u m maris in g ( B ars k y, 2 007). Atte n din g r e fe rs t o t h e b eh av io ura l o r n on-v erb al te ch niq ues y ou u se t o d em onstr a te t o a p ers o n t h at y ou a re r e ally l is te n in g— fo r e x am ple , le an in g f o rw ard , m ain ta in in g e y e c o nta ct, n oddin g. I t a ls o i n clu des v erb al u tte ra n ces s u ch a s ‘m mm’. Para phra sin g , p ossib ly t h e m ost p ow erfu l c o m munic atio n s k ill i n c o nflic t man ag em en t, i s w hen y ou b rie fly s u m maris e w hat t h e o th ers h av e s a id . I t i s p ow erfu l b ecau se it c o m munic ate s u nders ta n din g, i t s te ers t h e c o nvers a tio n i n to d eep er r e fle ctio ns, i t s lo w s t h e co nvers a tio n b etw een p artie s d ow n a n d i t s e rv es a s a b uffe r. I t i s a ls o u se fu l t o t a k e t h e s tin g out o f n asty o r i n su ltin g s ta te m en ts , t h ere b y a llo w in g t h e o th er p ers o n t o h ear t h e m essa g e i n a l e ss e m otio nal w ay . Refle ctin g f e elin gs r e fe rs t o e n su rin g t h at t h e o th er p ers o n o r p ers o ns k now s y ou unders ta n d w hat t h ey a re f e elin g . H ere , y ou a re n ot t e llin g s o m eo ne w hat t h ey sh ould b e fe elin g, b ut a re i n ste ad a ck now le d gin g w hat t h ey are f e elin g o pen ly . Sum maris in g r e fe rs t o a co nden se d r e sta te m en t o f w hat a p ers o n h as s a id a fte r a s ig nif ic an t t im e h as e la p se d . Condlif fe ( 2 002: 1 79) a ls o s u ggests d ev elo pin g s k ills i n w hat h e t e rm s ‘ tr a n sitio ns’ te ch niq ues t o e n co ura g e p eo ple t o t a lk m ore d ir e ctly t o e ach o th er. T ypic al t r a n sitio ns a re han dovers a n d c ro sso vers . A handover i s w hen y ou i n vite o ne p ers o n t o e x pre ss t h eir f e elin gs dir e ctly t o t h e o th er. A cro sso ver , o n t h e o th er h an d, i s w hen y ou a sk e ach p ers o n t o e x pre ss th eir p erc ep tio n o f t h e o th er p ers o n’s p oin t o f v ie w . Ask in g q uestio ns i s a k ey t e ch niq ue i n c o nflic t r e so lu tio n. U se d j u dic io usly , q uestio ns a re usu ally t h e b est w ay t o f in d o ut w hat p eo ple ’s t h oughts a n d f e elin gs a re . I f y ou a re i n a n asse ssm en t p hase o f r e so lu tio n o r m ed ia tio n, t h en t h e o ld l ita n y o f t h e f iv e W s ( ‘w ho’, ‘w hat’ , ‘ w here ’, ‘ w hen ’ a n d ‘ w hy’) i s i n valu ab le . Q uestio ns c an b e e ith er o pen o r c lo se d . Open q uestio ns a re m ore c o nduciv e t o e n co ura g in g d ia lo gue b ecau se t h ey e n co ura g e p eo ple to a n sw er i n t h eir o w n w ord s. C lo se d q uestio ns g iv e a l im ite d a m ount o f c h oic e a n d a re m ore use fu l w hen y ou w an t t o e lic it s p ecif ic i n fo rm atio n. Anoth er s p ecif ic a n d r e la te d t e ch niq ue i n volv es m ovin g f ro m g en era litie s t o s p ecif ic s. Peo ple i n t h e m id dle o f a c o nflic t o fte n t h in k a n d t a lk i n t e rm s o f g en era lis a tio ns. F or ex am ple , i f s o m eo ne i s a b ru pt i n a c h an ce e n co unte r, h e o r s h e m ay b e c h ara cte ris e d a s hav in g n o r e sp ect o r b ein g r u de. C onflic ts c an r a re ly b e r e so lv ed w hen d is c u ssio ns a re h eld i n te rm s o f g en era litie s. F urth er, t h ey o fte n i n clu de u nhelp fu l a n d i n co rre ct s te re o ty pes ( fo r ex am ple , s o m eo ne i s a g eis t o r s e x is t) . A n e ffe ctiv e w ay o f m ovin g a w ay f ro m g en era litie s i s to a sk f o r s p ecif ic e x am ple s o f t h e c h ara cte ris tic n om in ate d . It i s a ls o h elp fu l i s a m ed ia to r i s a le rt t o h id den o ffe rs o f p eace. O fte n , t h ese a re d eliv ere d 112 in w ay s t h at m ak e i t a p pear l ik e a n a ccu sa tio n o r a n i n su lt. F or e x am ple : ‘ I’d b e p erfe ctly hap py t o r e n eg otia te h er w ork lo ad i f s h e h ad t h e s e n se t o t e ll m e i t w as t o o m uch i n ste ad o f sn iv ellin g a ro und t h e c o rrid or’. T he m ed ia to r c o uld r e sp ond, ‘ I u nders ta n d t h at y ou w ould ad ju st h er w ork lo ad i f s h e c o m munic ate d h er i s su es o pen ly a n d d ir e ctly t o y ou.’ Fin ally , o bvio usly c o nflic t a n d i ts m an ag em en t a re a h ig hly e m otio nal p ro cess. A s s u ch , i t is i m porta n t t h at e m otio ns— both t h ose o f t h e c o nflic tin g p artie s a n d t h ose o f a m ed ia to r— be ack now le d ged . I n t h e f ir s t i n sta n ce, i t i s i m porta n t t o a ck now le d ge a n d a ccep t e m otio ns. I t i s much e asie r t o w ork w ith s o m eth in g t h at i s o ut i n t h e o pen . A ctiv e l is te n in g a n d p ara p hra sin g will r e d uce e ru ptio ns o f f e elin gs. I t i s a ls o s e n sib le t o e sta b lis h g ro und r u le s s u ch a s n o n am e callin g o r p ers o nalis in g t o p re v en t t e n sio ns, f ru str a tio n a n d a n ger f ro m e sc ala tin g. I f i t d oes sp ir a l, a m ed ia to r s h ould c o nsid er e ith er h av in g b rie f i n div id ual d is c u ssio ns w ith e ach p arty or c all t h e s e ssio n t o a n e n d, t o b e c o ntin ued o n a n oth er d ay . In c o nflic t- re so lu tio n p ro cesse s, w ritte n c o m munic atio n p la y s a n i n te g ra l r o le , u su ally i n th e f o rm o f f o rm al a g re em en ts b etw een t h e p artie s. T he m ain a im o f a n y f o rm o f w ritte n co m munic atio n i s t h at i t b e c le ar, c o ncis e , n on-ju dgem en ta l a n d t h oughtf u l. T he s tr a te g ic purp ose o f a n y d ocu m en t s h ould b e k ep t i n m in d w hen i t i s b ein g w ritte n . F urth erm ore , i n th is d ay a n d a g e, m uch w ritin g i s d one i n e le ctr o nic f o rm . U nfo rtu nate ly — use fu l a s e m ail i s —it c an l e ad t o m an y c o nflic ts a n d m is u nders ta n din gs— fo r e x am ple , c o nfid en tia l in fo rm atio n b ein g s e n t t o s o m eo ne b y m is ta k e, h urtf u l m essa g es b ein g s e n t i n t h e h eat o f an ger, a n d m essa g es t h at a re e asily m is u nders to od b ecau se t h e s e n der w as m ore f o cu se d o n sp eed o f r e sp onse t h an r e p ly in g a ccu ra te ly a n d c le arly . A s a g en era l r u le , i f y ou a re t e m pte d to d ash o ff a n a n noyed r e sp onse , w ait u ntil t h e n ex t d ay . I n a ll i n sta n ce, e le ctr o nic o r oth erw is e , t h e k ey p oin t i s c are a n d t h oughtf u ln ess. Case s tu dy: C on flic t r eso lu tio n Carm ela i s t h e v olu nte er c o ord in ato r f o r a m ed iu m -s iz ed o rg an is a tio n p ro vid in g s u pport s e rv ic es to n ew ly a rriv ed r e fu gees. T he s e rv ic e h as b een i n o pera tio n f o r n early 4 0 y ears a n d w as esta b lis h ed i n t h e 1 970s. O rig in ally i t w as a n u nfu nded o rg an is a tio n o pera te d b y a ctiv is ts w ho wan te d t o e x pre ss t h eir c o ncern a b out t h e V ie tn am W ar b y p ro vid in g s e rv ic es t o r e fu gees f ro m th at w ar. O bvio usly t h e s e rv ic e u se r p opula tio n h as c h an ged c o nsid era b le s in ce t h en , a s h as t h e org an is a tio n. I t h as g ro w n c o nsid era b ly , a ttr a cts s ig nif ic an t f u ndin g a n d h as p ro fe ssio nalis e d . There a re n ow t w o d is tin ct g ro ups o f v olu nte ers . T he f ir s t c o nsis ts o f t h e o rig in al a ctiv is ts , Bab y B oom ers w ho h av e s tu ck w ith t h e a g en cy o ver a ll t h at t im e. T he s e co nd d is tin ct g ro up co m pris e s y oung p eo ple , u su ally u niv ers ity s tu den ts w ho a re r e ally i n te re ste d i n g ain in g ex perie n ce. T he o rg an is a tio n h as t r a d itio nally o rie n te d i ts s e rv ic es t o w ork in g w ith m oth ers , partic u la rly v uln era b le a n d i s o la te d m oth ers o f y oung c h ild re n . I t h as b een a sk ed b y t h e m ajo r fu ndin g d ep artm en t t o c o nsid er p ush in g m ore o f i ts r e so urc es t o w ork in g w ith y oung p eo ple , partic u la rly y oung A fric an m en . T he o ld er v olu nte ers a re o utr a g ed . T he y ounger o nes t h in k i t i s a good i d ea. T his e ru pte d i n to a n asty f ig ht a t a v olu nte ers ’ m eetin g a n d C arm ela n ow h as t o w ork out w hat t o d o. Dis c u ssio n q uestio n • O utlin e a f u lly f le d ged p la n f o r C arm ela . Resp on din g t o a ggressio n Unfo rtu nate ly , t h ere a re t im es w hen w ork ers i n a ll h um an s e rv ic e s e ttin gs a re c o nfro nte d b y an gry p eo ple — eith er s e rv ic e u se rs o r c o -w ork ers . W e n eed t o h av e t h e a b ility t o m an ag e hostility w hen i n o ccu rs , a n d m ost o f a ll t o c re ate e n vir o nm en ts t h at d is c o ura g e a g gre ssiv e o r 113 th re ate n in g b eh av io ur. A n i m porta n t a sp ect o f m an ag in g a g gre ssio n i s t h e a b ility t o r e ad e arly warn in g s ig ns. B eh av io ur i s a k ey i n dic ato r f o r a g gre ssio n, a n d w ork ers n eed t o b e s e n sitiv e to c h an ges. A noth er i m porta n t a sp ect i s t h e a b ility t o o bse rv e c h an ges i n a p ers o n’s b ody la n guag e, i n dic atin g t h at t h ey a re g ettin g a n gry . Typic al w arn in g s ig ns a re a n a g gre ssiv e f ix ed s ta re , d ry m outh , c le n ch ed t e eth , s h allo w bre ath in g, p ers p ir a tio n, f in ger d ru m min g, d artin g e y es, f o rc ed o r s u dden s ile n ce, q uestio nin g, ch alle n gin g, y ellin g a n d s w earin g. A t t h is p oin t, i t i s i m porta n t f o r a w ork er t o a sse ss a n d dif fu se t h e s itu atio n, p ossib ly b y n ot p urs u in g t h e i s su e f u rth er a t t h at m om en t. Peo ple o fte n b eco m e a g gre ssiv e b ecau se t h ey f e el w ro nged , m is u nders to od o r u nheard . Som e o th er t r ig gers , p artic u la rly f o r s e rv ic e u se rs , a re : • f e ar ( o f t h e k now n o r u nknow n) • l o ss o f p ers o nal c o ntr o l • d is p la ced a n ger ( a t t h e s y ste m , h osp ita l, f a m ily ) • g rie f r e actio n • p ain ( c h ro nic o r a cu te u nre lie v ed p ain ) • p eer p re ssu re ( c o m mon i n a d ole sc en ts a n d t e en s). Som e s im ple t ip s f o r a d dre ssin g a n ger i n t h e m om en t a re : • S ta y c alm . • S how r e sp ect f o r t h e p ers o n a s a n i n div id ual. • S peak s lo w ly a n d c le arly , u sin g s h ort a n d s im ple s e n te n ces. • M atc h t h e i n te n sity o f y our v oic e ( b ut n ot l o udness) t o t h at o f t h e a g gre ssiv e p ers o n. • M ak e s u re y our n on-v erb al c o m munic atio n i s n ot h ostile o r s u bm is siv e. K eep y our p ostu re o pen , arm s u ncro sse d , h an ds v is ib le a n d o pen . M ain ta in e y e c o nta ct a n d a r e la x ed f a cia l e x pre ssio n. • S ta n d a t a s lig ht a n gle t o t h e p ers o n— a m etr e i s a s a fe , c o m fo rta b le d is ta n ce. A s t h e i n div id ual beco m es m ore a g ita te d , a llo w m ore p ers o nal s p ace. • D on’t b lo ck t h e p ers o n’s e x it. • E nsu re t h at y ou a lw ay s h av e a n e x it i f y ou n eed t o r u n. ( R unnin g a w ay i s y our f ir s t s e lf -p ro te ctio n te ch niq ue.) • E nsu re o th er s ta ff k now w here y ou a re i f y ou a re d ealin g w ith a n i n div id ual k now n t o b e a g gre ssiv e (if p ossib le ). • T ak e a ll t h re ats o f v io le n ce s e rio usly . • N ev er t r y t o d is a rm a n i n div id ual. • N ev er a ccep t a w eap on f ro m a n u pse t o r a g ita te d p ers o n. A sk f o r i t t o b e p la ced o n t h e g ro und a n d fo r t h e p ers o n t o s te p a w ay . When t h e i m med ia te s itu atio n h as b een r e so lv ed , i t i s i m porta n t t h at y ou f o llo w y our em plo yin g o rg an is a tio n’s g uid elin es f o r r e co rd in g a n d r e p ortin g s u ch i n sta n ces. I t i s a ls o v ery im porta n t f o r w ork ers t o f o rm ally a n d i n fo rm ally d eb rie f a b out h ow i t f e lt a n d h ow y ou re sp onded . I f t h ere i s n o c ap acity f o r t h is w ith in y our o rg an is a tio n, i t i s a p pro pria te t h at y ou ask t h e o rg an is a tio n t o f u nd s e v era l h ours o f e x te rn al p ro fe ssio nal s u perv is io n. Con flic t r eso lu tio n a cro ss d if fe ren ce Giv en t h e m ultic u ltu ra l n atu re o f c o nte m pora ry A ustr a lia n s o cie ty , i t i s i m porta n t t h at work ers a re a b le t o e x plo re w heth er a c o nflic t i s r o ote d i n c ro ss-c u ltu ra l i s su es. W hile n ot au to m atic ally a ssu m in g t h at c o nflic t i s c u ltu ra lly b ase d , t h ere a re s tr a te g ie s t o u se i f i t i s a fa cto r: • V alid ate c u ltu ra l d if fe re n ces ( i.e . b elie fs , v alu es a n d w ay s o f d oin g t h in gs). 114 • S ep ara te i n te re sts a n d v alu es. • I f y ou c an , u se c u ltu ra l i n te rp re te rs , s o m eo ne o f t h at c u ltu re w ho i s n ot p arty t o t h e c o nflic t a n d w ho has s u ffic ie n t s e lf -e ffic acy t o e n gag e i n t h e r o le . In t h e A ustr a lia n c o nte x t, o ne o f t h e m ost i m porta n t m an if e sta tio ns o f c u ltu ra l d if fe re n ce i s th at p ro vid ed b y I n dig en ous A ustr a lia n s. W hen a tte m ptin g c o nflic t m an ag em en t w ith In dig en ous p eo ple , i t i s i m porta n t t o a ck now le d ge t h at t h e e ld ers f o rm t h e g ro up t h at man ag es p ro ble m s a n d c o nflic t w ith in t h e c o m munity . F urth er, a n yone a tte m ptin g t o m ed ia te with I n dig en ous p eo ple n eed s t o b e k now n a n d r e sp ecte d b y t h e c o m munity a s w ell a s b y t h e eld ers . F urth er, n orm s o f p riv acy t h at m ig ht b e a p pro pria te t o t h e m ain str e am p opula tio n m ay not b e a p plic ab le . U su ally , i n div id ual p ro ble m s a re s e en a s c o m munity p ro ble m s. F in ally , In dig en ous c o m munitie s b oth a lr e ad y k now a b out i n te r-p ers o nal p ro ble m s a n d e q ually e x pect to b e i n fo rm ed o f a n y n eg otia te d s e ttle m en t. It i s a ls o i m porta n t t o r e m em ber a t a ll t im es t h at t h ere a re o th er i m porta n t d im en sio ns o f dif fe re n ce t o w hic h w e n eed t o p ay a tte n tio n w hen m an ag in g c o nflic t. A k ey f a cto r i s g en der. Men a n d w om en b eh av e v ery d if fe re n tly i n c o nflic t c o nte x ts , a n d t h e n eed s o f b oth s h ould t o be t a k en i n to a cco unt. O fte n g en der a n d c u ltu re c an i n te rs e ct. V ie tn am ese w om en , f o r ex am ple , c o nsid er i t s h am efu l t o a sk f o r a ssis ta n ce o uts id e o f t h e f a m ily ( N ADRA C, 1 999). In a d ditio n, w ork ers n eed t o b e a w are o f o th er d im en sio ns o f d if fe re n ce t h at w ill i m pact o n an y c o nflic t- m an ag em en t p ro cess— th at i s , a g e, d is a b ility , s e x uality a n d g eo gra p hy (N ADRA C, 1 999). CO NFL IC T M ANAG EM EN T H EA LTH C H EC K Belo w a re s o m e u se fu l q uestio ns f o r r u nnin g a c o nflic t m an ag em en t h ealth c h eck o n a n org an is a tio n: • I s a d eq uate l e ad ers h ip b ein g d em onstr a te d w ith in t h e o rg an is a tio n? • W hat p re v io us e ffo rts h av e b een m ad e b y t h e l e ad er t o a d dre ss t h e c o nflic t, a n d w ith w hat r e su lts ? • I s t h e l e ad er c o m fo rta b le w ith c o nflic t r e so lu tio n? • I s t h e l e ad er r o le -m odellin g e ffe ctiv e c o nflic t- re so lu tio n s k ills ? • W hat h as t h e l e ad er d one t o c re ate a s u pportiv e e n vir o nm en t w ith in h is o r h er g ro up f o r e ffe ctiv e co nflic t r e so lu tio n? • I s t h e l e ad er c o nsis te n t i n h ow h e o r s h e a d dre sse s c o nflic ts ? • I s t h e l e ad er b ein g h eld a cco unta b le b y h is o r h er s u perv is o r i n e ffe ctiv ely a d dre ssin g c o nflic t- re so lu tio n i s su es i n a p artic u la r a re a? • D o t e am m em bers f o ste r a s u pportiv e o r a n on-s u pportiv e e n vir o nm en t f o r c o nflic t r e so lu tio n? • W hat p re v io us e ffo rts h av e b een m ad e b y i n div id uals o r t h e g ro up t o a d dre ss t h e c o nflic t, a n d w ith what r e su lts ? • W hat a re t h e d efin ed o r u ndefin ed g ro up n orm s a ro und c o nflic t, i f a n y? • W hat i s n ’t h ap pen in g t h at n eed s t o h ap pen i n t h is g ro up a ro und c o nflic t r e so lu tio n? • H ow d oes t h e g ro up, a s w ell a s t h e c o nflic tin g p artie s, s e e t h e r o le o f t h e l e ad er i n a ll o f t h is ? • W hat g uid an ce a n d s u pport d oes t h e g ro up f e el i t s till n eed s f ro m t h e l e ad er a n d t h e o rg an is a tio n? • I s t h ere a n a cco unta b ility f a cto r i n t h e o rg an is a tio n t h at s u pports t e am work a n d g ood co m munic atio n s k ills ? • A re t h e d esir e d c o nflic t- re so lu tio n s k ills ( p artic u la rly a ro und t e am work a n d c o m munic atio n) re fle cte d a s c rite ria i n p erfo rm an ce r e v ie w p ro cesse s? • A re t h ere o rg an is a tio nal c o re v alu es? I f s o , a re t h ey r e fle cte d w ith in p erfo rm an ce r e v ie w p ro cesse s? • A re t e am n orm s i d en tif ie d a n d e sta b lis h ed a ro und c o nflic t r e so lu tio n? I f s o , a re t h ey f o llo w ed i n a co nsis te n t m an ner? • I s t h e d is c ip lin ary p ro cess e v er u se d f o r e m plo yees w ho e x hib it p oor c o m munic atio n a n d/o r co opera tio n s k ills ? 115 • I s t h e o rg an is a tio n ( a t a ll l e v els ) p ro vid in g s k ill t r a in in g/ r e so urc es o n a n o ngoin g b asis ? • W hat s k ill t r a in in g o pportu nitie s a re m ad e a v aila b le t o a ll e m plo yees w ith in t h e o rg an is a tio n? • H ow o fte n a re o pportu nitie s m ad e a v aila b le t o e m plo yees t o b ette r t h em se lv es, b oth p ers o nally a n d pro fe ssio nally ? • W hat r e so urc es a re m ad e a v aila b le t o e m plo yees t o h elp i n t h e a re a o f i n te r-p ers o nal co m munic atio n, t e am work a n d c o nflic t r e so lu tio n? • F ro m a n o rg an is a tio nal s ta n dpoin t, w hat i s n ’t h ap pen in g t h at n eed s t o h ap pen i n o rd er f o r t h e co nflic t- re so lu tio n p ro cess t o b e i m pro ved ? • A re l e ad ers /m an ag ers /s u perv is o rs p ro vid ed o ngoin g t r a in in g a n d d ev elo pm en t t o b ette r t h em se lv es, esp ecia lly i n t h e s k ills a re a? (A dap te d f ro m G re g G ie se n a n d A sso cia te s, < www.g re g gie se n asso cia te s.c o m >) CO NCLU SIO N This c h ap te r h as, o f n ecessity , b rie fly t o uch ed o n m an y i s su es. I t i s n ot a n d c an not b e co m pre h en siv e. W e r e co m men d t h at t h ose w ho w is h t o p urs u e t h ese i s su es f u rth er c o nsu lt t h e te x ts r e co m men ded b elo w . Chap te r r ev ie w q uestio n s 8.1 W hy i s i t l ik ely t h at c o nflic t c an e ru pt i n s m all n on-p ro fit c o m munity -b ase d org an is a tio ns? 8.2 W hat a re B is n o’s f iv e s o urc es o f c o nflic t? 8.3 W hat a re t h e f iv e p ure s ty le s o f c o nflic t? 8.4 W hy a re l e g al s o lu tio ns t o c o nflic t n ot a lw ay s a p pro pria te ? 8.5 W hat a re t h e d if fe re n t f o rm s o f m ed ia tio n? 8.6 N am e t h re e o f t h e c o re s k ills o f a ctiv e l is te n in g? 8.7 W hat a re s o m e o f t h e r e aso ns f o r p eo ple b eco m in g a g gre ssiv e? 8.8 W hat a re s o m e f a cto rs t h at n eed t o b e t a k en i n to a cco unt w hen m ed ia tin g w ith I n dig en ous Austr a lia n s? OTH ER R ESO URCES Austr a lia n I n stitu te o f F am ily S tu die s, B ib lio gra p hy, C onflic t R eso lu tio n a n d M ed ia tio n, < www.a if s .g ov.a u /a frc /b ib s/m ed ia tio n.h tm l >. Cre atin g C om mon G ro und, < www.c o m mongro und.n et.a u /in dex .h tm l >. Natio nal A lte rn ativ e D is p ute R eso lu tio n A dvis o ry C ouncil, < www.n ad ra c.g ov.a u >. The I n stitu te o f A rb itr a to rs a n d M ed ia to rs A ustr a lia , < www.i a m a.o rg .a u >. KEY R EA DIN G S Bars k y, A .E . 2 007, Conflic t R eso lu tio n f o r t h e H elp in g P ro fe ssio ns ( 2 nd e d .) , T hom so n, Belm ont, C A . Condlif fe , P . 2 002, Conflic t M anagem en t: A P ra ctic a l G uid e , L ex is N ex is B utte rw orth s, Sydney . Martin , J . 2 007, Conflic t M anagem en t a nd M ed ia tio n , G in nin derra P re ss, C an berra . Natio nal A lte rn ativ e D is p ute R eso lu tio n A dvis o ry C ouncil 1 999, A F air S ay: M anagin g Diffe re n ces i n M ed ia tio n a nd C oncilia tio n , N ADRA C, C an berra . 116 117 C H APT ER N IN E Pow er a n d a d voca cy S U M MARY T his c h ap te r a tte n ds t o o ne o f t h e m ost p re ssin g i s su es i n h um an s e rv ic e w ork , t h e r e la tio nsh ip b etw een o rg an is a tio ns, w ork ers a n d s e rv ic e u se rs . I t a ck now le d ges t h e d ep en den cy o f s e rv ic e u se rs a n d t h e i m bala n ces o f p ow er b etw een t h em , t h e v ario us s tr u ctu re s o f s o cie ty t h at c o ntr ib ute t o t h is i m bala n ce a n d t h e o rg an is a tio ns r e sp ondin g t o t h eir i s su es. I n t h is c h ap te r, w e o utlin e p ro cesse s b y w hic h w ork ers c an a d dre ss t h ese c o ncern s. W HY P O W ER A ND A DVO CACY? At a ll l e vels , s o cia l w ork ers s h ould b e— must b e— agita to rs. ( B ra k e a n d B aile y , 1 980: 2 25) A d eep u nders ta n din g a n d a c ritic al a n aly sis o f p ow er, c o uple d w ith a s o und k now le d ge o f a d vocacy a n d w ay s i n w hic h t o a d vocate , a re e sse n tia l t o ols f o r e v ery h um an s e rv ic e w ork er. A s a w ork er, y ou need t o u nders ta n d p ow er— your o w n p ow er, t h at o f y our s e rv ic e u se r, t h at o f y our o rg an is a tio n, a n d t h at w hic h r e sid es i n t h e s tr u ctu re s o f o ur s o cie ty . Y ou n eed t o k now w ho d ecid es, w ho v alid ate s a n d w ho d is p ers e s p ow er. Y ou a ls o n eed t o k now w ho h as i t, w ho u se s i t, w ho l o se s o ut a n d t h e w ay s i n w hic h t h is h ap pen s. F urth er, y ou n eed s o m e s tr a te g ie s r e g ard in g w hat t o d o a b out i t. A dvocacy i s o fte n t h e p ro cess t h at c an g uid e u s t o c h alle n ge a n d n eg otia te i n eq uita b le p ow er a rra n gem en ts , w heth er i t b e o n b eh alf o f a n i n div id ual s e rv ic e u se r, a g ro up o r a n e n tir e c o m munity . This c h ap te r b eg in s w ith a d is c u ssio n a b out p ow er. W e l o ok a t w ay s o f u nders ta n din g p ow er a n d e x plo re w ay s i n w hic h t h e l a ck o f t h is c an m an if e st i ts e lf i n y our s e rv ic e u se rs o r i n t h e c o m munitie s w ith w hic h y ou w ork . W e w ill e x am in e t h e p ow er y ou y ours e lf h old b y v ir tu e o f b oth y our s o cia l l o catio n a n d y our p ro fe ssio nal d is c o urs e , a n d l o ok a t h ow t o p ro ductiv ely c o nfro nt a n d d eal w ith t h ese p riv ile g es. O ne o f t h e w ay s t o c h alle n ge a n d w ork t h ro ugh t h e r e n eg otia tio n o f p ow er i s t h ro ugh a d vocacy . W e w ill e x am in e a n d d is c u ss w hat w e m ean b y a d vocacy a n d h ow t o e th ic ally a d vocate w ith a n d o n b eh alf o f y our s e rv ic e u se rs . U NDER ST A NDIN G P O W ER 118 When w e t a lk a b out p ow er i n t h e h um an s e rv ic e a re a, w hat i s i t t h at w e a re t r y in g t o unders ta n d? T here a re m an y w ay s o f e x am in in g p ow er. A re w e t a lk in g a b out p ow er b etw een a w ork er a n d a s e rv ic e u se r, o r t h e p ow er h eld b y a w ork er o r t h e o rg an is a tio n, o r t h e p ow er em bed ded i n t h e s tr u ctu re s o f s o cie ty ? T he t r u th i s t h at w e n eed t o h av e a n u nders ta n din g o f all t h ese f a cets o f p ow er w hen w e a re w ork in g i n t h e c o m plic ate d a re a o f h um an s e rv ic es. What i s p ow er? The c o ncep t o f p ow er h as f a sc in ate d h um an s f o r c en tu rie s. M an y h is to ric al t e x ts e x am in in g an d p hilo so phis in g a b out p ow er a re s till r e ad a n d d is c u sse d t o day . F ro m S un T zu ’s The A rt o f War , a C hin ese m ilita ry t r e atis e f ro m t h e s ix th c en tu ry B C t o Thoughts a nd M ed ita tio ns o f th e R om an E m pero r M arc u s A ure liu s i n 1 61 A D, t h ere a re m an y e x plo ra tio ns a n d w ay s o f co ncep tu alis in g p ow er, e x am in in g w ho h as i t a n d h ow t o t a k e i t. T oday , m an y c o nte m pora ry man ag em en t c o urs e s a n d b ig c o rp ora tio ns a d vis e t h eir m an ag ers t o r e ad a n d s tu dy t h ese t e x ts . For h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers , a r a n ge o f a u th ors , r e se arc h ers , a cad em ic s a n d p ra ctitio ners hav e w ritte n a n d d eb ate d o n t h is t o pic . T hese c o nsis t o f t h e m ore r a d ic al w rite rs o f t h e 1 960s an d 1 970s ( e .g . P au lo F re ir e , 1 970; F ra n z F an on, 1 967), t h ro ugh t o t h ose w ho w ro te a b out neo -M arx is t s tr u ctu ra lis m b eg in nin g i n t h e l a te 1 970s ( e .g . M ulla ly a n d P ease , 1 997; M ore au , 1989), t h e m an y f e m in is t t h eo ris ts o f t h e 1 970s a n d 1 980s ( e .g . h ooks, 2 000; F ook, 1 993; Tong, 1 992); t h e p ostm odern t h eo ris ts ( e .g . R ab in ow , 1 984); a n d t h e c ritic al a n d a n ti- oppre ssiv e w rite rs o f t h e 1 990s u p t o t o day ( A lla n e t a l. 2 009; T hom pso n, 2 006). T hey h av e all h av e p ut f o rw ard e x plo ra tio ns a n d a rg um en ts a b out p ow er a n d w hat i t m ean s f o r t h ose who a re n ot a w ard ed i t i n o ur s o cie ty . I t i s n ot p ossib le w ith in t h is c h ap te r t o s u m maris e t h e en tir e i n te lle ctu al j o urn ey ; h ow ev er, w e w ill d ra w o n t h e w ork o f m an y o f t h ese w rite rs t o ex am in e a n d e x plo re h ow p ow er i s r e le v an t, a n d t h e w ay s i n w hic h i t p la y s o ut i n o ur l iv es, th e l iv es o f o ur s e rv ic e u se rs a n d s o cie ty a s w hole . W e w ill a ls o d ra w o n t h em w hen w e artic u la te s o m e s tr a te g ie s f o r d ealin g w ith p ow er i n t h e w ork t h at y ou w ill b e d oin g. So w hat i s p ow er, w ho h as i t a n d h ow d o w e m ak e s e n se o f i t f o r o ur w ork i n t h e h um an se rv ic es f ie ld ? Pow er i s a n e ver p re se n t p hen om en on i n s o cia l l ife . I n a ll h um an g ro ups, s o m e i n div id uals h ave more a uth ority o r i n flu en ce t h an o th ers, w hile g ro ups t h em se lv es v a ry i n t e rm s o f t h e l e vel o f t h eir pow er. P ow er a nd i n eq uality t e n d t o b e c lo se ly l in ked . T he p ow erfu l a re a ble t o a ccu m ula te v a lu ed re so urc es, s u ch a s p ro perty o r w ea lth ; a nd p osse ssio n o f s u ch r e so urc es i s i n t u rn , a m ea ns o f gen era tin g p ow er. ( G id den s, 1 991: 2 09) There a re d efin ite ly f o rm al w ay s i n s o cie ty w here b y s o m e g ro ups a re a ffo rd ed p riv ile g es an d p ow er o ver o th ers . T hose w ho h old t h ese b en efits c o ntin ue t o r e in fo rc e a n d r e p ro duce t h e fo rm al a n d s tr u ctu ra l m eth ods o f p riv ile g e. T hin k f o r a m om en t a b out w hat i s r e w ard ed i n o ur so cie ty . P eo ple w ho p osse ss m an y o f t h e f o llo w in g a ttr ib ute s a re r e w ard ed : b ein g w hite , mid dle – a n d u pper-c la ss, m ale , a b le -b odie d , h ete ro se x ual, y oung ( b ut n ot t o o y oung), f it, health y, p riv ate s c h ool e d ucate d a n d t h en t e rtia ry e d ucate d , l e ad in g t o a p ro fe ssio nal, w ell- paid j o b. H ow m an y o f t h ese p riv ile g es a re p art o f y our o w n s o cia l l o catio n? C onsid er h ow man y o f t h ese p riv ile g es m ay o r m ay n ot e x is t i n t h e l iv es o f y our s e rv ic e u se rs . I n s o m an y way s, t h ese a d van ta g es a re f o rm ally p ro te cte d a n d r e p ro duced i n o ur s o cie ty . T his s h ould co m e a s n o s u rp ris e , a s i t i s t h ose w ho h old t h ese p riv ile g es w ho a re t h e l e g is la to rs a n d co rp ora te l e ad ers . Thom pso n ( 2 006) d esc rib es p ow er a s a c en tr a l f e atu re i n t h e s tr u ggle t o p ro m ote e q uality . His u se o f t h e w ord ‘ s tr u ggle ’ i s s ig nif ic an t, a s h e d esc rib es t h e v este d i n te re sts a n d esta b lis h ed s tr u ctu re s t h at o fte n s ta n d i n t h e w ay o f w ork in g t o w ard s e q uality . H e g oes o n t o 119 arg ue t h at, a s a w ork er i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es f ie ld , t h ese v este d i n te re sts a n d e sta b lis h ed str u ctu re s m ay a ssis t y ou g re atly i n y our l if e , s o b ein g a b le t o r e co gnis e t h em i s o fte n t h e f ir s t ste p i n b ein g a b le t o c h alle n ge t h e p ow er y ou h old o n b oth a p ers o nal a n d a p ro fe ssio nal le v el. Alla n ( 2 009) a ls o a rg ues t h at, a s a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er, y ou n eed t o h av e a n unders ta n din g o f t h e w ay s i n w hic h p ow er i s a ffo rd ed t o s o m e g ro ups w ith in s o cie ty a t t h e ex pen se o f o th ers . Y ou n eed t o h av e a n a w are n ess o f t h ese p atte rn s o f d om in atio n, w here th ey e x is t, h ow t h ey a re r e p ro duced a n d w ith in w hat i n stitu tio ns, a n d t h e w ay s i n w hic h t h ey im pact o n a n d m an if e st t h em se lv es i n t h e l iv es o f o ur s e rv ic e u se rs a n d o urs e lv es. Chen ow eth a n d M cA ulif fe ( 2 008) s ta te t h at a s w ork ers i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es f ie ld w e n eed to u nders ta n d p ow er o n t w o d if fe re n t l e v els . F ir s t, w e n eed t o h av e a n u nders ta n din g o f h ow th e s y ste m s a n d s tr u ctu re s i n s o cie ty h av e t a k en p ow er f ro m o ur s e rv ic e u se rs . S eco nd, w e need t o u nders ta n d t h e d ynam ic s o f p ow er i n o ur r e la tio nsh ip s w ith t h e s e rv ic e u se rs w ith whom w e w ork , t h eir f a m ilie s, g ro ups a n d s o cia l c o nnectio ns/c o m munitie s. They a ls o a rg ue t h at d if fe re n t h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers h av e d if fe rin g v ie w s o f t h e p ow er an d c o ntr o l t h at s h ould b e a ffo rd ed t o t h eir s e rv ic e u se r g ro ups. T his c an b e a s o urc e o f te n sio n f o r m an y w ork ers , a n d f o r m an y g ro ups a d vocatin g o n b eh alf o f s p ecif ic s e rv ic e u se r gro ups. F or e x am ple , i f y ou a re a s o cia l w ork er i n a h osp ita l s e ttin g, y ou m ay h av e d if fe re n t id eas a b out t h e w ay s i n w hic h y ou w ould k eep y our s e rv ic e u se rs i n fo rm ed a n d i n volv ed i n th eir t r e atm en t t h an a m ed ic al p ra ctitio ner m ay h av e. E ven t h e l a n guag e o f ‘ p atie n t’ co m pare d w ith t h at o f ‘ s e rv ic e u se r’ o r ‘ c lie n t’ g iv es a n i n dic atio n o f t h e a m ount o f au to nom y, a g en cy a n d c o ntr o l y ou w ould a ffo rd t h ose w ith w hom y ou a re w ork in g. You n eed t o u nders ta n d, h ow ev er, t h at w ork in g w ith a n a w are n ess o f w ho h old s w hat pow er i n o ur s o cie ty , i s n ot j u st a ‘ p olitic ally c o rre ct’ p ositio n o r a ‘ n ic e’ w ay t o w ork a s a hum an s e rv ic e w ork er. N ot h av in g a g ood g ra sp o f t h e w ay s i n w hic h p ow er p la y s o ut i n so cie ty , a n d w ork s t o w ard s o ppre ssin g a n d d am ag in g o ur s e rv ic e u se rs , c an b e v ery dan gero us. C oste llo ( 2 009) a rg ues t h at a l a ck o f i n fo rm atio n a n d a w are n ess a ro und t h is c an le ad t o w ork ers c o llu din g w ith t h ose w ho h old t h e p ow er, a n d t h us c o ntin uin g t o o ppre ss a n d dam ag e t h eir s e rv ic e u se rs . T ak e, f o r e x am ple , t h e w ay s i n w hic h s o cie ty u nders ta n ds m ale vio le n ce t o w ard s w om en . W ith n o g en dere d a n aly sis o f t h e w ay s i n w hic h o ur p atr ia rc h al so cie ty c o ntin ues t o s u pport a n d r e p ro duce f a m ily v io le n ce ( a n d l ittle u nders ta n din g o f t h e man y m yth s a ro und m en n ot b ein g a b le t o c o ntr o l t h em se lv es a n d t h e i d ea t h at w om en h av e th e r e sp onsib ility t o e n su re t h at t h e v io le n t o utb urs ts d on’t h ap pen w hen c h ild re n a re p re se n t in t h e h om e), m an y w ork ers i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es f ie ld c o ntin ue t o c o llu de w ith t h e perp etr a to rs . T his f la w ed u nders ta n din g h as c o ntr ib ute d t o o ur e n tir e c h ild p ro te ctio n s y ste m le an in g t o w ard s t h e r e m oval o f c h ild re n , r a th er t h an p la cin g t h e r e sp onsib ility f o r t h e vio le n ce a t t h e f e et o f t h e p erp etr a to rs , r e m ovin g t h em f ro m t h e h om e a n d w ork in g t o e n su re th e s a fe ty o f w om en a n d c h ild re n . Bra k e a n d B aile y ( 1 980) a rg ue t h at o fte n i n y our w ork w ith a n i n div id ual o r f a m ily , a gro up o r a c o m munity , i t m ay b eco m e a p pare n t t h at t h ey a re n ot a w are o f t h e p ublic o r str u ctu ra l d im en sio ns o f t h eir t r o ublin g i s su e. I f, i n t h e c o urs e o f y our w ork w ith t h em , t h ey still r e m ain u naw are o f t h e w ay s i n w hic h t h eir i s su es a re d efin ed a n d b y w hom , t h en t h e work y ou a re d oin g i s q uestio nab le . T hey s ta te t h at i f y ou d o t h is k in d o f w ork , y ou a re in div id ualis in g— th at i s , y ou a re e n co ura g in g p eo ple t o v ie w t h e p ro ble m s t h ey a re ex perie n cin g a s u niq ue t o t h em a n d a s u nre la te d t o h is to ric al a n d s o cia l f a cto rs . I f y ou d o s o , you e n co ura g e r e so lu tio n o f t h e p ro ble m w ith in t h e b oundarie s o f t h e p re se n t s o cia l o rd er a n d you r e in fo rc e v alu es s u pportin g t h e p re se n t s o cia l o rd er. Case s tu dy: P ow er i m bala n ces 120 You a re a w ork er i n a c o m munity h ealth c en tr e . O ne o f y our d utie s i s t o d is tr ib ute e m erg en cy re lie f f o od v ouch ers i n l in e w ith t h e a g en cy ’s p olic ie s a n d p ro ced ure s d urin g a fte rn oon d uty se ssio ns. O ne a fte rn oon, a y oung I n dig en ous s in gle m oth er c o m es t o y ou a sk in g f o r m oney , a n d when y ou l o ok i n h er f ile y ou f in d t h at s h e h as b een t o t h e c en tr e a sk in g f o r f o od v ouch ers e v ery th ir d w eek f o r t h e p ast t w o m onth s. A gen cy p olic y s ta te s t h at s e rv ic e u se rs c an o nly a ccess f o od vouch ers o nce i n a s ix -m onth p erio d. T he l a st t im e s h e w as a t t h e s e rv ic e, s h e w as t o ld t h at s h e was n ot e lig ib le a n d w as t u rn ed a w ay b y a n oth er w ork er. S he i s c le arly d is tr e sse d a n d s ta te s t o you t h at s h e k now s s h e c an ’t b udget p ro perly , t h at h er m oney d oes n ot s tr e tc h t h ro ugh w in te r a n d sh e d oes n ot k now w hat t o d o. O n f u rth er i n vestig atio n, y ou f in d t h at s h e i s l iv in g i n a c o ncre te public h ousin g h ouse w ith n o i n su la tio n, a n d t h at h er g as b ills g o f ro m $ 92 d urin g s u m mer t o o ver $800 d urin g w in te r. T his i s o bvio usly n ot a r e su lt o f h er p oor b udgetin g s k ills , b ut o f h er n eed t o heat h er h ouse . Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s • I n w hat w ay s a re t h is w om an ’s i s su es c o nnecte d t o h er s o cia l l o catio n i n l if e ? • H ow c o uld y ou m ak e h er a w are o f t h is i n o rd er f o r h er t o u nders ta n d t h at t h is i s n ot h er p ers o nal defic it a t p la y h ere ? • I n w hat w ay s m ig ht y ou b e a b le t o a d vocate f o r t h is w om an w ith y our o w n a g en cy , a s w ell a s with t h e D ep artm en t o f H ousin g a n d t h e g as u tility c o m pan y? Man y w ork ers w ith w hom w e h av e t a lk ed t e ll u s t h at t h ey k eep p olitic s o ut o f t h e w ork th ey d o a n d a ls o k eep t h eir v alu es t o t h em se lv es. I f y ou t h in k y ou a re d oin g t h is , t h en t h e valu es a n d p olitic al s ta n ce y ou a re c o nvey in g t o t h e s e rv ic e u se r i s t h at o f t h e s ta tu s q uo, whic h i n dic ate s t h at t h eir i s su es a re t h eir f a u lt. T he o ld s a y in g t h at i f y ou a re n ot p art o f t h e so lu tio n, y ou a re p art o f t h e p ro ble m i s n ev er s o t r u e t h an w hen w ork in g i n t h e h um an s e rv ic e fie ld . A s a w ork er, i f y ou t h in k y ou a re s ittin g o n t h e f e n ce, y ou a re a ctu ally s a y in g t h at t h e sta tu s q uo i s a ccep ta b le a n d t h at t h ere i s n o n eed t o n eg otia te a s h if t i n p ow er. In r e cen t y ears , p ostm odern t h in kin g a n d t h e w ay s i n w hic h i t c o ncep tu alis e s p ow er h av e had a b ig i m pact o n w ork ers a n d t h eo ris ts i n t h e h um an s e rv ic e f ie ld . W hen l o okin g a t p ow er th ro ugh a p ostm odern l e n s, y ou w ill d ev elo p a n a w are n ess t h at i t i s n ot p ow er i ts e lf t h at i s t h e pro ble m , b ut r a th er t h e w ay i n w hic h p ow er h as t r a d itio nally b een c o ncep tu alis e d ( A lla n , 2009). A lla n s ta te s t h at F oucau lt ( th e m ost p ro m in en t p ostm odern t h eo ris t) r e co gnis e d a n d arg ued t h at p ow er i s e x erc is e d n ot p osse sse d ; t h at p ow er c an b e u se d o ver s o m eo ne t o c o ntr o l an d r e str ic t, o r i t c an b e u se d t o i n fo rm , s u pport o r t r a n sfo rm ; a n d t h at w e a ll h av e t h e pote n tia l t o c re ate s o m e f o rm o f p ow er. In o th er w ord s, F oucau lt a n d o th er p ostm odern is ts h av e m ain ta in ed t h at p ow er i s i n here n t in e v ery s itu atio n, b ut i s o pen t o b e u se d i n p ositiv e w ay s f o r i n div id uals , i n clu din g f o r y ou a s a w ork er. ‘ P ow er i s t h ere fo re f lu id a n d o pen t o c o nsta n t i n flu en ce a n d c h an ge.’ ( A lla n , 2 009: 73) H ealy ( 2 005) a ls o s ta te s t h at t h e p ostm odern t h eo ris ts w ere w ork in g t o w ard s p ow er b ein g ex erc is e d r a th er t h an p osse sse d . T o d o t h is , a s a w ork er y ou w ould v ie w p ow er a s a p ro duct of a d is c o urs e ( a b ody o f k now le d ge) r a th er t h an i t b ein g a tta ch ed t o t h at p artic u la r d is c o urs e . This , s h e a rg ues, c alls f o r a g re ate r c ap acity f o r s h are d p ow er. T his u nders ta n din g c an b e v ery use fu l f o r h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers . If y ou a re a b le t o v ie w p ow er i n t h is w ay , i t c an h elp y ou t o w ork t h ro ugh t h e p ow er t h at may b e h eld b y c o -w ork ers o r o rg an is a tio ns, e ith er f o r y ours e lf o r o n b eh alf o f a s e rv ic e u se r. Your a w are n ess t h at t h e p ow er e x erc is e d b y o th ers — re al a s i t i s — is a p ro duct o f t h e p ositio n of t h eir p ro fe ssio n o r o f t h eir o rg an is a tio n c an h av e a m obilis in g e ffe ct a n d r e p re se n t a sta rtin g p oin t t o u nders ta n d, n eg otia te a n d b eg in t o c h alle n ge t h is p ow er. F or w ork ers w ho hav e f o und t h em se lv es t r a p ped b y t h e f e elin g t h at t h ey c an ’t c h an ge a s itu atio n b ecau se t h e sy ste m h as t o o m uch p ow er, t h is p ostm odern t a k e o n p ow er c an b e v ery l ib era tin g. The r e ality l ie s s o m ew here b etw een t h e t r a d itio nal w ay s o f v ie w in g p ow er a n d t h e 121 postm odern p ers p ectiv e. P ow er i s e x erc is e d , n ot p osse sse d ; h ow ev er, t h e w ay s i n w hic h s o m e pow er i s e x erc is e d o ver t h e l iv es o f s e rv ic e u se rs — fo r e x am ple , e lig ib ility t o b e i n clu ded i n certa in c ate g orie s a n d t o r e ceiv e l a rg er a m ounts o f i n co m e s u pport t h ro ugh C en tr e lin k— is very p ow erfu l. T o t a k e t h e p ostm odern p ow er a n aly sis f u rth er, u sin g t h is e x am ple y ou w ould be a b le t o g ain p ow er o ver t h e s itu atio n f o r y ours e lf a n d y our s e rv ic e u se r b y h av in g a co m pre h en siv e k now le d ge o f s o cia l s e cu rity l e g is la tio n, i n clu din g w hat c ate g orie s a re av aila b le a n d w hat l o ophole s y ou m ay b e a b le t o f in d. T his p ow er o f k now le d ge c an b e u se d to y our a d van ta g e, a n d p re p arin g y our s e rv ic e u se r w ith t h is k now le d ge a n d o th er i n fo rm atio n necessa ry t o n eg otia te t h e C en tr e lin k m aze i s d efin ite ly a w ay o f r e co gnis in g t h at p ow er i s ex erc is e d r a th er t h an p osse sse d . H ow ev er, t h e s h arin g o f p ow er c an o nly g o s o f a r b ecau se th e l e g is la tio n u nder w hic h s o cia l s e cu rity i n co m e s u pport h as t o o pera te i s t h e u ltim ate so urc e o f p ow er i n t h is s itu atio n. T o c h an ge a n d t h ere b y r e n eg otia te p ow er f o r y our s e rv ic e use r i n t e rm s o f c h an gin g l e g is la tio n c o nstitu te s a m uch b ig ger b attle . How t o r eco gn is e y ou r o w n p riv ile g e Bein g a b le t o r e co gnis e y our o w n p ow er a n d p riv ile g e i n t e rm s o f y our o w n s o cia l l o catio n i s esse n tia l i f y ou a re a tte m ptin g t o u nders ta n d a n d w ork t h ro ugh p ow er i s su es i n t h e h um an se rv ic es ( A lla n , 2 009; T hom pso n, 2 006). T ak e a m om en t t o r e fle ct o n t h e w ay s i n w hic h so cie ty v alid ate s y our p ositio n w ith r e sp ect t o g en der, c la ss, r a ce, a b ility , s e x uality a n d y our pro fe ssio nal p ow er. W e a sk y ou t o d o t h is n ot t o m ak e y ou f e el g uilty a b out t h ese p riv ile g ed asp ects o f y our l if e , b ut s o y ou c an b e h onest a b out t h e w ay s i n w hic h t h is h as w ork ed t o y our ad van ta g e. I f y ou b eco m e g uilty o r d efe n siv e, y ou w ill t h en p ut t o o m uch e n erg y i n to su rv iv in g ( o r d en yin g) t h is s itu atio n, r a th er t h an t a k in g t h e o pportu nity t o l e arn f ro m i t. Work ers c an f a ce o bsta cle s w hen t r y in g t o d ev elo p a n a w are n ess o f t h eir o w n p riv ile g es, an d t h ro ugh t h is t h eir o w n r o le i n o ppre ssio n. M an y w ork ers a re b lin d t o t h eir o w n p riv ile g es; most o f u s a re m ore a w are o f h ow w e a re d is c rim in ate d a g ain st t h an o f t h e w ay s i n w hic h so cie ty g en era te s o ur a d van ta g es. F or m an y o f u s, o ur p riv ile g es a re n orm alis e d a n d a ccep te d by s o cie ty t o t h e e x te n t t h at t h ey a re a ccep te d a s j u st a p art o f s o cia l p ra ctic e— esp ecia lly th ose p riv ile g es a ffo rd ed t o u s t h ro ugh o ur o rg an is a tio n a n d o ur p ro fe ssio n. L ack o f in fo rm atio n a b out l iv in g w ith t h e e ffe cts o f o ppre ssio n c an b lo ck y our a b ility t o d ev elo p em path y. A s a w ork er, t o b e a b le t o u nders ta n d t h e w ay s i n w hic h t h e r e ality o f y our s e rv ic e use r’s l if e m ay h av e w ork ed a g ain st t h em o r m ad e t h in gs m ore d if fic u lt f o r t h em i s t h e k ey t o em path y. One s tr a te g y t h at c an h elp y ou t o w ork t h ro ugh t h is w ould b e t o s ta rt w ith a c le ar b elie f th at t h e l a ck o f p ow er e x perie n ced b y p eo ple c an l e ad t o o ppre ssio n, a n d t h at o ppre ssio n hurts u s a ll. W ith out c o ncen tr a tin g o nly o n t h e w ay s i n w hic h y ou a re d is c rim in ate d a g ain st in s o cie ty , y ou c an u se y our o w n e x perie n ces o f t h is t o r e co gnis e w ay s i n w hic h t h is m ay b e pla y in g o ut i n t h e l iv es o f y our s e rv ic e u se rs . C onsta n tly w ork in g o n y our o w n s e lf -a w are n ess of t h is , a n d u sin g y our k now le d ge t o c h alle n ge y ours e lf a n d t h ose a ro und y ou, c an a ssis t y ou to f ig ht t h e c au se s o f o ppre ssio n t h at y our s e rv ic e u se rs f a ce o n a d aily b asis . As a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er, y ou a lr e ad y s it i n a p ositio n o f p ow er r e la tiv e t o t h at o f y our se rv ic e u se rs b y v ir tu e o f t h e p ositio n y ou h old . F ro m a s e rv ic e u se r’s p oin t o f v ie w , s o m e work ers h old a b so lu te p ow er. T ak e, f o r e x am ple , t h e p ositio n o f a w ork er i n C en tr e lin k o r i n ch ild p ro te ctio n. T here c an b e n o d en yin g t h at a w ork er f ro m t h ese o rg an is a tio ns h as im men se p ow er i n t e rm s o f w hat i s a b out t o h ap pen t o s e rv ic e u se rs a n d t h eir f a m ilie s. O fte n fa m ilie s h av e a l o ng h is to ry o f d ealin g w ith t h ese o rg an is a tio ns, a n d i t c an b e a s a r e su lt o f th is h is to ry t h at t h ey m ay a ffo rd y ou a s a w ork er w ith m ore p ow er i n t h eir m in ds t h an y ou actu ally h av e. I t i s i m porta n t t o b e h onest w ith y ours e lf a b out t h is a n d w ork f ro m t h is s ta rtin g 122 positio n. Of c o urs e , i t i s t h e p ositio n t h at h old s t h e p ow er, d ue t o t h e l e g is la tio n b eh in d t h e p ositio n an d t h e o rg an is a tio n w ith in w hic h i t s its . T he r e ality , t h ough, i s t h at m an y h um an s e rv ic e work ers d o n ot c ritic ally r e fle ct o n t h is a n d c an a b use t h e p ow er t h eir p ositio n a ffo rd s t h em . As a w ork er, h ow w ill y ou v ie w a n d r e fle ct o n y our p ositio n o f p ow er a n d t h e w ay s i n w hic h your o rg an is a tio n t r e ats t h e s e rv ic e u se rs ? H ow w ill y ou w ork t o w ard s e n su rin g t h at t h is i s a s ev en ly b ala n ced a s i t c an b e f o r y our s e rv ic e u se rs ? T ak e a m om en t t o t h in k a b out t h e p ow er you h av e a s a w ork er w hen y ou h av e t h e a u th ority t o ‘ la b el’ a s e rv ic e u se r. L ab ellin g c an b e use fu l i n t e rm s o f g en era lis in g f o r s p ecif ic i s su es; h ow ev er, l a b ellin g a ls o s e rv es t o k eep t h e work er s a fe a n d t h e s e rv ic e u se r k now in g w here t h ey s it. M uch o f t h e d eb ate y ou w ill h ear aro und b oundarie s ( b etw een w ork ers a n d s e rv ic e u se rs ) i s a ls o a b out p ow er. P ro fe ssio nal boundarie s e x is t f o r g ood r e aso ns. T hey w ork t o p ro te ct t h e s e rv ic e u se r a n d y ours e lf , b ut i t i s im porta n t t h at y ou s h ould a lw ay s r e fle ct o n h ow y ou u se b oundarie s a n d w hy. A re y ou u sin g boundarie s a n d d iv is io ns t o e n su re t h at t h e s e rv ic e u se r s ta y s o n t h e s id e o f t h e ‘ o th er’? I t i s only t h ro ugh t h e a w are n ess o f t h e w ork ers , a n d t h e w ork ers b rin gin g t h is c ritic al a n aly sis t o th e a w are n ess o f t h e a g en cy o r o rg an is a tio n w here t h ey w ork , t h at y ou w ill b e a b le t o ch alle n ge t h e p ow er s tr u ctu re s a n d u ltim ate ly t o c h an ge t h em . It i s t r u e t h at, i n s o m e c ase s, t h e p ow er o f t h e w ork er c an b e u ncerta in . M an y w ork ers h av e ra is e d t h is i s su e w ith u s i n t e rm s o f t h eir p erc eiv ed l a ck o f p ow er i n c erta in s itu atio ns. T hin k of s itu atio ns w here b y y our s e rv ic e u se r o r a c o -w ork er m ay b e m ore p riv ile g ed t h an y ou a re in t e rm s o f t h ese s o cia l l o catio ns. W hat i f y ou a re a n I n dig en ous w om an o r y ou h av e a dis a b ility , o r y ou w ork i n a n o rg an is a tio n ( fo r e x am ple , a h osp ita l) t h at p riv ile g es o th er pro fe ssio nal k now le d ge a b ove y our o w n? A s a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er, y ou n eed t o b e a b le t o an aly se a ll s itu atio ns i n t e rm s o f p ow er, a n d r e co gnis e t h at a s h if t i n p ow er m ay b e n ecessa ry . Case s tu dy: P ow er a n d e th ic s You a re a s o cia l w ork er i n a l a rg e p ublic h osp ita l. Y ou o fte n f in d y ours e lf a ctin g a s a n a d vocate an d a m ed ia to r b etw een m ed ic al s ta ff, p atie n ts a n d f a m ilie s. Y ou k now t h at s o m etim es f a m ilie s are n ot g iv en i n fo rm atio n t h at t h ey c an u nders ta n d, o r n ot g iv en t im ely i n fo rm atio n. Y ou h av e j u st been s ittin g w ith t h e m oth er o f a 2 1-y ear-o ld b oy w ho w as b ro ught i n to t h e h osp ita l o vern ig ht. H e an d s o m e f rie n ds h ad b een t a k in g d ru gs a n d h ad t h en d ecid ed t o j u m p f ro m m ovin g t r a in s. H e d id a l o t o f d am ag e t o h im se lf i n h is f a ll, b ut h e i s e x pecte d t o m ak e a f u ll r e co very . H is m oth er w as ex tr e m ely d is tr e sse d w hen s h e c am e i n to t h e h osp ita l a n d a fte r t a lk in g t o t h e m ed ic al s ta ff a t h er so n’s b ed sid e, s h e s ta rts t o c ry . S he t e lls e v ery one p re se n t t h at h e c an not s ta y h ere , t h at t h e p olic e are l o okin g f o r h im a n d t h at s h e h as d one h er b est o n h er o w n t o c o ntr o l h im , b ut i s n ow a t h er wit’ s e n d. S he s a y s t h at i f t h is g ets o ut, s h e w ill h av e t o l e av e h er r e n ta l p ro perty a s h is g ood beh av io ur i s a c o nditio n o f a t e n an cy t r ib unal a g re em en t. S he s o bs t h at i t i s v ery h ard t o g et a g ood in ex pen siv e r e n ta l p ro perty a n d s h e d oesn ’t w an t t o l o se h er h ouse , a s t h is w on’t b e t h e f ir s t t im e sh e h as h ad t o m ove d ue t o h is b eh av io ur. Y ou w alk h er u p t o t h e e n d o f t h e w ard t o s it i n a s u nny sp ot o verlo okin g t h e g ard en , w here y ou c an a tte n d t o h er a n guis h a n d d is tr e ss a n d b eg in t o p ut so m e p ra ctic al a ssis ta n ce i n p la ce f o r h er. Y ou o fte n t a k e f a m ily m em bers t o t h is q uie t s p ot, a s i t i s clo se t o p atie n ts a n d h as a c alm in g e ffe ct. While y ou a re s ittin g t h ere , a c o uple o f y oung i n te rn s t a k e t h e w in dow b ay n ex t t o y ours a n d sta rt t a lk in g l o udly a b out a p atie n t a n d h is m oth er. T hey r e fe r t o h im a s a ‘ n o h oper d ru g a d dic t’ , an d i m ply t h at h is l if e i s h is m oth er’s f a u lt. Y ou a n d t h e b oy’s m oth er r e alis e a t t h e s a m e t im e t h at th ey a re t a lk in g a b out t h e w om an w ith w hom y ou a re s ittin g a n d h er s o n. Y ou l e an a ro und t h e co rn er a n d a sk t h em t o p le ase s to p t a lk in g a b out a p atie n t i n t h is w ay , a n d t e ll t h em t h at t h is i s n ot ap pro pria te . T hey s e e y ou a re w ith t h e m oth er. T hey s ta rt b la m in g y ou, a s y ou h av e b een t a lk in g to h er i n a s p ace w here t h ey o fte n g o t o t a lk a n d l o ok o ut t h e w in dow . Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s 123 • W hat e th ic al i s su es a re e v id en t i n t h is s itu atio n? • I n w hat w ay s h av e t h ese i n te rn s a b use d t h e p ow er a ffo rd ed t o t h em ? • H ow s h ould y ou, a s t h e w ork er, a d dre ss t h ese i s su es? • W hat a re t h e b ro ad er i m plic atio ns f o r y ou a s a s o cia l w ork er/ s o cia l w ork t e am i n r e la tio n t o t h e ab use o f p ow er s h ow n b y t h ese m ed ic al p ra ctitio ners ? What e ffe cts d oes t h is l a ck o f p ow er h ave o n o u r s e rv ic e u se rs? If w e t a k e a l o ok a t t h e m an y w ay s i n w hic h p ow er ( o r a l a ck o f i t) p la y s o ut o n o ur s e rv ic e use rs ’ l iv es, w e b eg in t o u nders ta n d t h e c o m ple x itie s i n volv ed i n t h e w ay s i n w hic h o ur se rv ic e u se rs a re o ppre sse d o n m an y l e v els . W e h av e d is c u sse d t h e f a ct t h at s tr u ctu re s w ith in so cie ty v alu e ( a n d, b y e x te n sio n o f t h is , a ls o d ev alu e) c erta in a ttr ib ute s w ith w hic h w e a re usu ally b orn . C ouple t h is w ith t h e p ow er a n d p riv ile g e o f t h e w ork ers a n d t h e o rg an is a tio ns th at s e rv ic e u se rs n eed t o a ccess f o r a ssis ta n ce, a n d y ou h av e m ulti- le v el o ppre ssio n a n d dis c rim in atio n p la y in g o ut i n m an y w ay s. Man y w rite rs h av e w ritte n o n o ppre ssio n— what i t i s , a n d h ow i t p la y s o ut i n t h e l iv es o f peo ple ( T hom pso n, 2 006; M ulla ly , 1 997; F rie re , 1 970; F an on 1 967). M ulla ly d esc rib es oppre ssio n a s: ‘ g en era lly u nders to od a s t h e d om in atio n o f s u bord in ate g ro ups i n s o cie ty b y a pow erfu l ( p olitic ally , e co nom ic ally , s o cia lly a n d c u ltu ra lly ) g ro up . . . t h e o ppre sse d p ers o n ex perie n ces t h e f u ll i m pact o f m ultip le l e v el o ppre ssio n e v ery d ay ,’ ( M ulla ly , 1 997: 2 7). Mulla ly g oes o n t o a rg ue t h at o ppre ssio n i m pacts o n i d en tity , a n d o n t h e s tr u ctu re o f i d en tity . A g ro up c an b e d efin ed a s d if fe re n t a n d ‘ o th er’ b y d om in an t g ro ups i n s o cie ty . T he w ay s o f doin g t h in gs w ith in t h e d om in an t g ro ups b eco m e t h e n orm , a n d t h e s u bord in ate g ro ups m ust work t o f it i n to t h e d om in an t g ro ups’ w ay s o f d oin g a n d k now in g. I f s u bord in ate g ro ups d o not f it i n w ith t h e w ay s o f t h e d om in an t g ro ups, t h eir b eh av io ur i s l a b elle d a s d ev ia n t a n d in fe rio r. T he i d en tity o f t h e s u bord in ate g ro ups i s l e arn t t h ro ugh t h is i n te ra ctio n. S ubord in ate gro ups k now h ow s o cie ty v ie w s a n d t r e ats t h em , a n d t h is l e arn in g i s r e in fo rc ed t h ro ughout th eir l iv es. Mulla ly ( 1 997) i d en tif ie s f iv e d if fe re n t f o rm s o f o ppre ssio n: e x plo ita tio n, m arg in alis a tio n, pow erle ssn ess, c u ltu ra l i m peria lis m a n d v io le n ce. A ll t h ese f o rm s o f o ppre ssio n e n ab le t h ose in t h e d om in an t g ro ups t o m ain ta in a n d a ccu m ula te s ta tu s, p ow er a n d a sse ts . T hese f o rm s o f oppre ssio n a re s o cia lly s a n ctio ned . O ur c ap ita lis t s y ste m w ork s b y h av in g w in ners a n d l o se rs , ofte n w ith t h e w in ners b ein g a b le t o e x plo it t h e l a b our o f t h e l o se rs . T his e x plo ita tio n r e su lts in t h e e x clu sio n ( m arg in alis a tio n) o f e n tir e g ro ups o f p eo ple f ro m m ean in gfu l p artic ip atio n i n our s o cie ty , a n d c an l e ad t o s e v ere m ate ria l d ep riv atio n. O n t h e b asis o f t h e w ay s i n w hic h our s o cie ty s u pports t h is s o cia l a n d g en dere d d iv is io n o f l a b our, m an y p eo ple h av e a l a ck o f access t o t h eir o w n i n co m e, w hic h l e ad s t o a l a ck o f d ecis io n-m ak in g p ow er o r c h oic es i n th eir l iv es. Mem bers o f t h e d om in an t g ro up u niv ers a lis e t h eir e x perie n ces a n d c u ltu re , a n d t h is beco m es t h e n orm — or w hat t h e o th er g ro ups i n s o cie ty s h ould b e a sp ir in g t o . T hin k, f o r ex am ple , o f h ow s o m e p eo ple t a lk a b out t h e l o ng-te rm u nem plo yed a s l a zy a n d l a ck in g i n motiv atio n, s u ggestin g t h at i f t h ey t h em se lv es c an g et a j o b, t h en s o c o uld t h e l o ng-te rm unem plo yed i f o nly t h ey t r ie d h ard e n ough. D om in an t g ro ups b la m e t h ose i n t h e ‘ o th er’ gro ups f o r n ot b ein g a b le t o g ain a ccess t o t h e a sse ts , s ta tu s a n d p ow er t h at t h ey t h em se lv es en jo y, w hile a t t h e s a m e t im e r e p ro ducin g, t o le ra tin g a n d a ccep tin g t h e s tr u ctu ra l v io le n ce th at o fte n a cco m pan ie s t h is o ppre ssio n. T his i s d em onstr a te d t h ro ugh h ara ssm en t, r id ic u le , in tim id atio n a n d s o m etim es p hysic al a tta ck s b y t h ose i n t h e d om in an t g ro up t o w ard s t h ose i n th e s u bord in ate g ro ups. Thom pso n ( 2 006) a ls o d is c u sse s t h ese p ro cesse s o f d is c rim in atio n, a n d h ow t h ey c o m e 124 ab out. H e a rg ues t h at t h ere a re e ig ht s te p s i n t h e p ro cess o f d is c rim in atio n: 1. Ste re o ty p in g. T his o ccu rs w hen a g ro up i s c la ssif ie d o n t h e b asis o f c u ltu ra l p re ju dic e. I f y ou l o ok at t h e w ay s i n w hic h m an y a sy lu m s e ek ers h av e b een s te re o ty ped , i t i s e asy t o s e e h ow e ffe ctiv e th is c an b e i n t e rm s o f k eep in g t h em d if fe re n t a n d r e p re se n tin g t h em a s t h e ‘ o th er’. T his a llo w s th e p ro cess o f d is c rim in atio n t o b eg in . T he c h ara cte ris tic s t h at a re s e t u p a s s te re o ty pic al o f a sp ecif ic g ro up w ill a lm ost a lw ay s i n clu de d efic its i n r e la tio n t o t h ose o f t h e d om in an t g ro ups. 2. Marg in alis a tio n . O nce s te re o ty pin g h as o ccu rre d , i t i s t h en e asy f o r m em bers o f t h is ‘ o th er’ g ro up to b e p ush ed t o t h e m arg in s o f s o cie ty , a n d t h eir n eed s c an t h en b e s e en a s l e ss i m porta n t t h an th ose o f t h e d om in an t g ro ups. 3. ‘In vis ib ilis a tio n’ . S te re o ty pin g a n d m arg in alis a tio n p ush a g ro up t o t h e e d ges o f s o cie ty a n d, o nce it i s m ad e i n sig nif ic an t t o t h e r u nnin g o f s o cie ty , w ork i s d one t o ‘ d is a p pear’ t h e g ro up f u rth er th ro ugh i n vis ib ilis a tio n. G ro up m em bers w ill b e a b se n t i n t h e w ay s i n w hic h t h e m ed ia r e p re se n t so cie ty , a n d w ill b e a b se n t i n o ur l a n guag e a n d i m ag ery . T hin k f o r a m om en t o f t h e n um ber o f In dig en ous y oung p eo ple , o r p eo ple w ith d is a b ilitie s, t h at y ou f in d i n p opula r T V s h ow s l ik e Neig hbours , Hom e a nd A w ay a n d Packed t o t h e R afte rs . 4. In fa ntilis a tio n . F ollo w in g o n f ro m b eco m in g l a rg ely a b se n t, i t i s t h en e asy f o r t h e d om in an t g ro up to a rg ue f o r a d if fe re n t a llo catio n o f p ow er, r ig hts , c itiz en sh ip a n d l if e c h an ces t o t h is i n vis ib le gro up. 5. Welfa ris m . A ssis ta n ce f ro m t h e g overn m en t t o t h ose w ho a re m em bers o f s u bord in ate g ro ups i s ofte n l a b elle d ‘ w elf a re ’, w here as a ssis ta n ce t o t h ose i n t h e d om in an t g ro ups i s o fte n l a b elle d a ‘ta x b en efit’ . O ne k in d o f a ssis ta n ce i s s e en a s r ig htf u lly e arn ed , w hile t h e o th er i s t o ute d a s a han dout a n d i t c o m es w ith m an y r u le s a n d m ora l j u dgem en ts . F or e x am ple , w elf a re r e cip ie n ts a re to ld w hen t o c o m e t o a p poin tm en ts , w hen t o h an d f o rm s i n , w ho ( a n d w hic h g en der) c an s le ep a t th eir p la ce o f r e sid en ce a n d h ow m an y n ig hts a w eek t h is w ill b e a llo w ed t o h ap pen . T hey a re giv en s tr ic t g uid elin es t o g et t h em b ack i n to t h e w ork fo rc e; h ow ev er, t h ey a re t h en s e v ere ly pen alis e d f in an cia lly b efo re t h ey h av e a s a fe b udget b uffe r t h at w ould e n ab le t h em t o c lim b o ut o f th e w elf a re a n d p overty t r a p i n w hic h w ay t h ey f in d t h em se lv es. 6. Med ic a lis a tio n . B y v ir tu e o f m em bers h ip o f a s p ecif ic s u bord in ate g ro up, m an y m an if e sta tio ns th at a ris e a s a r e su lt o f s o cia lly c o nstr u cte d c ir c u m sta n ces w ill b e g iv en t h e s ta tu s o f i lln ess a n d med ic alis e d . 7. Deh um anis a tio n . I t n ow b eco m es m uch e asie r t o d eh um an is e m em bers o f t h ese g ro ups a n d r e fe r to t h em i n i m pers o nal w ay s— fo r e x am ple , ‘ q ueu e j u m pers ’ a s o ppose d t o ‘ re fu gees’. 8. Triv ia lis a tio n . N ot o nly a re t h e n eed s o f t h ese s u bord in ate g ro ups t r iv ia lis e d , s o a re t h eir c u ltu re s, way s o f d oin g t h in gs a n d ‘ s o lu tio ns’ i m pose d u pon t h em b y t h e d om in an t g ro ups t o ‘ fix t h em u p’. An e x am ple o f t h is t r iv ia lis a tio n i s t h e p olic ie s i n tr o duced r e cen tly r e q uir in g I n dig en ous c h ild re n in c erta in o utb ack r e g io ns t o h av e a c le an f a ce a n d h an ds b efo re c o m in g t o s c h ool w hen t h ere a re no b ooks, s ta tio nery , s c h ool b use s, a n d v ery l ittle a ccess t o l ib ra rie s o r c o m pute rs f o r t h e m ajo rity of t h e c h ild re n i n t h ese s c h ools . How m an y o f y our s e rv ic e u se r g ro ups h av e s y ste m atic ally b een d is c rim in ate d a g ain st usin g t h e p ro cesse s o utlin ed a b ove, b ase d o n t h e f a ct t h at t h ey b elo ng t o a s u bord in ate g ro up with in o ur s o cie ty ? H ow d oes t h is a ffe ct y our s e rv ic e u se rs a n d y ours e lf ? I n w hat w ay s a re th ese f o rm s o f o ppre ssio n a n d d is c rim in atio n m an if e ste d i n t h e e v ery day l iv es o f t h ose w ith whom w e w ill b e w ork in g? I m ag in e, f o r a m om en t, s e rv ic e u se rs w ho m ay p re se n t w ith av oid an ce b eh av io urs , l o w s e lf -e ste em , d ep re ssio n, a n xie ty o r f e ar. S erv ic e u se rs o fte n f e el i t is a r e su lt o f t h eir o w n f a ilin gs t h at t h ey c an not l iv e o n m eag re i n co m e s u pport, o r c an not keep t h eir c h ild re n h ealth y i n h ousin g t h at m ay n ot r e ach b asic h ealth s ta n dard s. T hese s a m e se rv ic e u se rs o fte n h av e n o c h oic e i n t e rm s o f h ousin g, l o catio n o r e d ucatio n f o r t h eir ch ild re n , a n d v ery l ittle p ow er o ver w hat t h ey c an a ffo rd t o f e ed t h eir c h ild re n . W hat m ig ht be h ap pen in g i n t h ese f a m ilie s l iv in g w ith t h is k in d o f b asic m ate ria l d ep riv atio n b ro ught ab out b y e n tr e n ch ed s tr u ctu ra l p ow er i n eq ualitie s? H ow l o ng w ill i t b e b efo re t h ey b eg in t o se e t h em se lv es a s t h ey a re o fte n p ortr a y ed b y t h e d om in an t g ro up— as l a zy a n d d eg en era te — an d w hat h ap pen s t o t h em i f t h is p ath olo gis in g a n d s te re o ty pin g c o ntin ue a t t h e h an ds o f a 125 ju dgem en ta l w ork er o r o rg an is a tio n? M ulla ly t a lk s a b out t h is a s i n te rn alis e d o ppre ssio n, whic h o ccu rs w hen : ‘ o ne’s p ers o nal i d en tity m atc h es t h e n eg ativ e p ortr a it o r s o cia l i d en tity pro vid ed b y t h e s o cia l w orld ’ ( M ulla ly , 1 997: 5 9). Som e o f t h e g re ate st t h in kers o f o ur t im e h av e t h ought a n d w ritte n e x te n siv ely a b out in te rn alis e d o ppre ssio n. A f a m ous A lg eria n l ib era tio nis t w rite r, F ra n z F an on ( 1 967), a rg ues th at t h e a ccep ta n ce o f s e ein g y ours e lf t h ro ugh t h e e y es o f t h e d om in an t g ro up h ap pen s unco nsc io usly . A noth er e q ually f a m ous l ib era tio nis t w rite r, P ao lo F rie re ( 1 970), s ta te s t h at critic al a w are n ess i s a lm ost i m possib le f o r a p ers o n w ho i s i m mers e d i n s u ch o ppre ssiv e co nditio ns. R ath er t h an c ritic al a w are n ess, i g nora n ce a n d l e th arg y, t o geth er w ith a l a ck o f ab ility t o b e a b le t o d o a n yth in g a b out t h e s itu atio n, a re t h e m ost l ik ely p ro ducts o f t h is k in d of s tr u ctu ra l d is c rim in atio n. What c a n b e d on e a b ou t i t ? As a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er, y ou a re p art o f t h at s o cia l w orld o rd er; t h ere fo re , i t i s e x tr e m ely im porta n t t o b e a b le t o u nders ta n d t h e s tr u ctu ra l f o rm s o f d is c rim in atio n t h at m ay b e in flu en cin g t h e l iv es o f t h e s e rv ic e u se rs w ith w hom y ou a re w ork in g a n d h ow t h is i s man if e stin g i ts e lf . W e h av e d is c u sse d t h e n eed f o r y ou t o b e a b le t o u nders ta n d t h e w ay s i n whic h p ow er i s d is tr ib ute d , k now in g w ho i s p riv ile g ed t h ro ugh t h is d is tr ib utio n ( in clu din g your o w n p riv ile g e) a n d w ho l o se s o ut, a n d h ow t h is m ay m an if e st i ts e lf i n y our s e rv ic e use rs . A s w ell a s u nders ta n din g t h ese i s su es, y ou a ls o h av e t o k now h ow t o w ork w ith s e rv ic e use rs t o b e a b le t o e d ucate t h em a b out t h ese p ow er i n eq ualitie s. Y ou n eed t o t h in k o f w ay s i n whic h t o m in im is e t h e i m pact o f y ours e lf a n d y our o rg an is a tio n o n y our s e rv ic e u se rs ’ oppre ssio n. S o h ow d o y ou d o t h is ? Healy ( 2 000), s ta te s t h at t h e f ir s t t h in g y ou n eed t o b e a b le t o d o i s t o l is te n t o t h e w ay s i n whic h y our s e rv ic e u se rs u nders ta n d t h eir s itu atio n, a n d t h en p la ce v alu e o n t h eir k now le d ge an d t h eir w ay s o f k now in g. S he s a y s t h at t h is e n ab le s a m ore h olis tic a n aly sis o f t h e s itu atio n th an o ne b ase d o n y our o w n p riv ile g ed p ositio n. I n h er d is c u ssio n o f f e m in is t t h eo ry , W eek s (2 003) a rg ues t h at y ou n eed t o g iv e s p ace t o o ppre sse d s e rv ic e u se rs s o t h ey c an e x pre ss t h eir pain a n d t h eir n eg ativ e f e elin gs. M an y s e rv ic e u se rs h av e n ot h ad t h eir p ain , t h eir j o urn ey a n d th eir s tr e n gth v alid ate d . I n a s itu atio n s u ch a s d om estic v io le n ce, f o r e x am ple , s u rv iv ors m ay hav e h ad d if fic u lty i d en tif y in g t h eir f e elin gs, t h eir p ain a n d t h eir s tr e n gth , a s t h e d om in an t an d p ow erfu l g ro up ( th e p erp etr a to rs ) h av e b een v alid ate d i n b la m in g t h e v ic tim a n d path olo gis in g h er s y m pto m s. Week s ( 2 003) g oes o n t o t a lk a b out t h e n eed t o e n gag e t h e s e rv ic e u se r i n c ritic al r e fle ctio n an d c o nsc io usn ess-ra is in g— th at i s , a ssis tin g s e rv ic e u se rs t o l in k t h eir l iv ed e x perie n ces t o th eir m em bers h ip o f a n o ppre sse d g ro up ( in t h is c ase , w om en ), a n d t o u nders ta n d t h at t h e pro ble m i s n ot j u st a n i n div id ual p ro ble m d ue t o s o m e d efic ie n cy w ith in t h em se lv es, b ut ra th er a p ro ble m c o m mon t o m an y w om en d ue t o t h e s tr u ctu ra l i m plic atio ns o f a p atr ia rc h al so cie ty t h at s u pports a r e g en era tio n o f v io le n ce a g ain st w om en . S he a rg ues t h at t h is r e n am in g of a n i n div id ual w om an ’s e x perie n ce, a s w ell a s w ork in g w ith s e rv ic e u se rs t o f in d t h eir o w n voic e a n d t o b uild o n t h eir s tr e n gth s, w ill a ssis t t h em i n r e sto rin g a p ositiv e s e n se o f s e lf – este em . Fook ( 1 993) a rg ues t h at i n y our w ork w ith y ours e lf a n d i n y our w ork w ith s e rv ic e u se rs , i t is n ecessa ry t o f ir s t d eco nstr u ct b y a n aly sin g a n d q uestio nin g t h e d om in an t d is c o urs e s, t h en to r e sis t t h ro ugh n ot a ccep tin g o r p artic ip atin g i n t h e a sp ects o f t h ese d is c o urs e s t h at t a k e aw ay p ow er. S he g oes o n t o a rg ue t h at, a s a w ork er, y ou n eed t o c h alle n ge t h e d is c o urs e , mak e v is ib le t h e h id den a sp ects t h at d o d am ag e, a n d t h en r e co nstr u ct b y c re atin g n ew m odels an d s tr u ctu re s. M ulla ly a n d B ris k m an ( 2 002) c o nte n d t h at w ork ers c an a v oid b la m in g t h e 126 vic tim b y f o cu sin g o n s o cia l a n d h is to ric al c o nstr u ctio ns o f e q uality a n d i n eq uality , w hic h can a ls o l e ad t h e w ork er t o a b ette r u nders ta n din g o f t h e w ay s i n w hic h t h e o ppre ssio n h as occu rre d a n d d ev elo ped o ver t im e. As a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er, i t i s i m porta n t t o c o ntin ue t o b e s e lf -re fle ctiv e, a n d t o s tr iv e fo r a g re ate r u nders ta n din g o f t h e w ay s i n w hic h p eo ple c o pe w ith o ppre ssio n. T his c an a llo w more e m path etic d ia lo gue a n d g en era te s o m e a lte rn ativ e w ay s f o rw ard . E nco ura g in g ‘ id en tity politic s’— th at i s , d oin g w hat y ou c an t o f a cilita te m ore e m pow ere d g ro up i d en titie s a n d assis tin g i n t h e c o lle ctiv is a tio n o f t h ese g ro ups— will s u pport t h e s h arin g o f s to rie s a n d a n in cre ase d s e n se o f u nders ta n din g o f t h e o ppre ssio n, a n d l e ad t o a r e cla im in g o f p rid e a n d a beg in nin g d ev elo pm en t o f s o m e c o unte r-d is c o urs e s. W ork in g l ik e t h is c an o fte n l e ad t o co lle ctiv e a ctio n, a n d t h e d ev elo pm en t o f o rg an is a tio ns a n d g ro ups t o u se a s v eh ic le s f o r t h is ch an ge. A dvocacy f o r c h an ge— wheth er i t b e w ith in y our o w n o rg an is a tio n o r c o m munity , o r on a n e v en l a rg er s c ale — is p ossib le w hen r e co gnitio n a n d r e p re se n ta tio n a re g iv en t o v oic es of o ppre sse d g ro ups t h ro ugh t h is k in d o f c o lle ctiv e a ctio n. ADVO CACY The s k ill o f a d vocacy i s a n e sse n tia l c o m ponen t o f h um an s e rv ic e w ork . A s a w ork er, i f y ou beg in w ith a n a ssu m ptio n t h at m an y s tr u ctu re s o f o ur s o cie ty d is c rim in ate a g ain st c erta in cate g orie s o f p eo ple , t h en y ou w ill s p en d q uite a b it o f t im e i n y our p ra ctic e a d vocatin g f o r your s e rv ic e u se rs — both i n div id ually a n d c o lle ctiv ely . M an y p ro fe ssio nal b odie s t a k e t h e sk ill a n d n ecessity o f a d vocacy v ery s e rio usly . I n A ustr a lia , f o r e x am ple , t h e A ustr a lia n Asso cia tio n o f S ocia l W ork ers ( A ASW ) h as a k een f o cu s o n a d vocacy , s ta tin g t h at a d vocacy is o ne o f t h e m ajo r w ay s t o a ch ie v e g oals a ro und t h e p urs u it o f s o cia l j u stic e. S o w hat i s ad vocacy ? M ore au ( 1 989) d esc rib es a d vocacy a s w ork in g t o o bta in r e so urc es t h ro ugh t h e u se of p re ssu re , a n d F ook ( 1 993) e x pla in s t h at i t i n volv es v ario us a ctio ns s u ch a s a rb itr a tin g a n d neg otia tin g o n b eh alf o f a n oth er, i n o rd er t o p ers u ad e t h e a ctio ns o f t h ose w ho m ak e t h e decis io ns. Advocacy o ccu rs w hen t h e r o le o f a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er e x te n ds t o a ctiv ely s u pportin g or p le ad in g t h e c ase f o r a n i n div id ual o r g ro up. I n o ur p re v io us d is c u ssio ns o n i n te rn alis e d oppre ssio n, w e l o oked a t w ay s i n w hic h s o m e s e rv ic e u se rs c an c o m e t o b elie v e t h e d om in an t dis c o urs e s a b out t h eir s itu atio ns. H ow ev er, t h ere a re m an y r e aso ns w hy s e rv ic e u se rs a re ofte n u nab le t o a d vocate f o r t h em se lv es. T hey m ay l a ck c o nfid en ce a n d/o r t h e a b ility t o b e ab le t o p re se n t t h eir o w n c ase , o r t h ey m ay b eco m e t o o a n xio us t o b e a b le t o e x pre ss t h eir vie w s i n p ublic , a s t h ey m ay h av e t r ie d t o d o s o o n p re v io us o ccasio ns a n d b een d is m is se d o r ab use d . S erv ic e u se rs m ay f in d t h e p ro cess o f l o dgin g p ap erw ork t o o d au ntin g, p erh ap s becau se o f t h eir l im ite d e d ucatio n, l o w l e v els o f l ite ra cy , l a n guag e d if fic u ltie s o r l a ck o f ab ility t o b e a b le t o a rtic u la te t h eir n eed s. I n m an y s itu atio ns, t h ey m ay b e t o o d is tr e sse d b y what i s h ap pen in g t o p re se n t t h eir o w n c ase . Hig ham ( 2 006) s ta te s t h at t o b e a n e ffe ctiv e a d vocate y ou n eed t o b e a b le t o c o m munic ate co nfid en tly , a rtic u la te ly a n d f a ctu ally . S he s a y s t h at a d vocate s n eed t o u nders ta n d t h at t h ey sh ould n ot d o m ore t h an n ecessa ry , a n d s h ould a v oid n eed le ssly a lie n atin g o th ers . A cco rd in g to H ig ham ( 2 005), t h e m ain c o m ponen ts o f a d vocacy i n clu de b ein g a b le t o p la n t ‘ s e ed s o f aw are n ess’ f o r f u tu re a ctio ns, a v oid in g u nw an te d c o nflic t a s y ou m ay n eed t o w ork o n s o m e kin d o f n eg otia tio n f u rth er d ow n t h e t r a ck , a ccep tin g t h at y our p la n s m ay n ot a lw ay s t u rn o ut th e w ay y ou w an t t h em t o , a n d b ein g c o nsis te n t a b out f o llo w in g u p o n a n y a ctio n. In m an y d is c u ssio ns a b out t h e a rt o f a d vocacy , i t b eco m es q uite c le ar t h at h ow y ou ad vocate i s a s i m porta n t a s t h e a d vocacy i ts e lf . M uch a tte n tio n n eed s t o b e p aid t o t h e e th ic s of a d vocacy . I t i s a lw ay s i m porta n t t o a ct i n t h e b ests i n te re sts o f y our s e rv ic e u se r, w hile a t 127 th e s a m e t im e w ork in g i n a cco rd an ce w ith w hat t h ey w an t. T his c an b e s o m etim es b e v ery dif fic u lt, a s y ou m ay f e el t h at w hat y our s e rv ic e u se r w an ts m ay n ot b e i n t h eir b est i n te re sts in t h e l o ng t e rm , o r m ay n ot b e r e alis tic g iv en w hat y ou k now a b out t h e r u le s a n d r e g ula tio ns of c erta in g overn m en t b odie s. M an y s e rv ic e u se rs m ay n ot u nders ta n d s o m e o f t h e n uan ces o f cate g orie s a n d r u le s i m pose d b y b ig ger o rg an is a tio ns ( fo r e x am ple , e lig ib ility c rite ria f o r ‘ o ut of t u rn ’ p ublic h ousin g). It i s i m porta n t t o a lw ay s k eep y our s e rv ic e u se r p ro perly i n fo rm ed , t o d o w hat y ou s a y y ou are g oin g t o d o, a n d t o r e co gnis e a n d t a lk a b out w hat y ou a re u nab le t o d o. I t i s i m porta n t t o do w hat y ou c an w ith t h e s e rv ic e u se r p re se n t a n d a s a ctiv ely i n volv ed a s p ossib le . M an y tim es w ith s im ple a cts o f a d vocacy , a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er c an d em onstr a te t o a s e rv ic e u se r how i t c an b e d one, a n d t h e s e rv ic e u se r i s a b le t o m ak e t h e c all o r w rite t h e l e tte r t h e n ex t tim e i t i s n eed ed . A dvocacy w ork s h ould a lw ay s t r y t o m ax im is e t h e p ow er o f t h e s e rv ic e use r. You m ay b e c alle d u pon t o d o a d vocacy o n m an y l e v els , f ro m m ic ro w ork t h at i s f o r o ne sin gle s e rv ic e u se r t h ro ugh t o m acro w ork t h at w ill b en efit m an y. What s k ills a re n eed ed i n a d voca cy w ork ? Advocacy w ork m ean s b ein g e ffe ctiv ely p ers u asiv e, e v en i n s itu atio ns w hen t h is i s d if fic u lt. You m ay h av e t o d eal w ith o th er p ro fe ssio nals w ho m ay h av e t r e ate d y our s e rv ic e u se r unju stly o r u nfa ir ly . Y ou m ay h av e t o d eal w ith o rg an is a tio ns a n d i n stitu tio ns t h at h av e r u le s whic h d on’t m ak e s e n se ( fo r e x am ple , h av in g t o f in d a n a d dre ss f o r a s e rv ic e u se r w ho n eed s to a p ply f o r a h om ele ss a llo w an ce). A dvocacy r e q uir e s s k ilf u l c o m munic atio n i n c ase s l ik e th is . Chen ow eth a n d M cA ulif fe ( 2 008) d is c u ss a d vocacy a s t a k in g p la ce w hen w ork ers u se t h eir pro fe ssio nal k now le d ge t o a rg ue a c ase o n b eh alf o f a s e rv ic e u se r o r g ro up t o s e cu re a r ig ht or e n title m en t. T hey a rg ue t h at m an y s k ills a re n eed ed f o r e ffe ctiv e a d vocacy , i n clu din g g ood an d c le ar c o m munic atio n s k ills t o e n ab le y ou t o b e a b le t o p ers u ad e, a sse rt t h e i s su e a n d neg otia te , a n d b e a b le t o g ath er r e le v an t f a cts d urin g i n te rv ie w s a n d c o nvers a tio ns. W ork ers need a ccu ra te r e co rd in g s k ills , r e se arc h s k ills a n d t h e a b ility t o w rite a r e p ort. A s w ith a n y ty pe o f p ers u asiv e a ctio n, w ork ers h av e t o h av e g ood t im e-m an ag em en t s k ills . S om e ad vocacy w ork w ill r e q uir e w ork ers t o b e a b le t o p re se n t t h em se lv es t o a c o m mitte e o r i n a co urtr o om . W ork ers n eed t o k now w hat i s e x pecte d o f t h em a n d h ow b est t o a rg ue f o r t h eir se rv ic e u se rs ’ i n te re sts i n t h ese s itu atio ns. It c an s o m etim es b eco m e i n te re stin g w hen w ork ers h av e t o a d vocate f o r s e rv ic e u se rs with in t h eir o w n o rg an is a tio ns. I n t h ese c ir c u m sta n ces, i t i s i m porta n t f o r a w ork er t o k now how t o e x act c h an ge w ith in t h eir o w n o rg an is a tio n, w hat w ork s, w hat c h an nels t o g o t h ro ugh an d w heth er t h is c h an ge h as p re v io usly b een a tte m pte d . F or e x am ple , i f y ou w ere t h e w ork er in t h e P ow er a n d e th ic s c ase s tu dy o n p . 1 93, h ow w ould y ou a d vocate f o r t h e m oth er o f y our patie n t i n t h is m ajo r p ublic h osp ita l? CO NCLU SIO N In t h is c h ap te r, w e h av e e x am in ed t h e i s su e o f p ow er f ro m m an y p ers p ectiv es. W e h av e lo oked a t w ho h as p ow er ( g en era lly s p eak in g) i n o ur s o cie ty , a n d w hat h ap pen s t o t h ose w ho mis s o ut. W e h av e l o oked a t t h e p ro cesse s o f d is c rim in atio n, t h e o ppre ssio n t o w hic h t h is le ad s a n d t h e w ay s i n w hic h t h is o ppre ssio n b eco m es i n te rn alis e d . S ev era l w ay s o f w ork in g with s e rv ic e u se rs t o c h alle n ge t h is d is c rim in atio n a n d o ppre ssio n h av e b een e x am in ed , in clu din g a n e m phasis o n t h e i m porta n ce o f b ein g a b le t o a d vocate f o r y our s e rv ic e u se r. 128 Chap te r r ev ie w q uestio n s 9.1 W hat a re s o m e o f t h e w ay s i n w hic h p ow er i s u nders to od i n r e la tio n t o w ork in g i n t h e hum an s e rv ic es i n dustr y ? 9.2 W here d o y ou s it p ers o nally i n t e rm s o f t h e p riv ile g es a ssig ned b y t h e d om in an t g ro ups i n our s o cie ty ? 9.3 C hoose a m arg in alis e d g ro up w ith in o ur s o cie ty a n d a ssig n T hom pso n’s e ig ht s te p s i n t h e pro cess o f d is c rim in atio n. I n w hat w ay s d o t h ey f a il t o f it a n y o f t h ese e ig ht c ate g orie s? 9.4 D esc rib e t h e s k ills n ecessa ry t o a d vocate i n y our r o le a s a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er. OTH ER R ESO URCES Austr a lia n G overn m en t D ep artm en t o f H ealth a n d A gein g w eb site , < www.h ealth .g ov.a u >. This h as a p ublic atio ns p ag e w ith a p ra ctic al g uid e t o t h e e th ic s o f a d vocacy . The C onsu m er U tilitie s A dvocacy C en tr e , < www.c u ac.o rg .a u >. I n fo rm atio n o n c o nsu m er rig hts , w here t o g o a n d w hat t o d o i f y ou n eed t o a d vocate o n a n i s su e r e la te d t o w ith a utility c o m pan y. KEY R EA DIN G S Alla n , J ., B ris k m an , L . a n d P ease , B . ( e d s) 2 009, Critic a l S ocia l W ork : T heo rie s a nd Pra ctic es f o r a S ocia lly U nju st W orld ( 2 nd e d .) , A lle n & U nw in , S ydney . Thom pso n, N . 2 006, Anti D is c rim in ato ry P ra ctic e , P alg ra v e M acm illa n , B asin gsto ke. 129 C H APT ER T EN Adm in is tr a tiv e e th ic s i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio n s S U M MARY A fte r s e ttin g t h e c o nte x t, t h is c h ap te r d is c u sse s t h re e v ery i m porta n t c o ncep ts g uid in g b eh av io ur i n a ll f o rm al s e ttin gs, a n d i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns i n p artic u la r. T hese a re p ro ced ura l f a ir n ess ( a ls o k now n a s n atu ra l j u stic e), p riv acy a n d t h e r ig ht t o i n fo rm atio n. W ith r e g ard t o n atu ra l j u stic e, w e a ls o r e v ie w t h e c o m mon f o rm s o f b ia s t h at c an c re ep i n to d ecis io n-m ak in g, a n d l o ok a t w hat c o nstitu te s e v id en ce. W e d is c u ss m eth ods o f p ro m otin g p riv acy , a s w ell a s p re v en tin g a n d m an ag in g b re ach es o f p riv acy , a n d a ls o e x plo re t h e r e la te d i s su e o f f re ed om o f i n fo rm atio n. T he c h ap te r s u ggests t h at h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers n eed t o c o nsid er t h ese p rin cip le s, a n d e n su re t h at t h ey a re a p plie d t o t h eir o w n p ra ctic es a s w ell a s t h ose o f t h eir e m plo yin g o rg an is a tio ns. N ATU RAL J U ST IC E N atu ra l j u stic e, a f u ndam en ta l p rin cip le g uid in g o rg an is a tio nal a ctiv ity , i s a ls o k now n b y t w o o th er t e rm s— ad m in is tr a tiv e e q uity a n d p ro ced ura l f a ir n ess. I t i s a c o re i d ea o f g ood g overn an ce m ore b ro ad ly , a n d i s h ig hly r e le v an t t o t h e h um an s e rv ic es. A s w e h av e d is c u sse d p re v io usly , g en era lly p eo ple w ho u se h um an s e rv ic es d o s o b ecau se t h ey a re e x perie n cin g s o m e q uite s e rio us d if fic u lty i n t h eir l iv es. I n a d ditio n, a ll h um an s e rv ic es a re , t o a c erta in d eg re e, r a tio ned . T hat m ean s o rg an is a tio ns a n d t h e w ork ers w ho w ork i n t h em o fte n h av e t o m ak e d ecis io ns a b out e lig ib ility , a n d a b out h ow m uch h elp a p ers o n o r a f a m ily c an r e ceiv e. T hese d ecis io ns c an b e v ery h ard t o m ak e, a n d i n t h e w ors t- c ase s c en ario a h um an s e rv ic e w ork er w ould m ak e t h ese d ecis io ns o n t h e b asis o f b ia s o r p re ju dic e, o r m ore l ik ely o n t h e b asis o f w ho ‘ fits ’ t h e o rg an is a tio n’s i m ag e o f i ts s e rv ic e u se rs . As w e h av e a ls o m ad e c le ar i n e arlie r c h ap te rs , s e rv ic e u se rs o f h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns a re i n u nbala n ced p ow er r e la tio nsh ip s w ith b oth w ork ers a n d t h eir e m plo yin g o rg an is a tio ns. O fte n s e rv ic e u se rs a re u nw ell o r d is a b le d , v ery y oung o r v ery o ld . F or a v arie ty o f r e aso ns ( s u ch a s t h ose d is c u sse d i n Chap te r 9 ), o ur s e rv ic e u se rs m ay n ot b e p artic u la rly g ood a d vocate s f o r t h em se lv es a n d c an b e q uite p assiv e i n t h eir e n gag em en t w ith w ork ers , a ccep tin g w hat t h ey a re g iv en w ith out c o m pla in t. I n c o nte x ts w here r e so urc es a re s c arc e, a n d i n t h e c o nte m pora ry e n vir o nm en t w here p eo ple ’s n eed s a re e sc ala tin g, i t i s v ery 130 easy t o o verlo ok a p ers o n’s r ig ht t o n atu ra l j u stic e. B ut i t i s a p rin cip le t h at i s f u ndam en ta l t o th e o pera tio ns o f h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns. T hose o rg an is a tio ns r u n b y t h e s ta te s a re re q uir e d b y a d m in is tr a tiv e l a w t o o bey t h e r u le s o f n atu ra l j u stic e. T hat s a id , t h ere i s a m ora l im pera tiv e f o r a ll o rg an is a tio ns t o t a k e t h ese r u le s i n to c o nsid era tio n i n t h eir d aily o pera tio ns. Furth erm ore , w e a re a ll e n title d t o n atu ra l j u stic e, i r re sp ectiv e o f w ho w e a re a n d w hat w e d o. Consid er t h e t h re e s c en ario s b elo w . E ach c o ncern s a n a sp ect o f e x perie n ce w here n atu ra l ju stic e i s a n i m porta n t i s su e. Case s tu dy: N atu ra l j u stic e Natu ra l j u stic e i s a u niv ers a l p rin cip le t h at a p plie s t o a ll p ers o ns a n d i n a ll l e g al s y ste m s. I t a p plie s in A ustr a lia n j u dic ia l, l e g is la tiv e a n d a d m in is tr a tiv e p ra ctic es. N atu ra l j u stic e r u le s a n d p rin cip le s hav e b een d ev elo ped t o e n su re t h at d ecis io n-m ak in g i s f a ir a n d r e aso nab le . I t i n volv es d ecis io n- mak ers i n fo rm in g p eo ple o f t h e c ase a g ain st t h em o r t h eir i n te re sts , g iv in g t h em t h e r ig ht t o b e heard , n ot h av in g a p ers o nal i n te re st i n t h e o utc o m e a n d a ctin g o n t h e b asis o f e v id en ce. Scen ario 1 Tra n i s a 1 7-y ear-o ld y outh w ho i s h av in g g re at d if fic u lty l iv in g a t h om e w ith h is m oth er a n d s te p – fa th er. H e a n d h is s te p -fa th er a rg ue a l o t, a n d a t t im es t h in gs h av e b eco m e v io le n t. T ra n h as basic ally l e ft h om e a n d i s s le ep in g o n a f rie n d’s c o uch . H e h as r u ng C en tr e lin k b ut h as b een t o ld dif fe re n t t h in gs b y d if fe re n t c u sto m er s e rv ic e o ffic ers . H e i s c o nfu se d a n d s c are d . H e h as b een t o se e t h e s o cia l w ork er, w ho q uestio ns h im c lo se ly a b out h is e lig ib ility f o r y outh h om ele ss allo w an ce. T ra n l e av es C en tr e lin k w ith t h e f e elin g t h at t h e s o cia l w ork er d oes n ot t h in k h e h as a good e n ough r e aso n t o l e av e h om e. Scen ario 2 Caro l i s a f ro nt- lin e w ork er i n a f a m ily s u pport s e rv ic e. H er l if e i s a b it t o psy t u rv y a t t h e m om en t becau se h er r e la tio nsh ip w ith h er p artn er r e cen tly b ro ke u p a n d s h e h as h ad t o m ove a t s h ort notic e. H er c at i s a ls o u nw ell, n eed in g r e g ula r v is its t o t h e v et. C aro l h as o fte n h ad t o c o m e i n l a te to w ork , a n d s o m etim es a ls o l e av es a l ittle e arly , m ain ly t o g et t h e c at t o t h e v et. H er l in e m an ag er has s u ggeste d t h at s h e n eed s t o m eet w ith h er f o r a p erfo rm an ce m an ag em en t m eetin g, a n d o ne o f th e i s su es i s t im ek eep in g. Scen ario 3 You a re w ork in g i n a n o rg an is a tio n c alle d P E O PL E F IR ST , f u nded b y t h e s ta te g overn m en t. Y our positio n, a lo ng w ith f o ur o th ers , i s f u nded b y t h em t o d eliv er s u pport s e rv ic es t o p eo ple w ith psy ch ia tr ic d is a b ilitie s l iv in g i n t h e c o m munity . P E O PL E F IR ST i s i n d is p ute w ith t h e f u ndin g body o ver t h e n atu re o f t h e p ro gra m , a n d t h e k ey p erfo rm an ce i n dic ato rs b ein g u se d t o m onito r an d e v alu ate t h e p ro gra m . B asic ally , t h e d ep artm en t i s o nly i n te re ste d i n t h e u nits o f s e rv ic e (n um ber o f p eo ple s e en a n d n um ber o f t im es t h ey a re s e en ). Y our o rg an is a tio n d oes n ot b elie v e th e f u ndin g d ep artm en t u nders ta n ds t h e n atu re o f t h e s e rv ic e u se rs a n d t h eir i s su es b ecau se i f i t did , i t w ould k now t h at i t i s n ot t h e n um ber o f t im es s o m eo ne i s s e en t h at m atte rs b ut t h e q uality of t h e r e la tio nsh ip d ev elo ped b etw een w ork ers a n d s e rv ic e u se rs . T he f u ndin g d ep artm en t h as se rv ed n otic e t h at i t i s g oin g t o r e v ie w t h e f u ndin g. EX ER CIS E Re-re ad t h e s c en ario s a b ove. H ow i s t h e p rin cip le o f n atu ra l j u stic e r e le v an t? Natu ra l j u stic e r e p re se n ts a n id ea l o f j u stic e t h at i s o f u nquestio nab le a n tiq uity . I t i s a univ ers a l s u bsta n tiv e s ta n dard t h at a ls o c o nta in s p ro ced ura l s ta n dard s. I t i s a ls o a p rin cip le 131 with p ra ctic al a p plic atio n. T he r u le s o f n atu ra l j u stic e i n co rp ora te f u ndam en ta l v alu es a b out eq uality , n on-d is c rim in atio n, i m partia lity a n d b asic f a ir n ess. Natu ra l j u stic e i n volv es t h re e e le m en ts , t h e m ost i m porta n t o f w hic h i s t h e ‘ h earin g r u le ’. The o th er t w o e le m en ts a re t h e ‘ ru le a g ain st b ia s’ a n d t h e ‘ n o e v id en ce r u le ’. T he h earin g r u le sta te s t h at a p ers o n s h ould b e t o ld t h e ‘ c ase t o b e m et’ a n d t o b e h eard i n r e p ly . A ny h earin g sh ould b e s e t u p i n a w ay t h at i s a p pro pria te f o r t h e c ir c u m sta n ces. I n t h e c ase o f S cen ario 1 ab ove, t h e s o cia l w ork er s h ould e x pla in t o T ra n w hy h e d oesn ’t t h in k T ra n i s e lig ib le f o r youth a llo w an ce. F urth er, h e s h ould p ut t h is i n p la in l a n guag e, a n d h e s h ould r e fe r T ra n t o a welf a re r ig hts c en tr e s o t h at h e c an a ccess a ssis ta n ce t o h av e h is r e p ly h eard . I f n atu ra l j u stic e were t o a p ply t o T ra n : • T he h earin g s h ould b e c o nducte d b efo re a d ecis io n i s r e ach ed o r a s e ttle d v ie w f o rm ed . • A ll o f t h e i n fo rm atio n t h at i s b ein g u se d t o r e ach a d ecis io n s h ould b e m ad e a v aila b le p rio r t o t h e hearin g. • T ra n s h ould b e g iv en a r e aso nab le o pportu nity t o r e sp ond, a n d i n h is c ase t h e s o cia l w ork er s h ould mak e s u re t h at T ra n i s a ssis te d i n d ev elo pin g a n d p re se n tin g h is r e sp onse . • T ra n w ould b e e n title d t o a c o m pre h en siv e c o nsid era tio n o f h is c ase . Let’ s l o ok a t s o m e i s su es t h at c an a ris e w ith t h e h earin g r u le , i n t h is c ase i n t h e c o nte x t o f Scen ario 3 a b ove. 1. A h ea rin g h eld t o o l a te i s n ot a ccep ta ble . I f t h e d ep artm en t h as a lr e ad y d ecid ed ‘ in p rin cip le ’ t h at th e f u ndin g w ill n ot b e r e n ew ed b efo re a h earin g t a k es p la ce, n atu ra l j u stic e i s c o nstr a in ed . 2. A h ea rin g h eld p re m atu re ly i s n ot a ccep ta ble . T he d ep artm en t a n d P E O PL E F IR ST n eed t im e t o co lle ct m ate ria l a n d m ak e t h eir c ase . I f t im e i s n ot g iv en f o r t h is , n atu ra l j u stic e i s c o nstr a in ed . 3. There h as b een n on-d is c lo su re o f i n fo rm atio n r e le va nt t o t h e d ecis io n . T he d ep artm en t a n d PE O PL E F IR ST s h ould h av e a ccess t o i n fo rm atio n u se d i n d ecis io n-m ak in g. I f t h is d oes n ot occu r, n atu ra l j u stic e i s c o nstr a in ed . 4. The d ep artm en t h as l e d P EO PLE F IR ST t o b elie ve t h at f u tu re f u ndin g w ill b e f o rth co m in g . Natu ra l j u stic e d em an ds t h at, i n t h is i n sta n ce, P E O PL E F IR ST s h ould b e i n fo rm ed o f a n y pro pose d c h an ge. N atu ra l j u stic e p ro te cts l e g itim ate e x pecta tio ns a s w ell a s l e g al r ig hts . The o th er p rin cip le s o f n atu ra l j u stic e i d en tif ie d a b ove w ere t h e n eed f o r e v id en ce t o su pport a d ecis io n a n d t h e a b se n ce o f b ia s. I t i s n ot g ood e n ough t h at a d ecis io n-m ak er i s unbia se d . I n t e rm s o f u phold in g n atu ra l j u stic e, i t i s p artic u la rly i m porta n t t h at a n y o nlo oker sh ould n ot s u sp ect o r p erc eiv e b ia s i n t h e d ecis io n-m ak in g p ro cess. I f, f o r e x am ple , t h e decis io n-m ak er h as e v er d is p la y ed h ostility o r f a v ouritis m , o r c le arly h as a c lo se d m in d a b out th e m atte r, t h ere w ould b e r e aso nab le s u sp ic io n t h at b ia s e x is ts . I n t h e f ie ld o f w elf a re , i t i s ofte n u nfo rtu nate ly t h e c ase t h at b ia s c an e x is t— partic u la rly i n c o nte x ts w here u ntr a in ed pers o nnel a re i n volv ed i n s e rv ic e d eliv ery . F urth erm ore , a d ecis io n c an not b e m ad e o n t h e basis o f o pin io n, s u sp ic io n, r u m our o r g ossip . R ath er, n atu ra l j u stic e d em an ds t h at a n y decis io n i s b ase d i n e v id en ce. I t i s i m porta n t t h at t h e e v id en ce u se d t o s u pport a d ecis io n sh ould b e d is c lo se d t o t h e o th er p arty i n a d van ce o f a d ecis io n. I n r e la tio n t o C aro l i n Scen ario 2 a b ove, h er m an ag er w ould b e r e q uir e d t o d em onstr a te t h at s h e i s n ot b ia se d ag ain st C aro l, a n d s h e m ust p ro vid e h er w ith t h e i n fo rm atio n s h e w ill b e u sin g i n h er decis io n-m ak in g. Acco rd in gly , t h ere s h ould b e n o b ia s e v id en ced i n t h e p ro cess. T he t e st h ere i s w heth er a fa ir -m in ded o bse rv er m ig ht r e aso nab ly a p pre h en d t h at t h e d ecis io n-m ak er m ig ht n ot b rin g a n im partia l m in d t o t h e r e so lu tio n o f t h e q uestio n. F or e x am ple , d is q ualif y in g b ia s w ill o ccu r where a f a ir -m in ded o bse rv er m ig ht r e aso nab ly a p pre h en d t h at t h e d ecis io n-m ak er h as p re – ju dged t h e m atte r b y i g norin g e v id en ce o r d is m is sin g i t w ith i n su ffic ie n t r e aso n. F urth erm ore , if a d ecis io n-m ak er h as a n y f in an cia l o r p ers o nal i n te re st i n t h e m atte r a t h an d, t h en t h e b ia s 132 ru le w ould b e i n voked . A s u sp ic io n o f b ia s c an a ris e f ro m t h in gs a d ecis io n-m ak er s a y s o r does w hic h m ig ht i n dic ate t h at h e o r s h e i s e ith er p artia l o r h ostile , h as f o rm ed p re -ju dgm en ts an d/o r i s n ot o pen t o p ers u asio n. I g norin g o r d ow npla y in g e v id en ce c o uld b e c o nsid ere d a s th e o pera tio ns o f b ia s. It i s a ls o i m porta n t t h at a d ecis io n-m ak er i s a w are o f t h e t r ic k s t h e m in d c an p la y i n re la tio n t o b ia s. S ee t h e l is t b elo w : • Confir m atio n b ia s . O ccu rs w hen w e s e le ctiv ely n otic e o r f o cu s o n e v id en ce t h at t e n ds t o s u pport t h e th in gs w e a lr e ad y b elie v e o r w an t t o b e t r u e w hile i g norin g e v id en ce t h at w ould s e rv e t o d is c o nfir m th ose b elie fs o r i d eas. C onfir m atio n b ia s p la y s a s tr o nger r o le w hen i t c o m es t o t h ose b elie fs t h at are b ase d u pon p re ju dic e, f a ith o r t r a d itio n r a th er t h an o n e m pir ic al e v id en ce. • Dis c o nfir m atio n b ia s . R efe rs t o t h e t e n den cy f o r p eo ple t o e x te n d c ritic al s c ru tin y t o i n fo rm atio n th at c o ntr a d ic ts t h eir p rio r b elie fs a n d a ccep t u ncritic ally i n fo rm atio n t h at i s c o ngru en t w ith t h eir prio r b elie fs . • Bia s b lin d-s p ot . O ccu rs w hen a p ers o n f a ils t o p erc eiv e, a n d t h ere fo re d oes n ot c o m pen sa te f o r, h is or h er o w n b ia se s. It i s a lw ay s w orth w hile t o r e m em ber t h at a ll h um an b ein gs u nder-e stim ate t h eir o w n b ia se s while o ver-e stim atin g t h ose o f o th er p eo ple . F urth er, w e a ll b rin g u nco nsc io us a ttitu des a n d belie fs t h at b elie o ur e x pre sse d a ttitu des. F or e x am ple , i n S cen ario 1 a b ove, t h e s o cia l w ork er mig ht h av e a t e en ag er h im se lf w ho i s g iv in g h im t r o uble . T his c o nceiv ab ly c o uld c o lo ur h is attitu de t o T ra n ’s c la im s, a s w ell a s b ia s h im t o b elie v e T ra n ’s p are n ts ’ c la im s. Som e o f t h e i n dic ato rs o f b ia s a re : • p re m atu re e x pre ssio n o f h ostility • l a b ellin g o f o ne o f t h e p artie s • p uttin g o ne p arty t h ro ugh t h e h oop a b out p ro of w hile a ccep tin g t h e o th er w ith out c o m men t • u sin g d if fe re n t f o rm s o f a d dre ss o r d if fe re n t l e v els o f f a m ilia rity • l is te n in g d if fe re n tly . EX ER CIS E Lookin g a t S cen ario s 2 a n d 3 a b ove, i n w hat f o rm m ig ht b ia s b e e x pre sse d b y t h e p ers o ns nom in ate d ? • S cen ario 2 : C aro l’ s l in e m an ag er • S cen ario 3 : T he f u ndin g d ep artm en t’ s o ffic er h an dlin g t h e m atte r. As s u ggeste d a b ove, t h e t h ir d e le m en t f o r n atu ra l j u stic e t o b e u pheld i s t h e ‘ n o e v id en ce’ ru le . T his a rg ues t h at a ll d ecis io ns w here n atu ra l j u stic e i s i n p la y m ust b e b ase d o n e v id en ce ra th er t h an r u m our, s u sp ic io n r a th er t h an g ossip . E vid en ce c an c o nsis t o f a r a n ge o f t h in gs: in ta k e f o rm s, e m ails , n arra tiv es, t h e d ecis io n-m ak er’s o bse rv atio ns o r a p ers o n’s d em ean our. It i s p erfe ctly a ccep ta b le f o r a d ecis io n-m ak er t o m ak e f u rth er i n vestig atio ns— fo r e x am ple , to c all a n oth er w ork er w ith w hom t h e p ers o n h as h ad c o nta ct, o r i n T ra n ’s c ase a b ove, t o t a lk to h is m oth er. I f t h e p ers o n i s i n s o m e w ay d is a d van ta g ed i n m ak in g t h eir c ase ( a s i s o fte n t h e case i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es), a w ork er s h ould c o nsid er s e ek in g e x tr a a ssis ta n ce i n s e ek in g o r obta in in g e v id en ce t o i n fo rm t h e d ecis io n a b out t h at p ers o n. There a re s e v era l t y pes o f e v id en ce. H ears a y i s o ne v ery c o m mon f o rm o f e v id en ce i n t h e hum an s e rv ic es, p artic u la rly f ro m o th er w ork ers , f a m ily o r f rie n ds o f t h e p ers o n a b out w hom a d ecis io n i s b ein g m ad e. N atu ra l j u stic e r e q uir e s t h at t h e p ers o n h as t h e r ig ht t o r e b ut a n y ev id en ce s u bm itte d . F urth erm ore , i f t h ere a re c o nflic tin g a cco unts ( w hic h t h ere m ig ht w ell b e in T ra n ’s c ase ), i t d oes n ot n ecessa rily m ean t h at s o m eo ne i s l y in g b ecau se i t i s p ossib le ( a n d 133 in deed o fte n p ro bab le ) t h at p eo ple w ill p erc eiv e a n d r e m em ber e v en ts d if fe re n tly . W e n ow tu rn t o p riv acy . PR IV ACY Main ta in in g c itiz en s’ p riv acy i s a n i m porta n t p rin cip le i n d em ocra tic s o cie tie s s u ch a s Austr a lia , a n d h as b een f o r q uite s o m e t im e. I n 1 948, f o r e x am ple , t h e U nite d N atio ns pro cla im ed i ts U niv ers a l D ecla ra tio n o f H um an R ig hts , A rtic le 1 2 o f w hic h s ta te s: ‘ N o o ne sh all b e s u bje ct t o a rb itr a ry i n te rfe re n ce i n h is [ s ic ] p riv acy , f a m ily h om e a n d co rre sp onden ce, n or t o a tta ck s u pon h is h onour a n d r e p uta tio n. E very one h as t h e r ig ht t o t h e pro te ctio n o f l a w a g ain st s u ch a tta ck s.’ C urre n tly , a ll A ustr a lia n g overn m en ts h av e s o m e mech an is m f o r p ro te ctin g p riv acy . T he C om monw ealth ( a ls o c o verin g t h e A CT), N ew S outh Wale s, V ic to ria , t h e N orth ern T errito ry , W este rn A ustr a lia a n d T asm an ia h av e e n acte d sp ecif ic l e g is la tio n. Q ueen sla n d a n d S outh A ustr a lia , o n t h e o th er h an d, h av e a d m in is tr a tiv e sy ste m s. I n e ach j u ris d ic tio n, i t i s p rim arily g overn m en t a g en cie s t h at a re s u bje ct t o p riv acy ru le s. T he s itu atio n i s s o m ew hat m ore c o m ple x i n r e la tio n t o n on-p ro fit c o m munity -b ase d org an is a tio ns, p artic u la rly w hen t h ey a re i n r e ceip t o f g overn m en t f u ndin g. I n V ic to ria , f o r ex am ple , o rg an is a tio ns c o ntr a cte d b y t h e s ta te t o p ro vid e s ta tu to ry s e rv ic es a re o blig ed t o co nfo rm t o t h e l e g is la tio n. H ow ev er, t h ose m ere ly ‘ fu nded ’ b y t h e s ta te m ay n ot b e s o oblig ed . D esp ite t h is l a ck o f c la rity , t h ere i s n ev erth ele ss a m ora l a n d p ro fe ssio nal i m pera tiv e fo r c o m munity -b ase d o rg an is a tio ns t o t a k e t h e p ro te ctio n o f t h eir s e rv ic e u se rs v ery s e rio usly . Read t h e f o llo w in g c ase s tu dy. Case s tu dy: P ro te ctin g p riv acy Dav id i s a s o cia l w ork s tu den t o n h is f in al p la cem en t a t W oodsv ille N eig hbourh ood C en tr e . T he cen tr e r u ns a n um ber o f p ro gra m s f o r a w id e r a n ge o f l o cal p eo ple . I t i s a b usy p la ce, w ith p eo ple poppin g i n a n d o ut a ll o f t h e t im e. O ne o f t h e m ore t r o uble so m e p ro gra m s i t r u ns i s t h e dis tr ib utio n o f e m erg en cy r e lie f— a d is c re tio nary p ro gra m b y w hic h p artic ip atin g a g en cie s a sse ss cla im s o f f in an cia l h ard sh ip a n d m an ag e s m all t e m pora ry p ay m en ts . I t i s d if fic u lt b ecau se i t i s dis c re tio nary , a n d t h ere i s t o o m uch o pportu nity f o r u ncle ar o r b ia se d d ecis io ns t o b e m ad e. Nev erth ele ss, a n d b ecau se o f f u ndin g r e str ic tio ns, i t i s m ain ly v olu nte ers w ho r u n t h e p ro gra m . Dav id w an dere d i n to t h e k itc h en t o g et a g la ss o f w ate r w hen h e s p otte d t w o o f t h e v olu nte ers hav in g l u nch a t t h e t a b le . T he v olu nte ers w ere d is c u ssin g a n a p plic an t f o r e m erg en cy r e lie f t h at one o f t h em h ad s e en t h at m orn in g. S he w as b ein g q uite c ritic al a n d d is m is siv e o f t h e a p plic an t, more o r l e ss c la im in g t h at h e w as l y in g. T he k itc h en i s o pen t e rrito ry a t t h e N eig hbourh ood C en tr e an d a n yone c an ( a n d d oes) w an der i n a n d o ut. D av id w as c o ncern ed a b out t h e o verh eard co nvers a tio n a n d a sk ed h is s u perv is o r a t t h eir n ex t s u perv is io n s e ssio n w hat t h e c en tr e ’s p olic y was i n r e la tio n t o p riv acy a n d h ow i t w as i m ple m en te d . H e h eard t h at t h ere w as a p olic y a n d a s e t of p ra ctic es w ith w hic h a ll s ta ff a n d v olu nte ers w ere f a m ilia ris e d d urin g i n ductio n. H e w as l e ft t o wonder w heth er t h is s y ste m w as g ood e n ough. This c ase s tu dy i llu str a te s c le arly w hy p riv acy i s i m porta n t i n b oth a m ora l a n d pro fe ssio nal s e n se . U nfo rtu nate ly , t h e s itu atio n d esc rib ed a b ove i s n ot p artic u la rly unco m mon. T he b itte r r e ality i s t h at h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns o fte n h av e t o r a tio n s c arc e re so urc es, a n d i n d oin g s o u su ally b ase t h eir d ecis io ns o n s e n sitiv e i n fo rm atio n. N early e v ery hum an s e rv ic e w ork er o ne a sk s w ill b e a b le t o t a lk a b out i n sta n ces w here s e rv ic e u se rs ’ co nfid en tia l c ase d eta ils w ere b ro ught u p i n t e aro om c h atte r. B ut, a s w e h av e s a id t im e a n d tim e a g ain , p eo ple c o m e t o h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns b ecau se s o m eth in g i s g oin g a w ry i n 134 th eir l iv es. O fte n , p eo ple f e el e m barra sse d o r a sh am ed a b out t h e f a ct t h at t h ey a re n ot c o pin g an d t h ey d is lik e h av in g t o m ak e p ers o nal d is c lo su re s t o s tr a n gers . T o t h in k t h at t h is in fo rm atio n c o uld b e m ad e a v aila b le t o o th er p eo ple i s u pse ttin g t o s a y t h e l e ast. T hin k a b out goin g t o C en tr e lin k a n d t h e e x perie n ce o f b ein g a sk ed q uite p ers o nal d eta ils b y a c u sto m er se rv ic e o ffic er w ith o th er o ffic ers s ittin g n earb y a n d a l o ng q ueu e b eh in d y ou. I m med ia te ly you c an u nders ta n d w hy c arin g a b out c itiz en s’ p riv acy i n w elf a re s e ttin gs i s i m porta n t. I t i s im porta n t m ora lly b ecau se e v ery one h as t h e r ig ht t o p riv acy , a n d w e a re o blig ed a s c itiz en s t o re sp ect t h is r ig ht. I t i s i m porta n t p ro fe ssio nally b ecau se b re ach in g p riv acy c an s e rio usly dam ag e t h e t r u st a p ers o n h as w ith a w ork er a n d a n o rg an is a tio n, j e o pard is in g f u tu re in te rv en tio n. H ere w e a d dre ss p riv acy s o t h at i f y ou e x perie n ce s o m eth in g l ik e D av id d id i n th e c ase s tu dy, y ou w ill b e a b le t o a ct r e sp onsib ly i n r e la tio n t o y our o rg an is a tio n’s p olic y an d p ro ced ure s. Prev en tin g p riv acy b rea ch es An o rg an is a tio n s h ould h av e p rin cip le s i n r e la tio n t o t h e c o lle ctio n, s to ra g e, u se a n d dis c lo su re o f, a n d a ccess t o , p ers o nal i n fo rm atio n. B ut w hat i n fo rm atio n f its t h is c ate g ory ? I n gen era l, t h e f o llo w in g q uestio ns n eed t o b e p ose d : • I s t h e i n fo rm atio n c o lle cte d s e n sitiv e t o t h e i n div id ual? • W hat h arm w ould b e d one t o t h e i n div id ual i f t h ere i s a b re ach ? • W hat h arm i s t h ere t o t h e o rg an is a tio n i f t h ere i s a b re ach ? • H ow d oes t h e o rg an is a tio n s to re , p ro cess a n d t r a n sm it p ers o nal i n fo rm atio n? There a re a n um ber o f s te p s t h at a n o rg an is a tio n n eed s t o u nderta k e t o a sse ss e x is tin g priv acy p ro to co ls o r d ev elo p n ew o nes. L ook a t Tab le 1 0.1 , r e ad t h e t a sk s a n d c o nsid er w hat a h um an s e rv ic e o r c o m munity w elf a re o rg an is a tio n w ould n eed t o d o i n r e sp ect o f e ach t a sk . Tab le 1 0.1 : S erv ic e a ctio n s Actio n Hum an s e rv ic es org an is a tio n al p ra ctic e Id en tif y w hat p ers o nal i n fo rm atio n i s n ecessa ry t o b e co lle cte d Work o ut h ow l o ng i n fo rm atio n s h ould b e k ep t Id en tif y t h e s e cu rity r is k s t o p ers o nal i n fo rm atio n a n d t h e co nse q uen ces o f a b re ach o f s e cu rity Dev elo p a p olic y a n d a s e t o f m easu re s t o r e d uce t h e r is k s Tra in s ta ff Nom in ate a d esig nate d p ositio n t o d eal w ith p ers o nal in fo rm atio n s e cu rity b re ach es Ensu re t h ere a re p riv acy -e n han cin g p ro ced ure s i n r e la tio n to t e ch nolo gy Monito r c o m plia n ce w ith s e cu rity p olic y a n d u nderta k e perio dic a sse ssm en ts o f n ew r is k s Ensu re t h at e ffe ctiv e c o m pla in t- h an dlin g s y ste m s a re i n 135 pla ce Syste m atic ally e v alu ate p ro pose d o r e x is tin g i n fo rm atio n sy ste m s a lig n w ith g ood p olic y a n d p ra ctic e Peo ple w ho u se t h e s e rv ic es o f t h e h um an s e rv ic es s e cto r a re e n title d t o k now t h at in fo rm atio n a b out t h em i s b ein g c o lle cte d . T hey a ls o n eed t o k now w hy, a s w ell a s w hat hap pen s t o t h e i n fo rm atio n a fte r i t i s c o lle cte d . T he C om monw ealth O ffic e o f t h e P riv acy Com mis sio n h as d ev elo ped u se fu l i n fo rm atio n s h eets o n a n um ber o f t o pic s r e la te d t o priv acy , i n clu din g t h is o ne. T he f ir s t s te p i s t o e n su re t h at r e aso nab le s te p s t o e n su re s e rv ic e use r a w are n ess a re i n p la ce. B ut h ow d o w e d ete rm in e w hat i s r e aso nab le ? W hat s h ould a n org an is a tio n d o, f o r e x am ple , w hen i t i s c o lle ctin g i n fo rm atio n a b out a s e rv ic e u se r f ro m so m e o th er s o urc e ( fo r e x am ple , t h ro ugh t h e p ro cess o f r e fe rra l o r t h ro ugh a c ase co nfe re n ce)? A r e aso nab le s te p i n t h is i n sta n ce w ould b e t o i n fo rm t h e p ers o n t h at t h e in fo rm atio n h ad b een t r a n sm itte d w hen t h e p ers o n i s n ex t c o nta cte d . W here s e n sitiv e in fo rm atio n i s b ein g c o lle cte d , i t i s r e aso nab le t o r e q uir e a n i n div id ual’ s c o nse n t. I n m ost hum an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns, c o nse n t w ould b e s o ught f o rm ally a t i n ta k e. T o d ecid e w heth er or n ot a s te p i s r e aso nab le u su ally i n volv es m ak in g a j u dgem en t b ase d o n t h e f a cts . Gen era lly , t h e m ore s e n sitiv e t h e i n fo rm atio n i s , a n d t h e g re ate r t h e e x te n t o f h arm i f in fo rm atio n i s l e ak ed , t h en t h e g re ate r e ffo rt a n o rg an is a tio n s h ould m ak e t o i n fo rm i ts se rv ic e u se rs t h at t h e i n fo rm atio n i s b ein g c o lle cte d . Man agin g p riv acy b rea ch es If a p ers o nal i n fo rm atio n b re ach a ctu ally h ap pen s, t h en a n o rg an is a tio n w ill n eed t o h av e a pro to co l f o r m an ag in g i t. T he O ffic e o f t h e P riv acy C om mis sio ner ( 2 008) s u ggests t h at t h ere are s o m e g en era l p rin cip le s a n d f o ur s te p s t h at n eed t o b e c o nsid ere d . T he g en era l p rin cip le s are : • B e s u re t o t a k e e ach s itu atio n s e rio usly a n d m ove q uic k ly t o c o nta in t h e s u sp ecte d b re ach . • B re ach es t h at s e em i m mate ria l m ay b e s ig nif ic an t w hen t h eir f u ll i m plic atio ns a re a sse sse d . • T he d ecis io n o n h ow t o r e sp ond s h ould b e m ad e o n a c ase -b y-c ase b asis . The f o ur s te p s a re o utlin ed i n Tab le 1 0.2 . Tab le 1 0.2 : M an agin g p riv acy b rea ch es Actio n Hum an s e rv ic es o rg an is a tio n al p ra ctic e Ste p 1 : C onta in t h e b re ach Conta in t h e b re ach — th at i s , s to p t h e p ra ctic es t h at l e d t o th e b re ach . A sse ss w heth er s te p s c an b e t a k en t o m in im is e harm . In itia te a p re lim in ary a sse ssm en t: a p poin t s o m eo ne w ith su ffic ie n t a u th ority t o l e ad t h e i n itia l a sse ssm en t. Asse ss w ho n eed s t o b e n otif ie d i m med ia te ly . Ste p 2 : E valu ate t h e r is k s asso cia te d w ith t h e b re ach Consid er w hat p ers o nal i n fo rm atio n i s i n volv ed . What i s t h e c o nte x t o f t h e i n fo rm atio n ( e .g . a l is t o f s e rv ic e use rs i s l e ss s e n sitiv e t h an a p ers o nal f ile ). Esta b lis h t h e c au se a n d e x te n t o f t h e b re ach . A sse ss t h e ris k o f h arm t o t h e i n div id ual. W ork o ut s te p s t o m itig ate harm . 136 Id en tif y w hat o th er h arm s o r r is k s c o uld a ris e . In vestig ate w heth er i t i s a s y ste m ic i s su e o r a n i s o la te d is su e. Ste p 3 : C onsid er n otif ic atio n to t h e i n div id ual/s c o ncern ed In g en era l, i f p ers o nal i n fo rm atio n h as b een b re ach ed t h en th e p ers o n s h ould b e n otif ie d . T he p re fe rre d m eth od i s dir e ct— in p ers o n o r b y p hone. The n otif ic atio n s h ould i n clu de a d esc rip tio n o f t h e in cid en t, a d esc rip tio n o f t h e i n fo rm atio n, a n a cco unt o f what t h e o rg an is a tio n i s d oin g, a n o ffe r o f a ssis ta n ce t o t h e in div id ual, o rg an is a tio nal c o nta ct d eta ils , h ow t h e in div id ual c an l o dge a c o m pla in t. Ste p 4 : P re v en t f u tu re b re ach es Dev elo p a b re ach -re sp onse p la n : s e t o ut c o nta ct d eta ils o f sta ff w ho s h ould b e n otif ie d , c la rif y r o le s a n d re sp onsib ilitie s, d ocu m en t o rg an is a tio nal p ro ced ure s, re v ie w t h e r e sp onse p la n r e g ula rly . EX ER CIS E Read t h e c ase b elo w a n d w ork t h ro ugh S te p s 1 t o 4 o utlin ed i n Tab le 1 0.2 . Case s tu dy: P riv acy b rea ch es Rosa w ork s i n a d om estic v io le n ce s e rv ic e f o r w om en f ro m c u ltu ra lly a n d l in guis tic ally d iv ers e back gro unds. H er j o b i s t o p la ce w om en a n d t h eir c h ild re n r e fe rre d t o t h em f ro m t h e d om estic vio le n ce h otlin e i n to w om en ’s r e fu ges a n d t h en t o s u pport t h em f o r a s l o ng a s t h ey n eed i t. L ik e all s u ch s e rv ic es, t h e o rg an is a tio n t a k es t h e s e cu rity o f i ts s e rv ic e u se rs v ery s e rio usly . R osa h as been w ork in g o n h er c ase n ote s, w hic h a re g ettin g b eh in d. S he k eep s g ettin g i n te rru pte d b y vario us t h in gs s o s h e a sk s h er c o ord in ato r w heth er s h e c an w ork o n t h em a t h om e t h e n ex t d ay . She i s g iv en p erm is sio n t o d o t h is . S he l o ad s t h e f ile s n eed in g t o b e u pdate d o n h er p en d riv e, whic h s h e p uts i n h er b ack pack . T he n ex t d ay , s h e g oes t o r e tr ie v e t h e f ile s a n d c an not f in d t h e pen d riv e. S he m ak es a c all t o w ork a n d a sk s h er c o lle ag ue t o s e arc h a ro und h er d esk . T he p en driv e i s n ot f o und. Fin ally , w e t u rn t o t h e t h ir d p rin cip le d ra w n f ro m a d m in is tr a tiv e e th ic s, o ne w hic h i s cle arly r e la te d t o p riv acy — th e r ig ht t o i n fo rm atio n. FR EED O M O F I N FO RM ATIO N A c o rn ers to ne o f c o nte m pora ry d em ocra cy , f re ed om o f i n fo rm atio n i s o ne o f t h e m ost im porta n t m ean s w e h av e t o h old g overn m en ts a cco unta b le . I n f a ct, t h e i m porta n ce o f in fo rm atio n i n a r e p re se n ta tiv e d em ocra cy h as b een a ck now le d ged b y t h e A ustr a lia n H ig h Court ( e .g . t h e 1 992 c ase s o f Natio nw id e N ew s v W ills a n d Austr a lia n C apita l T ele vis io n v The C om monw ea lth ). As w ell a s a d esir e t o m ax im is e a cco unta b ility , u nderp in nin g f o rm al f re ed om o f in fo rm atio n m ech an is m s a re o th er p hilo so phic al p rin cip le s. I t i s g en era lly h eld t h at: • I f c itiz en s a re a d eq uate ly i n fo rm ed a n d h av e a ccess t o i n fo rm atio n, t h ere i s l ik ely t o b e m ore p ublic 137 partic ip atio n i n p olic y -m ak in g p ro cesse s a n d i n g overn m en t i ts e lf . • G ro ups a n d i n div id uals a ffe cte d b y g overn m en t d ecis io ns s h ould k now t h e c rite ria a p plie d i n mak in g t h ose d ecis io ns. • E very i n div id ual h as a r ig ht t o k now w hat i n fo rm atio n g overn m en t i s h old in g a b out h im o r h er pers o nally , t o i n sp ect f ile s h eld a b out o r r e la tin g t o h im o r h er, a n d t o h av e i n accu ra te i n fo rm atio n co rre cte d . Nev erth ele ss, f re ed om o f i n fo rm atio n p ro vis io ns a n d t h e w ay s i n w hic h g overn m en ts e n act th em c an b e h ig hly p olitic al a n d o fte n c o ntr o vers ia l. M an y c o m men ta to rs h av e r a is e d co ncern s a b out h ow , o ver t h e l a st d ecad e, a ccess t o i n fo rm atio n v ia f re ed om o f i n fo rm atio n le g is la tio n h as b eco m e i n cre asin gly d if fic u lt, a s w ell a s i n cre asin gly o ut o f r e ach f o r p eo ple on l im ite d i n co m es. F urth erm ore , t h e f o rm al s y ste m s a sso cia te d w ith f re ed om o f i n fo rm atio n le g is la tio n i n d if fe re n t j u ris d ic tio ns r e q uir e a s ig nif ic an t d eg re e o f k now le d ge a b out govern m en t a n d b ure au cra cy , a s w ell a s a w illin gness t o h av e a g o. M an y o f t h e p eo ple w ho use h um an s e rv ic es a re u nw illin g o r u nab le t o t a k e b ure au cra cy ‘ o n’. F ortu nate ly ( a n d w ith hin dsig ht) , i n 2 006 t h e A ustr a lia n H ig h C ourt m ad e a p artic u la r d ecis io n i n r e la tio n t o a c ase bro ught b y M ic h ael M cK in non, t h e f re ed om o f i n fo rm atio n e d ito r f o r The A ustr a lia n new sp ap er. H e m ad e a s e em in gly i n nocu ous r e q uest t o a ccess f e d era l T re asu ry d ocu m en ts re la te d t o t a x atio n a n d b ra ck et c re ep , a n d a ls o o n t h e f ir s t h om e-o w ners ’ s c h em e. T he r e q uest was b lo ck ed b y t h e t h en T re asu re r, P ete r C oste llo , w ho w as c o ncern ed a b out t h e c ap acity o f th e p ublic s e rv ic e t o g iv e f ra n k a d vic e i f t h eir a d vic e w as g oin g t o b e o pen t o p ublic s c ru tin y, a p ositio n t h at w as u pheld b y t h e A dm in is tr a tiv e A ppeals T rib unal. T he H ig h C ourt m ad e a decis io n o n t h e A ppeals T rib unal r u lin g w hic h m an y i n te re ste d o bse rv ers r e g ard ed a s p iv ota l to t h e w hole f u tu re o f f re ed om o f i n fo rm atio n. S ee, f o r e x am ple , t h e G re en s’ l e ad er B ob Bro w n’s r e sp onse : Hig h C ou rt b lo w a gain st d em ocra cy Med ia R ele a se | S pokesp erso n B ob B ro w n Wed nesd ay 6 th S ep te m ber 2 006, 1 2:0 0am The H ig h C ourt 3 –2 d ecis io n a gain st M ic h ael M cK in non’s F re ed om o f I n fo rm atio n a ppea l i s a b lo w again st d em ocra cy, G re en s L ea der B ob B ro w n s a id t o day. Sen ato r B ro w n, w ho i n tr o duced F re ed om o f I n fo rm atio n t o T asm ania i n 1 991, s a id t h e C ourt’ s fin din g s h ould l e a d t o r e fo rm o f t h e l a w . ‘I c a ll o n A tto rn ey-G en era l R uddock t o a m en d t h e F re ed om o f I n fo rm atio n A ct so t h at a ny re a so nable p ublic i n te re st w ould e n su re t h e i n fo rm atio n i s r e le a se d ,’ S en ato r B ro w n s a id . ‘In fo rm atio n i s t h e c u rre n cy o f d em ocra cy. B eyo nd c le a r d efe n se o f n atio nal s e cu rity , i t i s d iffic u lt to a rg ue t h at m in is te rs s h ould b e a ble t o k eep t h e p ublic i n t h e d ark . I w ill l o ok a t b rin gin g i n a n am en dm en t t o f ix t h e p ro ble m w hic h a llo w ed t h e H ig h C ourt m ajo rity t o k eep p eo ple i n t h e d ark ,’ Sen ato r B ro w n s a id . S en ato r B ro w n a dded t h at f o rm er L ib era l S en ato r A lla n M is se n , t h e f a th er o f Austr a lia ’s F re ed om o f I n fo rm atio n l a w s, a lw ays i n te n ded t h at t h e p ublic ’s r ig ht t o k n ow s h ould overrid e m in is te rs p ro te ctin g t h eir p olitic a l p atc h . Sourc e: < http ://b ob-b ro w n.g re en sm ps.o rg .a u /ta x onom y/te rm /1 22/a ll >, a ccesse d 2 6 M ay 2 009 It i s c o ntr o vers ie s s u ch a s t h is t h at p ro m pte d a m ove b y t h e R udd L ab or g overn m en t t o re fo rm t h e f e d era l Fre ed om o f I n fo rm atio n A ct , a d ev elo pm en t w e d is c u ss l a te r. A ll Austr a lia n g overn m en ts h av e l e g is la tiv e m ech an is m s t o f a cilita te f re ed om o f i n fo rm atio n f o r th eir c itiz en s. I n A ustr a lia , t h e Fre ed om o f I n fo rm atio n A ct w as p asse d a t t h e f e d era l l e v el i n 1982, a p ply in g t o a ll m in is te rs , d ep artm en ts a n d p ublic a u th oritie s o f t h e C om monw ealth . There i s s im ila r l e g is la tio n i n a ll s ta te s a n d t e rrito rie s: • A ustr a lia n C ap ita l T errito ry : Fre ed om o f I n fo rm atio n A ct 1 989 138 • N ew S outh W ale s: Fre ed om o f I n fo rm atio n A ct 1 989 • N orth ern T errito ry : In fo rm atio n A ct 2 003 • Q ueen sla n d: Fre ed om o f I n fo rm atio n A ct 1 992 • S outh A ustr a lia : Fre ed om o f I n fo rm atio n A ct 1 991 • T asm an ia : Fre ed om o f I n fo rm atio n A ct 1 991 • V ic to ria : Fre ed om o f I n fo rm atio n A ct 1 982 • W este rn A ustr a lia : Fre ed om o f I n fo rm atio n A ct 1 992 In 2 009, t h e R udd L ab or g overn m en t a n nounced a n o verv ie w o f t h e 1 982 Fre ed om o f In fo rm atio n A ct t o o verc o m e w hat m an y b elie v ed t o b e s ig nif ic an t p ro ble m s i n i ts opera tio nalis a tio n, p artic u la rly i n t e rm s o f t h e o rg an is a tio nal c u ltu re i n m an y g overn m en t dep artm en ts t h at u nderm in ed t h e A ct’ s d em ocra tic i n te n t. S pecif ic ally , i t w as s u ggeste d t h at govern m en t d ep artm en ts b ecam e i n cre asin gly l e ss w illin g t o e n gag e w ith t h e l e g is la tio n i n th e m an ner i n te n ded , a n d w ere i n f a ct o fte n o bstr u ctin g p eo ple ’s a ccess t o i n fo rm atio n. T he new p ro posa ls s u ggeste d b y t h e g overn m en t i n clu de t h e f o llo w in g: • e n su rin g t h e r ig ht o f a ccess t o d ocu m en ts i s a s c o m pre h en siv e a s i t c an b e, l im ite d o nly w here a str o nger p ublic i n te re st l ie s i n w ith hold in g a ccess • g iv in g g re ate r w eig ht t o t h e r o le o f t h e Fre ed om o f I n fo rm atio n A ct i n t h e p ro activ e p ublic atio n o f govern m en t i n fo rm atio n • i n tr o ducin g s tr u ctu ra l r e fo rm s d esig ned t o m ak e t h e s y ste m m ore c o hesiv e, a ccessib le a n d tr a n sp are n t • e sta b lis h in g a n O ffic e o f t h e I n fo rm atio n C om mis sio ner. While i t i s g ood t o k now t h at g overn m en ts a re t r y in g t o s tr e n gth en o ur r ig ht t o a ccess in fo rm atio n, i s su es r e m ain a b out t h e i m plic atio ns o f f re ed om o f i n fo rm atio n f o r h um an se rv ic e w ork , p artic u la rly t h at u nderta k en i n c o m munity -b ase d n on-p ro fit o rg an is a tio ns. A s with t h e o th er t w o i s su es d is c u sse d i n t h is c h ap te r, t h ere a re c le ar e th ic al i s su es a ro und w hy work ers s h ould t h in k a b out t h e r ig ht t o i n fo rm atio n, p artic u la rly t h e r ig hts o f h um an s e rv ic e org an is a tio ns’ s e rv ic e u se rs t o i n fo rm atio n h eld a b out t h em . I t i s e asy , f o r e x am ple , f o r u s t o unders ta n d t h at o rg an is a tio ns s u ch a s C en tr e lin k a n d t h e A ustr a lia n T ax O ffic e h av e s e n sitiv e in fo rm atio n a b out i n div id uals i n t h eir r e co rd s. S o t o o d o s ta te g overn m en t a u th oritie s s u ch a s ch ild p ro te ctio n s e rv ic es, c o rre ctio ns a n d m en ta l h ealth s e rv ic es. While i t i s c le ar t h at s ta te o rg an is a tio ns m ust c o m ply w ith f re ed om o f i n fo rm atio n le g is la tio n, w hat i s t h e c ase f o r t h e c o m munity -b ase d n on-p ro fit s e cto r? U nder t h e p re v io us Act, t h e s e cto r w as e x em pt. T he r e fo rm s m oote d i n t h e n ew A ct s u ggest t h at t h e s e cto r— as govern m en t c o ntr a cto rs — mig ht h av e t o c o m ply . N ot s u rp ris in gly , t h is m ak es s o m e p eo ple quite u nhap py, a s t h ere a re c o ncern s t h at c o m plia n ce w ill b e t o o i n tr u siv e a n d t h e ad m in is tr a tiv e s y ste m s t o m an ag e f re ed om o f i n fo rm atio n w ill b e e x pen siv e. T he P ublic In te re st A dvocacy C en tr e , f o r e x am ple , h as s u ggeste d t o t h e f e d era l g overn m en t t h at co ntr a cte d c h arita b le a n d n on-p ro fit o rg an is a tio ns s h ould b e e x em pt f ro m t h e A ct b ecau se th ey c arry o ut o th er s e rv ic es i n a d ditio n t o t h ose c o ntr a cte d b y g overn m en t. In r e ality , m ost h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns, p ublic a n d n onpro fit, r e co rd a n d s to re se n sitiv e i n fo rm atio n. F urth erm ore , m ost o f u s w ould c o nsid er i t e th ic ally a p pro pria te f o r peo ple t o h av e a ccess t o i n fo rm atio n t h at w e r e co rd a b out t h em . I n a d ditio n t o i n fo rm atio n, hum an s e rv ic e w ork ers o fte n w rite c ase n ote s a b out p eo ple , w hic h i n clu de o bse rv atio ns a b out a p ers o n’s p re se n tin g a p peara n ce a n d b eh av io ur. T his l a tte r i n fo rm atio n i s e sse n tia lly a work er’s o pin io n. I t m ig ht w ell b e i n fo rm ed o pin io n, b ut i t i s s till o pin io n. A s d is c u sse d i n th e c h ap te r o n w ritin g a n d r e co rd in g, t h e g en era l r u le w hen r e co rd in g i n fo rm atio n a b out peo ple i s t o a v oid i n te m pera te l a n guag e. C onsid er t h e f o llo w in g t w o c ase s tu die s a n d ex erc is e s. 139 Case s tu dy: F reed om o f i n fo rm atio n 1 Kris ty i s a s o cia l w ork er w ith a c h urc h -b ase d n on-p ro fit o rg an is a tio n t h at p ro vid es o utr e ach se rv ic es t o y oung h om ele ss p eo ple . T he s e rv ic e u se rs o fte n b eh av e i n q uite s c ary a n d w ild w ay s, fo r a w hole r a n ge o f r e aso ns i n clu din g s u bsta n ce a b use , c o gnitiv e i m pair m en t a n d a n ger. A fte r a n in cid en t i n w hic h a n a lc o hol- a ffe cte d y oung m an t h re ate n ed t o b ash u p a c o lle ag ue, K ris ty w as oblig ed t o w rite a n i n cid en t r e p ort. EX ER CIS E Write t h e i n cid en t u p. A fte r y ou h av e f in is h ed , h an d i t t o a n oth er c la ss m em ber a n d a sk t h em t o asse ss h ow m uch o pin io n a n d h ow m uch f a ct i s i n t h e r e p ort. A sk t h e q uestio n o f h ow w ould t h e young m an r e act i f h e r e ad t h e r e p ort. Case s tu dy: F reed om o f i n fo rm atio n 2 Moham ed w ork s a s f a m ily s u pport w ork er f o r i n a p ro gra m i n a c o m munity s e cto r a g en cy t h at i s tr y in g t o g et y oung f a th ers e n gag ed w ith t h eir b ab ie s a n d t h e c h ild re n ’s m oth ers . E ddie i s a y oung In dig en ous m an w ho h as a 1 -y ear-o ld s o n l iv in g w ith h is g ir lf rie n d. E ddie h as m an y p ers o nal is su es, i n clu din g t h e v ery r e al p ossib ility t h at h e h as f o eta l a lc o hol s y ndro m e w ith a ll t h e a tte n dan t co gnitiv e d if fic u ltie s. M oham ed k now s t h is b ecau se h e t o ok E ddie f o r a f u ll a sse ssm en t w ith a co gnitiv e p sy ch olo gis t. M oham ed i s v ery u nsu re a b out w hat h e s h ould r e co rd i n t h e f ile , a n d h ow an y i n fo rm atio n s h ould b e r e co rd ed . EX ER CIS E How s h ould M oham ed r e co rd t h is i n fo rm atio n? W ill h is r e co rd b e b ase d o n o pin io n o r f a ct? I s t h e re p ort o f t h e c o gnitiv e p sy ch olo gis t o pin io n o r f a ct? Chap te r r ev ie w q uestio n s 10.1 W hat a re t h e t h re e e le m en ts o f n atu ra l j u stic e? 10.2 W hat a re t h e t h re e t y pes o f b ia s t h at c an w ork a g ain st n atu ra l j u stic e? 10.3 W hy i s p riv acy i m porta n t, m ora lly a n d p ro fe ssio nally ? 10.4 W hat a re t h e f o ur s te p s r e co m men ded b y t h e O ffic e o f t h e P riv acy C om mis sio ner f o r man ag in g a b re ach ? 10.5 W hy i s f re ed om o f i n fo rm atio n i m porta n t i n a d em ocra cy ? 10.6 W hy i s f re ed om o f i n fo rm atio n i m porta n t i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns? OTH ER R ESO URCES Vic to ria n G overn m en t S olic ito r’s O ffic e, Pro ced ura l F air n ess: T he H ea rin g R ule , < www.v gso .v ic .g ov.a u /r e so urc es/p ublic atio ns/a d v/p ro ced ura lf a ir n ess- th eh earin gru le .a sp x >. Austr a lia n G overn m en t S olic ito r, Natu ra l J u stic e a nd t h e ‘ H ea rin g R ule ’: F undam en ta l Prin cip le s a nd R ecen t D evelo pm en ts , < www.a g s.g ov.a u /p ublic atio ns/a g sp ubs/le g alp ubs/le g alb rie fin gs/b r7 8.h tm >. 140 Austr a lia n G overn m en t, O ffic e o f t h e P riv acy C om mis sio ner, Guid e t o H andlin g P erso nal In fo rm atio n S ecu rity B re a ch es , < www.p riv acy .g ov.a u /p ublic atio ns/b re ach _guid e.p df >. Natio nal W elf a re R ig hts N etw ork , Fre ed om o f I n fo rm atio n: H ow t o R eq uest a C opy o f Y our File f r o m C en tr e lin k , < www.w elf a re rig hts .o rg .a u /p ag es/f a cts h eets .a sp x >. KEY R EA DIN G S Adm in is tr a tiv e R ev ie w C ouncil 2 007, Decis io n M akin g: N atu ra l J u stic e , B est P ra ctic e G uid e 2, A dm in is tr a tiv e R ev ie w C ouncil B est P ra ctic e G uid es, C om monw ealth G overn m en t o f Austr a lia , C an berra . —— Decis io n M akin g: E vid en ce, F acts a nd F in din gs, B est P ra ctic e G uid e 3 , A dm in is tr a tiv e Rev ie w C ouncil B est P ra ctic e G uid es, C om monw ealth G overn m en t o f A ustr a lia , Can berra . Walla ce, J . a n d P ag one, T . 1 990, i n Rig hts a nd F re ed om s i n A ustr a lia , F ed era tio n P re ss, Sydney . 141 C H APT ER E LEV EN Prep arin g f o r a n d d ea lin g w it h c o m pla in ts S U M MARY T his c h ap te r d is c u sse s w hy i t i s i m porta n t t h at h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers p ay s e rio us a tte n tio n t o s e rv ic e u se rs ’ c o m pla in ts . W e p ro vid e a d vic e a b out d ev elo pin g a n d i m ple m en tin g a c o m pla in ts m ech an is m . T his a d vic e c an a ls o b e u se d t o e v alu ate a n e x is tin g c o m pla in ts m ech an is m i n a h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio n. F ollo w in g t h is , w e d is c u ss h ow w ork ers t h em se lv es s h ould r e sp ond t o c o m pla in ts , p artic u la rly c o m pla in ts a b out t h eir c o lle ag ues, t h e o rg an is a tio n o r a n oth er o rg an is a tio n. F in ally , t h e c h ap te r d is c u sse s w his tle b lo w in g a s o ne m ajo r t a ctic h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers m ig ht u se i f t h ey a re s e rio usly d is tu rb ed b y p ra ctic es t h ey w itn ess. W HY C O M PL A IN TS M EC H ANIS M S A RE N EC ESSA RY M an y h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns, p artic u la rly t h ose i n t h e n onpro fit c o m munity s e cto r, a re a fflic te d b y w hat a n i n flu en tia l s c h ola r o f t h e n on-p ro fit s e cto r, L este r S ala m on ( 1 995), h as c alle d t h e ‘ m yth o f p ure v ir tu e’. I n c o in in g t h is t e rm , h e w as t r y in g t o p ers u ad e t h e n on-p ro fit s e cto r i n p artic u la r t o f a ce u p t o t h e f a ct t h at, i n m an y w ay s, i t d oes n ot n ecessa rily f u nctio n i n t h e m an ner i ts o rg an is a tio ns t e n d t o a ssu m e. I n o th er w ord s, n on-p ro fit c o m munity -b ase d o rg an is a tio ns a re n ot a u to m atic ally m ore p artic ip ato ry , m ore r e sp onsiv e o r m ore f le x ib le t h an s ta te b ure au cra cie s. T his i s e sp ecia lly t h e c ase i n r e la tio n t o t h eir r e la tio nsh ip s w ith s e rv ic e u se rs . A ustr a lia n a u th or M ic h ael W earin g ( 1 998), f o r e x am ple , u nderto ok a m ajo r s tu dy o f t h e f u nctio nin g o f n on-p ro fit h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns, i llu str a tin g t h e p re se n ce o f m an y p ro cesse s w ith s e rv ic e u se rs t h at w ere l e ss t h an d esir a b le . G en era lly , w ork ers i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns t e n d t o a ssu m e t h at t h e v alu e b ase o f p ro fe ssio ns s u ch a s s o cia l w ork i n flu en ces a n d s h ap es h ow s e rv ic e u se rs a n d s e rv ic e p ro vid ers i n te ra ct. T hese a ssu m ptio ns l e ad w ork ers a n d o rg an is a tio ns t o a ls o s u ppose t h at s e rv ic e u se rs a re h ap py w ith t h e s e rv ic e, t h at t h e o rg an is a tio n i s r e sp ectf u l a n d r e sp onsiv e a n d t h at s e rv ic e u se rs a re n ot h arm ed t h ro ugh t h eir e n gag em en t. Unfo rtu nate ly , s u ch a ssu m ptio ns a re i ll- a d vis e d . T his i n t u rn c an m ean t h at f o rm al a cco unta b ility t o s e rv ic e u se rs i s n ot p artic u la rly w ell d ev elo ped i n m an y h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns, p artic u la rly n on-p ro fit o r n on-p ro fit c o m munity -b ase d o rg an is a tio ns. I n 1 995, 142 McD onald a n d C ra n e u nderto ok a q ualita tiv e s tu dy o f c o nsu m er r ig hts i n a s a m ple o f Austr a lia n n on-p ro fit c o m munity -b ase d h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns. T hey f o und t h at, co ntr a ry t o h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers ’ b elie fs , t h e i m ple m en ta tio n o f c o nsu m er r ig hts pro ced ure s s u ch a s c o m pla in ts m ech an is m s w ere r u dim en ta ry a t b est. T hese r e su lts a re su pporte d b y t w o o th er m ore r e cen t A ustr a lia n n on-p ro fit r e se arc h ers . J o B au ld ers to ne ( 2 007) pre se n ts g ood e v id en ce t h at n onpro fit a cco unta b ility t o s e rv ic e u se rs i s m ore r h eto ric t h an re ality . C om parin g n on-p ro fit h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns w ith g overn m en t a n d b usin esse s, Ric h ard M ulg an ( 2 001) s h ow s t h at c o m munity s e cto r a g en cie s a re l e ss a cco unta b le t h an org an is a tio ns i n t h e o th er s e cto rs a cro ss a n um ber o f d im en sio ns. F or o ur p urp ose s h ere , h e fo und t h em l e ss a cco unta b le t h an t h e o th ers i n t h eir t r e atm en t o f s e rv ic e u se rs . N ev erth ele ss, all t h re e a ck now le d ge t h at f u ndin g o rg an is a tio ns— partic u la rly g overn m en t d ep artm en ts — are re q uir in g f u nded o rg an is a tio ns t o d ev elo p a n d i m ple m en t u se r c o m pla in ts m ech an is m s. Even t h ough m ost o f u s w ould c o nsid er i t a s ta n dard o f g ood a n d e th ic al o rg an is a tio nal pra ctic e t o h av e a s o und a n d e ffe ctiv e c o m pla in ts m ech an is m i n p la ce, H ase n fe ld ( 2 000) pro vid es u s w ith a s o lid in te lle ctu al r e aso n a s w ell. H um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns, h e a rg ues, are m ora l s e ttin gs; e v ery th in g a b out t h em — th eir s tr u ctu re , t h eir p olic ie s a n d t h eir d aily pra ctic es— are m ora l p ra ctic es. B y t h is h e m ean s t h at o rg an is a tio nal s tr u ctu re s a n d p ra ctic es artic u la te a n d r e affir m t h e m ora l s ta tu s o f s e rv ic e u se rs , p ositio nin g t h em w ith in a p artic u la r hie ra rc h ic al s tr a tif ic atio n t h at d ete rm in es t h eir r ig hts . I f a n o rg an is a tio n h as a p oorly fu nctio nin g ( o r n o) c o m pla in ts m ech an is m , t h en s e rv ic e u se rs a re c le arly p ositio ned a s p eo ple with n o r ig hts . T his s itu atio n i s , a cco rd in g t o t h e s e rv ic e u se rs ’ m ovem en t, m ore w id esp re ad th an w e w ould l ik e t o b elie v e ( B arn es a n d W is to w , 1 994). R ead , f o r e x am ple , t h e S erv ic e use rs ’ r ig hts c ase s tu dy. Socia l w ork ers i n p artic u la r a re u neasy w ith f o rm al c alls f o r i n cre ase d a cco unta b ility t o se rv ic e u se rs , a n d t h is u nease a ris e s b ecau se o f t h e s h if t i n t h e p ow er b ala n ce b etw een u se rs an d p ro fe ssio nals i n volv ed i n p ro per a cco unta b ility . N ev erth ele ss, i m pro vin g o rg an is a tio nal acco unta b ility t o s e rv ic e u se rs i s n ot o nly t h e e th ic ally c o rre ct t h in g t o d o; i t i s i n cre asin gly an i n str u m en ta l r e q uir e m en t o f f u ndin g. S o, f o r b oth e th ic al a n d i n str u m en ta l r e aso ns, w e now t u rn t o a d is c u ssio n a b out h ow t o d ev elo p a g ood c o m pla in ts s y ste m . DEV ELO PIN G A ND I M PL EM EN TIN G C O M PL A IN TS S Y ST EM S Austr a lia h as f o rm al s y ste m s f o r m an ag in g c o m pla in ts a t t h e f e d era l a n d s ta te g overn m en t le v els . T he s ta te s y ste m s c o nsis t o f s u ch b odie s a s t h e v ario us O m budsm en , t h e a n ti- dis c rim in atio n a g en cie s, t h e c o urts a n d t r ib unals , a s w ell a s i n stitu tio nal p ro cesse s s u ch a s fre ed om o f i n fo rm atio n. T hese a re u su ally a u gm en te d w ith d ep artm en t- s p ecif ic c o m pla in ts pro ced ure s a n d i n te rn al r e v ie w s. I t i s f o rtu nate t h at g overn m en t h as d ev elo ped t h ese s y ste m s, becau se t h ey p ro vid e t h e c o m munity s e cto r w ith v ery u se fu l i d eas a b out h ow t o g o a b out dev elo pin g a g ood s y ste m t h em se lv es. I n cre asin gly , g overn m en ts a n d b usin esse s a re a d optin g in te rn atio nal b est- p ra ctic e s ta n dard s f o r d ev elo pin g c o m pla in ts m ech an is m s. T hese s ta n dard s are d ev elo ped b y t h e I n te rn atio nal S ta n dard is a tio n O rg an is a tio n ( IS O ). W ith in w hat i s k now n as t h e I S 0 9 000 s e rie s, t h ere i s I S O 1 0002.2 004. T he A ustr a lia n S ta n dard s A sso cia tio n, t h e body c h arg ed w ith d ev elo pin g a ll o f A ustr a lia ’s f o rm al s ta n dard s a n d b en ch m ark s, o ffic ia lly ad opte d i t i n 2 006. Case s tu dy: S erv ic e u se rs’ r ig h ts Marik a i s a 3 0-s o m eth in g r e fu gee f ro m E aste rn E uro pe. S in ce a rriv in g i n t h e c o untr y , s h e h as su ccessfu lly s tu die d f o r a M aste r’s d eg re e. S he i s n ev erth ele ss h av in g e x tr e m e d if fic u lty i n g ettin g a j o b a n d h as t o a tte n d a n e m plo ym en t s e rv ic es o rg an is a tio n t o r e ceiv e h er s o cia l s e cu rity 143 pay m en t. A fte r a tte n din g o ne f o r s o m e t im e s h e g ot f e d u p w ith t h e f a ct t h at t h e o rg an is a tio n d id not s e em t o w an t t o r e ally h elp h er t o g et a j o b m atc h in g h er c ap acitie s a n d h er e d ucatio n. I n ste ad , her c ase m an ag er k ep t s e n din g h er t o i n te rv ie w s f o r m en ia l j o bs. S he t r ie d t o s w itc h t o a n oth er org an is a tio n i n t h e s a m e f ie ld , b ut w as n ot a llo w ed . S he t h en d ecid ed s h e n eed ed a n oth er c ase man ag er w ho w as m ore l ik ely t o b e l e ss ‘ ru le b ound’ a n d m ore l ik ely t o h elp h er. S he t r ie d t o co m pla in t o t h e o rg an is a tio n b ut w as t o ld s h e h ad t o c o m pla in t o t h e f u ndin g d ep artm en t. W hen sh e i n vestig ate d t h is o ptio n, i t s e em ed a n o verw helm in g t a sk . S he s u bse q uen tly a ccep te d a j o b a s a cle an er. Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s • W hat i s M arik a’s m ora l s ta tu s o r i d en tity c o nstr u cte d i n t h is o rg an is a tio n’s p ra ctic es? • D o y ou k now o f a n y o th er h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns o r o rg an is a tio nal p ra ctic es t h at neg ativ ely c o nstitu te s e rv ic e u se rs ? • D o y ou t h in k S ala m on’s n otio n o f t h e m yth o f p ure v ir tu e o pera te s i n A ustr a lia n n on-p ro fit co m munity -b ase d a g en cie s? The I S O 1 0002.2 004 p ro vid es g uid ance o n t h e p ro cess o f c o m pla in ts h andlin g r e la te d t o p ro ducts with in a n o rg anis a tio n, i n clu din g p la nnin g, d esig n, o pera tio n, m ain te n ance a nd i m pro vem en t. T he co m pla in ts -h andlin g p ro cess d esc rib ed i s s u ita ble f o r u se a s o ne o f t h e p ro cesse s o f a n o vera ll quality m anagem en t s y ste m . It i s a ls o i n te n ded f o r u se b y o rg anis a tio ns o f a ll s iz e s a nd i n a ll s e cto rs. IS O 1 0002:2 004 a ddre sse s t h e f o llo w in g a sp ects o f c o m pla in ts h andlin g: – e n hancin g c u sto m er s a tis fa ctio n b y c re a tin g a c u sto m er-fo cu se d e n vir o nm en t t h at i s o pen t o fe ed back ( in clu din g c o m pla in ts ), r e so lv in g a ny c o m pla in ts r e ceiv ed , a nd e n hancin g t h e org anis a tio n’s a bility t o i m pro ve i ts p ro duct a nd c u sto m er s e rv ic e; – t o p m anagem en t i n vo lv em en t a nd c o m mitm en t t h ro ugh a deq uate a cq uis itio n a nd d ep lo ym en t o f re so urc es, i n clu din g p erso nnel t r a in in g; – r e co gniz in g a nd a ddre ssin g t h e n eed s a nd e xp ecta tio ns o f c o m pla in ants ; – p ro vid in g c o m pla in ants w ith a n o pen , e ffe ctiv e a nd e a sy -to -u se c o m pla in ts p ro cess; – a naly sin g a nd e va lu atin g c o m pla in ts i n o rd er t o i m pro ve t h e p ro duct a nd c u sto m er s e rv ic e quality ; – a uditin g o f t h e c o m pla in ts -h andlin g p ro cess; – r e vie w in g t h e e ffe ctiv en ess a nd e ffic ie n cy o f t h e c o m pla in ts -h andlin g p ro cess. Sourc e: < www.i s o .o rg /is o /c ata lo gue_ deta il? csn um ber= 35539 > Dra w in g o n t h ese s ta n dard s, O m budsm an V ic to ria ( 2 007) h as, a m ong o th er t h in gs, o utlin ed th e f e atu re s o f a g ood c o m pla in t m ech an is m . T hese a re : • Com mitm en t . I t s h ould b e v ery c le ar t h at t h e o rg an is a tio n t a k es s e rio usly a n y c o m pla in ts i t r e ceiv es. This c an o nly c o m e a b out i f ( a ) t h e o rg an is a tio n d ev elo ps a c u ltu re t h at a ctiv ely w elc o m es co m pla in ts , a n d ( b ) s u ffic ie n t r e so urc es a re d ev ote d t o m an ag in g c o m pla in ts . • Fair n ess . T he r u le s o f n atu ra l j u stic e s h ould b e a p plie d t o a ll p artie s t o a c o m pla in t— th e co m pla in an t, a n d t h e p ers o n f ro m t h e a g en cy a b out w hom a c o m pla in t i s m ad e. • Tra nsp are n cy a nd a ccess . E very e m plo yee a n d v olu nte er i n t h e o rg an is a tio n a n d e v ery s e rv ic e u se r sh ould b e f a m ilia r w ith t h e p ro cess. I t m ust b e e asily u nders to od a n d w ritte n i n p la in l a n guag e— an d, w here a p pro pria te , i n o th er c o m munity l a n guag es. • Resp onsiv en ess. C om pla in ts s h ould b e q uic k ly , c o urte o usly a n d f a ir ly d ealt w ith w ith in p ublic is e d esta b lis h ed g uid elin es. • Priv a cy a nd c o nfid en tia lity . A ll c o m pla in ts s h ould b e c o nducte d i n s u ch a m an ner t h at i d en titie s a re se cu re , a ll l e g al r e q uir e m en ts t o p riv acy a re m ain ta in ed a n d c o nfid en tia lity i s p ro te cte d . • Acco unta bility . A c o m pla in ts m an ag em en t s y ste m a n d i ts o pera tio ns s h ould b e m ad e a cco unta b le t o th e r e le v an t p eo ple — fo r e x am ple , s e rv ic e u se rs a n d b oard s o f m an ag em en t. • Serv ic e i m pro vem en t . A c o m pla in ts -m an ag em en t s y ste m s h ould p ro vid e u se fu l d ata f o r i m pro vin g 144 th e f u nctio nin g o f t h e o rg an is a tio n. T here s h ould b e m ech an is m s b uilt i n to t h e o rg an is a tio n’s man ag em en t t o e n su re t h at t h is i n fo rm atio n i s t a k en u p i n a p pro pria te w ay s. • In te rn al r e vie w . A c o m pla in ts -h an dlin g s y ste m s h ould a llo w a c o m pla in an t t o e x pre ss g rie v an ces ab out h ow h is o r h er c o m pla in t w as m an ag ed . That s a m e d ocu m en t f ro m O m budsm an V ic to ria ( 2 007) o utlin es t h e s te p s t o b uild in g g ood co m pla in ts s y ste m s. F ir s t, t h e d ocu m en t s u ggests t h at o rg an is a tio ns r e v ie w a n d e v alu ate t h e ex is tin g p olic y , r e so urc es, p ro ced ure s a n d p ra ctic es. M an y o rg an is a tio ns w ill a lr e ad y h av e a sy ste m i n p la ce b ut m ay , a fte r r e v ie w , d ecid e t h at i t i s i n ad eq uate . I t i s a ls o a v ery g ood i d ea to h av e t h is d one e x te rn ally — to a sk a critic a l f r ie n d ( s o m eo ne w ho h as y our o rg an is a tio n’s best i n te re sts a t h eart b ut w ho i s n ot a fra id t o p oin t o ut w eak nesse s) t o d o t h is . I n m an y in sta n ces, n on-p ro fit b oard s o f m an ag em en t m ay i n clu de a r e g ula r e v alu atio n o f t h e org an is a tio n’s c o m pla in ts -m an ag em en t s y ste m a s p art o f t h eir o vera ll r is k -m an ag em en t str a te g y. A fte r r e v ie w in g t h e e x is tin g s y ste m , a n o rg an is a tio n i s t h en a d vis e d t o i d en tif y a re as fo r i m pro vem en t a n d d ev elo p a n a ctio n p la n f o r d oin g t h is . The f ir s t s te p i s t o d ev elo p a p olic y t h at s e ts o ut t h e o rie n ta tio n o f t h e d esir a b le c o m pla in ts sy ste m . S uch a p olic y s h ould : • b e c le arly l a b elle d • c o nta in a p olic y c o m mitm en t s ta te m en t • o utlin e t h e d efin itio n o f t e rm s u se d i n t h e p olic y • p ro vid e a m odel f o r c o m pla in ts • o utlin e r o le s a n d f u nctio ns • d eta il c o m pla in t c ate g orie s • o utlin e h ow c o m pla in ts t r e n ds w ill b e r e p orte d • o utlin e t h e c o m munic atio n m ode • o utlin e s a fe g uard s a g ain st r e tr ib utio n • l is t r e m ed ie s • l in k t o t h e o rg an is a tio n’s s tr a te g ic g oals a n d r is k -m an ag em en t s tr a te g y • n om in ate r e so urc es a v aila b le • i n dic ate t h e i m ple m en ta tio n d ate • o utlin e t h e e v alu atio n o r a u dit p ro cess a n d t h e p olic y r e v ie w d ate . EX ER CIS E Write a b rie f o utlin e o f a c o m pla in ts m an ag em en t p olic y f o r: • a w om en ’s r e fu ge • a c o m munity l e g al c en tr e • a n eed le e x ch an ge s e rv ic e. What, i f a n y, a re t h e d if fe re n ces b etw een t h em ? Afte r t h e p olic y i s w ritte n , t h e o rg an is a tio n n eed s t o s ta rt t h in kin g a b out w ho i s g oin g t o ru n t h e c o m pla in ts s y ste m . C le arly , w hoev er d oes i t n eed s t o b e w ell t r a in ed w ith a g ood know le d ge o f t h e s e rv ic es o ffe re d , h av e g ood i n te r-p ers o nal s k ills , b e n on-ju dgem en ta l, b e se n sitiv e t o c u ltu ra l a n d l in guis tic d if fe re n ces, b e a d eq uate ly r e so urc ed t o d o t h e j o b a n d h av e ap pro pria te d ele g ate d a u th ority t o m ak e r e q uir e d d ecis io ns. Any r o bust c o m pla in ts s y ste m n eed s t o b e r e so urc ed w ith a p pro pria te i n fo rm atio n a n d co m munic atio n t e ch nolo gy s k ills , a n d t h e c o m pla in ts s ta ff n eed p erm is sio n t o a ccess a ll le v els o f t h e o rg an is a tio n. A ll c o m pla in ts s y ste m s n eed a s im ple y et t h oro ugh r e co rd in g sy ste m t h at s h ould r e co rd t h e c o m pla in an ts ’ d eta ils , t h e n atu re o f t h e c o m pla in t, t h e d esir e d 145 re m ed y, t h e m ode o f c o m pla in t ( te le p hone, e m ail o r l e tte r), t h e r e sp onsib le s ta ff m em ber, pro ced ure s i d en tif ie d , a ctio n t a k en , r e sp onse t im e a n d o utc o m e, a n d r e co m men datio ns f o r im pro vem en ts t o t h e o rg an is a tio n’s p ro cesse s. T he v ery l a st s te p i s t o m ak e s u re a n y co m pla in t i s l o dged w ith c o m pla in ts o f a s im ila r n atu re s o t h at a n y p atte rn s o ver t im e c an b e dis c ern ed . Case s tu dy: C om pla in ts p olic y A c h ild a n d f a m ily w elf a re o rg an is a tio n i n a n A ustr a lia n s ta te w as r e q uir e d b y i ts f u ndin g b ody t o dev elo p a s e rie s o f p olic ie s, o ne o f w hic h w as a c o m pla in ts p olic y . T he b oard o f t h is o rg an is a tio n esta b lis h ed a s u b-c o m mitte e ( a P olic y a n d S ta n dard s C om mitte e), w hic h o vers a w t h e esta b lis h m en t o f a s m all s ta ff c o m mitte e t h at d ev elo ped , p la n ned a n d i m ple m en te d a r a n ge o f polic ie s, i n clu din g t h e c o m pla in ts p olic ie s. T he b oard s u b-c o m mitte e w as c h arg ed w ith t h e re sp onsib ility o f r e v ie w in g t h e p olic ie s a n d a sso cia te d p ro ced ure s o n a r e g ula r b asis . I n t h is w ay , th e i n tr o ductio n a n d r e v ie w o f t h e p olic y p ro vid ed a m ean s f o r c o ntin uously e v alu atin g t h e org an is a tio n’s p ra ctic es. RESP O NDIN G T O C O M PL A IN TS A BO UT T H E O RG ANIS A TIO N AND S T A FF Man y p eo ple w ork in g i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns d o s o b ecau se t h ey h av e c o m mitm en ts to t h e w ellb ein g o f t h e p eo ple w ho c o m e t o t h e o rg an is a tio n f o r h elp . O fte n t h ese p eo ple a re on l o w i n co m es a n d a re e x perie n cin g o th er q uite s e rio us a n d d is a b lin g i s su es t h at i m pair t h e fu nctio nin g o f t h eir f a m ilie s a n d t h eir o w n l iv es. B ecau se o f t h eir c o m mitm en t, h um an se rv ic e w ork ers o fte n a ssu m e t h at t h eir m otiv es a re s u ffic ie n t t o e n su re t h at t h eir p ra ctic es (a n d t h ose o f t h e o rg an is a tio n) a re u nila te ra lly i n t h e b est i n te re sts o f s e rv ic e u se rs . W hen hum an s e rv ic e w ork ers h ear o f c o m pla in ts a b out t h eir o w n p ra ctic e, t h ey o fte n a re q uite h urt an d r e act d efe n siv ely . W hile t h is i s u nders ta n dab le , i t i s n ot p artic u la rly h elp fu l b ecau se co m pla in ts a re o ne s u re w ay t o p oin t t o i s su es w ork ers a n d o rg an is a tio ns m ig ht l ik e t o re v ie w . S ocia l w ork ers , f o r e x am ple , a re e n jo in ed t o e n gag e i n c ritic al r e fle ctio n a b out t h eir pra ctic e. A s s u ch , t h ey s h ould a ctiv ely s e ek o ut p ers p ectiv es o n t h eir e n gag em en t w ith th em se lv es a n d w ith t h e o rg an is a tio n. T hey s h ould a ls o m odel t h is o rie n ta tio n f o r o th er s ta ff. The f ir s t t h in g f ro nt- lin e s ta ff n eed t o u nders ta n d i s w hy p eo ple m ak e c o m pla in ts . U su ally , it i s b ecau se t h ey a re n ot h ap py w ith a d ecis io n m ad e a b out t h em , o r t h ey d o n ot b elie v e t h ey hav e b een g iv en s u ffic ie n t o r a p pro pria te s e rv ic e. S om etim es t h ey a re n ot h ap py w ith t h e w ay sta ff h av e i n te ra cte d w ith t h em . I n n on-p ro fit c o m munity -b ase d o rg an is a tio ns, t h e q uan tity o f se rv ic e g iv en t o p eo ple m ay b e l im ite d b ecau se o f r e so urc e c o nstr a in ts . M ost n onpro fit co m munity -b ase d o rg an is a tio ns a re f u nded t h ro ugh c o ntr a cts w ith g overn m en ts , w hic h o fte n sp ecif y w hat t h e o rg an is a tio n s h ould d o a n d f o r h ow l o ng t h e s e rv ic e s h ould b e p ro vid ed . Furth erm ore , n ot m an y o rg an is a tio ns h av e s u ffic ie n t i n dep en den t r e v en ue t o o ffe r s e rv ic es over a n d a b ove w hat t h ey a re c o ntr a cte d t o d o. T his d ile m ma c an e asily l e ad t o c o m pla in ts b y se rv ic e u se rs . Ofte n s e rv ic e u se rs w on’t c o m pla in a t a ll, e v en t h ough t h ey m ay b e u nhap py. A s s u ggeste d ab ove, m ost p eo ple w ho e n gag e w ith h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns f a ce s ig nif ic an t d if fic u ltie s in t h eir l iv es. I n s u ch c o nte x ts , p eo ple h av e l ittle a lte rn ativ e— or, i n t h e l a n guag e o f man ag em en t, f e el c o nstr a in ed i n t h eir e x erc is e o f v oic e ( c o m pla in in g) a n d e x it ( m ovin g t o an oth er o rg an is a tio n). U sin g h um an s e rv ic es i s n ot l ik e g oin g t o a r e sta u ra n t. I f a p ers o n i s unhap py w ith t h e f o od o r t h e s e rv ic e a t a r e sta u ra n t, t h ey w ill p ro bab ly l e av e n o t ip , m ay w ell co m pla in , a n d w ill c erta in ly n ot r e tu rn t o t h at r e sta u ra n t. H um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns a re n ot 146 lik e t h at, a n d t h e a ct o f s e rv ic e u se a n d t h e i d en tity o f t h e s e rv ic e u se r i s q uite d if fe re n t f ro m th at o f w hat i s k now n a s t h e ‘ s o vere ig n c o nsu m er’. T hat i d en tity i s o ne t h at a p plie s t o a ll o f us w hen w e e n gag e i n c o nsu m ptio n f o r m ost g oods a n d s e rv ic es— fo r e x am ple , i n t h e r e ta il se cto r. To u nders ta n d t h e d if fe re n ce, t h in k a b out o rg an is a tio ns t h at p ro vid e e m erg en cy r e lie f ( c ash pay m en ts m ad e b y f u nded h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns t o p eo ple s u ffe rin g f ro m e x tr e m e fin an cia l s tr e ss). I n t h ese i n sta n ces, t h e d esp era tio n o f s e rv ic e u se rs i s s o g re at t h at t h ey w ill be u nlik ely t o c o m pla in a b out h ow a w ork er t r e ats t h em . I n deed , i n m an y i n sta n ces i n t h e past, e m erg en cy r e lie f r e cip ie n ts h ad t o a g re e t h at t h e m oney w ould n ot b e s p en t o n c erta in ite m s ( s u ch a s c ig are tte s o r c ak es) o r w ere g iv en e m erg en cy r e lie f v ouch ers t o p re se n t a t t h e su perm ark et c h eck out. T hese v ouch ers c le arly m ark ed t h em o ut i n p ublic c o nte x ts a s p oor an d a s h um an s e rv ic e u se rs , a n e x perie n ce m an y f o und u nnecessa rily h um ilia tin g. V ic to ria n re se arc h ers F re d eric k a n d G oddard ( 2 008) r e cen tly d esc rib ed t h e e x perie n ces o f p eo ple re ceiv in g e m erg en cy r e lie f. W hile a ck now le d gin g t h at p eo ple o fte n h av e g ood e x perie n ces, th is i s c le arly n ot a lw ay s t h e c ase . R ead , f o r e x am ple , t h e e x perie n ce o f ‘ J im ’: Som e o f t h e w om en w ho w ork t h ere , I k n ow t h ey a re o nly j u st h elp in g o ut, b ut t h ey s tic k t h eir n ose s in . I t’ s r e a lly n one o f t h eir b usin ess. T hey s h ould n’t s tic k t h eir n ose s i n , b eca use i t’ s e m barra ssin g t o go. O ne o f t h em s a id t o m e o nce, ‘ T his i s n ’t a s u perm ark et y o u k n ow ’. Y ou’r e f e elin g b ad e n ough a s it i s , y o u d on’t n eed t h at. ( 2 008: 2 76) For m an y u se rs o f h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns, i t i s h ard e n ough t o m ere ly m ak e a n in quir y , m uch l e ss m ak e a c o m pla in t. H ow t h e o rg an is a tio n t r e ats p eo ple i n t h e f ir s t i n sta n ce is v ery i m porta n t. M ost o f t h e t im e, p eo ple a re h ap py i f t h ey a re t r e ate d c o urte o usly , re sp ectf u lly a n d p ro fe ssio nally , a n d a re l is te n ed t o a n d n ot j u dged . B ecau se o f t h is , t h e f ro nt lin e i s v ery i m porta n t i n m an ag in g s e rv ic e u se rs ’ r e sp onse t o s ta ff a n d o rg an is a tio nal pra ctic es. B ein g r e sp onsiv e a t t h is l e v el c an e ffe ctiv ely r e sp ond t o 8 p er c en t o f c o m pla in ts se rv ic e u se rs m ig ht m ak e. S o a v ery i m porta n t p ro ble m f a ces f ro nt- lin e w ork ers ( a n d a s t h e ex am ple a b ove i n dic ate s, v olu nte ers ): w hat s h ould a p ers o n d o w hen t h ey b eco m e a w are o f in ap pro pria te o r l e ss t h an p ro fe ssio nal b eh av io ur f ro m c o lle ag ues? Case s tu dy: U npro fe ssio n aI b eh avio u r Susa n i s a s o cia l w ork s tu den t o n p la cem en t i n a n i n ner c ity C en tr e lin k o ffic e. W hen n ear t h e f ro nt co unte r, S usa n o verh eard a c u sto m er s e rv ic e o ffic er b ein g r u de a n d d is m is siv e t o a n e ld erly wom an w hose E nglis h i s r a th er u ncle ar. I t w as a ls o u ncle ar w hat t h e w om an w an te d f ro m t h e org an is a tio n. T he c u sto m er s e rv ic e o ffic er r a is e d h er v oic e a n d s p oke v ery l o udly t o t h e w om an . The w om an l o oked q uite f rig hte n ed , p la in ly d id n ot k now h ow t o p ut h er c ase m ore c le arly a n d ev id en tly d id n ot u nders ta n d w hat t h e o ffic er w as s a y in g. Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s • W hat i s l ik ely t o b e S usa n ’s i m med ia te r e sp onse t o t h is ? • W hat s h ould S usa n d o i n t h is c ir c u m sta n ce? • W hat s h ould S usa n ’s s o cia l w ork s u perv is o r d o? To d ate , o ur c o m men ts h av e l a rg ely b een c o nfin ed t o i n sta n ces w here a n o rg an is a tio n’s o r a w ork er’s p ra ctic es h av e i n duced ( o r h ad t h e p ote n tia l t o i n duce) a c o m pla in t. T here a re oth er m ore s e rio us i n sta n ces t h at c an c o nfro nt w ork ers e ith er i n t h eir o w n o rg an is a tio n o r i n an oth er. H ere w e a re r e fe rrin g t o e th ic al b re ach es w here s o m eo ne b eh av es i n s u ch a w ay a s t o co ntr a v en e a n e n dors e d c o de o f e th ic s. T he c o m ple x i s su es s u rro undin g e th ic al p ra ctic es a re dis c u sse d i n c o nsid era b le d ep th i n Chap te r 1 2 . H ere , o ur d is c u ssio n i s l im ite d t o t h e s itu atio ns 147 where a c o m pla in t i s m ad e a s w ell a s s o m e s te p s i n div id ual w ork ers c an t a k e t o m in im is e t h e possib ility o f e x plo ita tiv e dual r e la tio nsh ip s . The A ustr a lia n A sso cia tio n o f S ocia l W ork ers h as a c o de o f e th ic s ( A ASW , 2 002). W hile th at c o de o f e th ic s c o vers a r a n ge o f i s su es, t h e e x cerp t b elo w c o nta in s t h e e n tr y f o r pro fe ssio nal i n te g rity . Pro fe ssio n al i n te g rit y a) S ocia l w ork ers w ill c a rry o ut p ro fe ssio nal d utie s w ith i n te g rity , r e fr a in in g f r o m a ny b eh avio r whic h c o ntr a ven es p ro fe ssio nal p rin cip le s a nd s ta ndard s o r w hic h d am ages t h e p ro fe ssio n’s in te g rity . b) S ocia l w ork ers w ill r e p re se n t t h eir p ro fe ssio nal q ualific a tio ns, c o m pete n ce, e xp erie n ce, ach ie vem en ts a nd a ffilia tio ns w ith h onesty a nd a ccu ra cy. c) S ocia l w ork ers’ p riv a te c o nduct w ill n ot c o m pro m is e t h e f u lfillm en t o f p ro fe ssio nal re sp onsib ilitie s. d) W hen m akin g p ublic s ta te m en ts o r p erfo rm in g p ublic a ctio ns s o cia l w ork ers w ill c la rify w heth er th ey a re a ctin g a s p riv a te i n div id uals , o r a s r e p re se n ta tiv es o f t h e s o cia l w ork p ro fe ssio n, a n org anis a tio n o r g ro up. W hen r e p re se n tin g t h e p ro fe ssio n o r a n o rg anis a tio n, s o cia l w ork ers w ill co rre ctly r e fle ct p olic ie s, p ro ced ure s a nd s e rv ic es a nd d is tin guis h b etw een p erso nal a nd o ffic ia l vie w s o r p ositio ns. e) S ocia l w ork ers w ill e n su re t h at p ro fe ssio nal r e la tio nsh ip s a re n ot e xp lo ite d t o g ain p erso nal, mate ria l o r f in ancia l a dva nta ge. f) S ocia l w ork ers w ill a vo id a ny f o rm o f p hysic a l c o nta ct w hic h m ay v io la te p ro fe ssio nal b oundarie s, re su lt i n u nin te n tio nal p sy ch olo gic a l h arm , o r d am age t h e p ro fe ssio nal r e la tio nsh ip . S ocia l work ers w ill r e m ain s e n sitiv e t o t h e v a rie ty o f w ays i n w hic h s e rv ic e u se rs a nd o th ers m ay in te rp re t p hysic a l c o nta ct, w ith p artic u la r r e fe re n ce t o c u ltu ra l a nd g en der d iffe re n ces. g) R eco gnis in g t h at c o nflic ts o f i n te re st c a n a ris e f r o m e n gagin g i n d ual o r m ultip le r e la tio nsh ip s with s e rv ic e u se rs, f o rm er s e rv ic e u se rs, r e se a rc h p artic ip ants , s tu den ts , s u perv is e es o r co lle a gues, s o cia l w ork ers w ill s e t a nd e n fo rc e e xp lic it, a ppro pria te p ro fe ssio nal b oundarie s t o min im is e t h e r is k o f c o nflic t, e xp lo ita tio n o r h arm . ( P ra ctitio ners a re c a lle d u pon t o d efe n d t h eir beh avio ur i n t h e e ven t o f c o m pla in t o r i n vestig atio n r e g ard in g p ro fe ssio nal m is c o nduct.) h) S ocia l w ork ers w ill n ot e n gage i n a ny f o rm o f s e xu al c o nduct w ith s e rv ic e u se rs, s tu den ts , su perv is e es, r e se a rc h p artic ip ants o r o th ers d ir e ctly i n vo lv ed i n a p ro fe ssio nal r e la tio nsh ip w hic h in vite s t r u st a nd c o nfid en ce i n t h e p ra ctitio ner’s r o le a nd/o r i n vo lv es a n u neq ual d is tr ib utio n o f pow er o r a uth ority i n t h e s o cia l w ork er’s f a vo ur. i) W here t h e p ote n tia l f o r e xp lo ita tio n o r h arm e xis ts , s o cia l w ork ers w ill n ot e n te r i n to a n i n tim ate or s e xu al r e la tio nsh ip w ith a f o rm er s e rv ic e u se r. I n c ir c u m sta nces w here a ny s u ch r e la tio nsh ip i s co nsid ere d , p ro fe ssio nal c o nsu lta tio n i s e sse n tia l. Of t h ese f a cto rs t h at e ro de p ro fe ssio nal i n te g rity a n d a b out w hic h a c o m pla in t c o uld b e mad e, o ne o f t h e m ost c o m mon i s w hat i s k now n a s d ual o r m ultip le r e la tio nsh ip s. D ual re la tio nsh ip s o ccu r w hen a w ork er e n gag es w ith s e rv ic e u se rs ( o r i n s o m e i n sta n ces, co lle ag ues) i n m ore t h an o ne r e la tio nsh ip . T hese a re c o nsid ere d u neth ic al i f t h ey h av e t h e cap acity t o b e e x plo ita tiv e. R eam er ( 2 003: 1 24) o utlin es i n Tab le 1 1.1 w hat h e c alls t h e cen tr a l t h em es i n d ual r e la tio nsh ip s. Tab le 1 1.1 : C en tr a l t h em es i n d ual r ela tio n sh ip s Typ e Exam ple In tim ate r e la tio nsh ip s Sex ual r e la tio nsh ip s Physic al c o nta ct Serv ic es t o f o rm er l o ver In tim ate g estu re s Pers o nal b en efits Moneta ry g ain 148 Goods a n d s e rv ic es Use fu l i n fo rm atio n Em otio nal a n d d ep en den cy need s Exte n din g r e la tio nsh ip s w ith s e rv ic e u se rs Pro m otin g s e rv ic e u se r d ep en den cy Confu sin g p ers o nal a n d p ro fe ssio nal l iv es Rev ers in g r o le s w ith s e rv ic e u se rs Altr u is tic g estu re s Perfo rm in g f a v ours Pro vid in g n on-p ro fe ssio nal s e rv ic es Giv in g g if ts Bein g e x tr a o rd in arily a v aila b le Unan tic ip ate d c ir c u m sta n ces Socia l a n d c o m munity e v en ts Jo in t a ffilia tio ns a n d m em bers h ip s Mutu al a cq uain ta n ces a n d f rie n ds Ream er ( 2 003: 1 30) a g ain s u ggests t h at w ork ers s h ould d ev elo p p ers o nal ‘ ris k – man ag em en t’ p ro to co ls i n r e g ard t o t h eir o w n a ctiv ity . T hese a re : • B e a le rt t o p ote n tia l o r a ctu al c o nflic ts o f i n te re st. • I n fo rm s e rv ic e u se rs , c o lle ag ues a n d s u perv is o rs a b out p ote n tia l o r a ctu al c o nflic ts o f i n te re st a n d ex plo re r e aso nab le r e m ed ie s. • C onsu lt c o lle ag ues a n d s u perv is o rs , a n d a n y r e le v an t p ro fe ssio nal l ite ra tu re , r e g ula tio ns, p olic ie s an d e th ic al s ta n dard s t o i d en tif y p ertin en t b oundary i s su es a n d c o nstr u ctiv e o ptio ns. • D esig n a p la n o f a ctio n t h at a d dre sse s t h e b oundary i s su es a n d p ro te cts t h e p artie s i n volv ed t o t h e gre ate st e x te n t p ossib le . • D ocu m en t a ll d is c u ssio ns, c o nsu lta tio n, s u perv is io n a n d o th er s te p s t a k en t o a d dre ss b oundary is su es. • D ev elo p a s tr a te g y t o m onito r i m ple m en ta tio n o f a n y a ctio n p la n . Natu ra lly , a d optin g p ro to co ls s u ch a s t h ese i s a s m uch a f u nctio n o f a n o rg an is a tio nal cu ltu re a s i t i s a p ro fe ssio nal i m pera tiv e. F or t h at r e aso n, o rg an is a tio ns t h em se lv es n eed t o ta k e t h e i s su e o f p ro m otin g e th ic al o rg an is a tio nal c o nduct v ery s e rio usly . Chap te r 1 2 o utlin es str a te g ie s f o r p ro m otin g a n e th ic al o rg an is a tio nal e n vir o nm en t o vera ll, i n clu din g t h e dev elo pm en t a n d o pera tio n o f c le arly d efin ed o rg an is a tio nal s ta n dard s r e g ard in g d ual re la tio nsh ip s a n d w ritte n , o pera tio nally d efin ed p ro ced ure s. W hile b ein g a w are o f o ne’s o w n co nduct, u nfo rtu nate ly — as i n dic ate d a b ove— th ere w ill b e o ccasio ns w hen w ork ers o bse rv e dual r e la tio nsh ip s ( o r o th er q uestio nab le i s su es) o pera tin g b etw een a f e llo w w ork er a n d a se rv ic e u se r. W hat s h ould a n i n div id ual w ork er d o w hen c o nfro nte d w ith e v id en ce o f a d ual re la tio nsh ip ? This i s a d if fic u lt i s su e b ecau se t h e t e m pta tio n i s t o d o n oth in g b ecau se o f c o ncern s a b out th e p ossib le u nple asa n tn ess a n d c o nflic t t h at m ig ht e n su e. T his i s n o s m all m atte r. N obody lik es t o h av e a c o m pla in t l o dged a b out t h em , a n d i n ev ita b ly , n o m atte r h ow e ffe ctiv e a n org an is a tio n’s c o m pla in ts -m an ag em en t s y ste m i s , e m otio ns w ill r u n h ig h a n d f e elin gs w ill b e very f ra g ile . A ssu m in g t h at t h e o rg an is a tio n h as a f o rm al p ro cess f o r h an dlin g e th ic al bre ach es, i t i s c le arly t h e r e sp onsib ility o f a w ork er t o i n dic ate h is o r h er c o ncern s t o t h e nom in ate d p ers o n. W hile i t i s n ot s tr ic tly n ecessa ry i n a n y l e g al o r e th ic al s e n se , i t i s m ora lly ap pro pria te t o t a lk t o t h e p ers o n c o ncern ed a n d t e ll t h em ( a ) o f y our c o ncern s, a n d ( b ) o f t h e ste p s y ou i n te n d t o t a k e. T his t a k es m ora l c o ura g e. I n s o m e i n sta n ces, i t m ig ht b e a p pro pria te to t a lk t h e w hole p ro cess t h ro ugh w ith a n e th ic al a d vis e r o r h um an r e so urc e m an ag em en t- ap poin te d e m plo yee a ssis ta n ce a d vis e r. I f t h e w ork er i s f ro m a n oth er o rg an is a tio n, t h en t h e 149 ap pro pria te p ro to co l w ould b e a n o rg an is a tio n-to -o rg an is a tio n d is c u ssio n b etw een t h e re sp ectiv e c h ie f e x ecu tiv e o ffic ers . I n b oth i n sta n ces, t h e w ork er m ak in g t h e c o m pla in t sh ould m ak e e v ery e ffo rt t o d ocu m en t i n f u ll t h e i n cid en t o r i n cid en ts t h at w orry t h em , a s well a s t h eir c o ncern s a b out t h e w ellb ein g o f a n y s e rv ic e u se rs . I f a n o rg an is a tio n d oes n ot hav e a n y p ro to co ls f o r o rg an is a tio n-to -o rg an is a tio n c o m pla in ts ( o r, f o r t h at m atte r, f o r man ag in g e th ic al b re ach es a n d p ro m otin g a n e th ic al c u ltu re ), t h en w ork ers s h ould a sk t h at th ese b e d ev elo ped i n a c o nsu lta tiv e a n d c o m pre h en siv e m an ner. Case s tu dy: D ual r ela tio n sh ip s Ja n et i s t h e r e cre atio n o ffic er i n a d ay care c en tr e f o r e ld erly p eo ple a n d p eo ple w ith d is a b ilitie s. This i s a n on-p ro fit a g en cy r u n b y a l o cal c o m munity -b ase d m an ag em en t c o m mitte e w hose mem bers m ain ly c o nsis t o f l o cal b usin ess p eo ple a n d t w o m in is te rs o f r e lig io n. T he c en tr e re ceiv es f u nds f ro m t h e g overn m en t, b ut l ik e a ll s u ch a g en cie s i s f o rc ed d ue t o f u ndin g l im ita tio ns to h ir e s o m e s ta ff w ith n o p ro fe ssio nal q ualif ic atio ns i n s o m e r o le s. T hese s ta ff a re s u perv is e d b y th re e p ro fe ssio nally e d ucate d s ta ff— a s o cia l w ork er ( a n d m an ag er), J a n et t h e r e cre atio n o ffic er, an d a n urs e . I t i s t h e p ra ctic e o f t h e c en tr e t o t a k e s m all g ro ups o f s e rv ic e u se rs a w ay o n w eek en d tr ip s t o t h e b each . U su ally , t h ese t r ip s a re s ta ffe d b y a d riv er, s e v era l o f t h e u ntr a in ed s ta ff a n d o ne pro fe ssio nal s ta ff m em ber. O n t h e l a st t r ip , t h e p ro fe ssio nal r o ste re d o n— th e n urs e — becam e i ll a t lite ra lly t h e l a st m om en t a n d t h ere w as n o o ne e ls e a v aila b le t o a cco m pan y t h e p arty . T he m an ag er decid ed t o l e t t h e t r ip g o a h ead a s e v ery one w as p ack ed a n d r e ad y, a ctu ally s ittin g i n t h e b us a n d th e a cco m modatio n h ad a lr e ad y b een p aid f o r. S ev era l w eek s a fte r t h e t r ip , J a n et b ecam e a w are o f a s e rio us i s su e w hen s h e a ccid en ta lly v ie w ed a v is u al r e co rd in g l e ft o n t h e c en tr e ’s v id eo c am era . The r e co rd in g s h ow ed s c en es o f a f e m ale w ork er a n d t h e d riv er i n s w im min g c o stu m es m uck in g ab out i n a s p a b ath w ith s e v era l o f t h e c en tr e ’s d is a b le d s e rv ic e u se rs . T he f ilm a ls o r e v eale d se v era l c an s o f b eer o n a t a b le n ex t t o t h e s p a. T he s c en e a p peare d t o b e o ne o f a p arty . T he work ers w ere t o uch in g t h e s e rv ic e u se rs i n w hat c o uld b e i n te rp re te d a s s e x ually s u ggestiv e w ay s. Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s • W hat s h ould b e t h e f ir s t t h in g J a n et d oes? • W hat s h ould t h e o rg an is a tio n d o t o i n vestig ate t h e i s su e? • W hat i s t h e l ik ely o utc o m e f o r t h e s ta ff m em bers i n volv ed ? • W hat i s t h e l ik ely o utc o m e f o r t h e o rg an is a tio n’s m an ag er? • W hat s h ould t h e o rg an is a tio n d o w ith r e g ard t o t h e s e rv ic e u se rs ? • W hat s h ould t h e o rg an is a tio n d o t o e n su re t h at s u ch a n o ccu rre n ce d oes n ot h ap pen a g ain ? WHIS T LEBLO W IN G There i s a f in al c ate g ory o f c o m pla in t w hic h i s i n a c la ss a ll o n i ts o w n— whis tle b lo w in g. What i s w his tle b lo w in g? S ocia l w ork a u th ors G re en e a n d L attin g ( 2 004) a rg ue t h at t h ere a re th re e c rite ria w hic h c o nsis te n tly a p pear i n t h e m an y d efin itio ns t h at e x is t: 1. T he a ct i n volv es n otif y in g p ow erfu l o th ers o f w ro ngfu l p ra ctic es i n a n o rg an is a tio n. 2. T he a ct i s m otiv ate d b y t h e d esir e t o p re v en t u nnecessa ry h arm t o o th ers . 3. T he a ct i s a n a ctio n o f a n e m plo yee o r f o rm er e m plo yee. For a n a ctio n t o b e r e g ard ed a s f u ll b lo w n w his tle b lo w in g, t h e w his tle b lo w er w ould m ak e th e c o m pla in t t o a n e x te rn al a g en t. For u nknow n r e aso ns, v ery f e w p ap ers o n w his tle b lo w in g a n d s o cia l w ork h av e b een publis h ed i n s o cia l w ork o r o th er h um an s e rv ic e p eer-re v ie w ed j o urn als . B ecau se o f t h at, w e tu rn t o o th er w ork t o u nders ta n d w his tle b lo w in g. F ortu nate ly , i n 2 008 t h e A ustr a lia n N atio nal 150 Univ ers ity p ublis h ed o ne o f t h e l a rg est s tu die s o f w his tle b lo w in g i n t h e A ustr a lia n p ublic se cto r ( B ro w n, 2 008), a s tu dy w hic h i s i llu m in atin g. F ro m t h e m ore t h an s e v en t h ousa n d public s e rv an ts s u rv ey ed , t h e f o llo w in g a ctiv itie s w ere c o nsid ere d t o c o nstitu te w ro ngdoin g an d t h ere b y w ere p ote n tia lly t h e s u bje ct o f w his tle b lo w in g: • m is c o nduct f o r m ate ria l g ain ( e .g . s te alin g, b rib es, k ic k back s, r o rtin g o vertim e o r l e av e p ro vis io ns) • c o nflic t o f i n te re st ( e .g . f a ilin g t o d ecla re a f in an cia l i n te re st, i n te rv en in g i n a m atte r p erta in in g t o a frie n d o r r e la tiv e) • i m pro per o r u npro fe ssio nal b eh av io ur ( e .g . d ow nlo ad in g p orn ogra p hy, b ein g i n to xic ate d o r dru gged , s e x ual a ssa u lt, s ta lk in g, s e x ual h ara ssm en t, r a cia l d is c rim in atio n, m is u se o f c o nfid en tia l in fo rm atio n) • d efe ctiv e a d m in is tr a tio n ( e .g . i n co m pete n t o r n eg lig en t d ecis io n-m ak in g, e n dan gerin g p ublic h ealth or s a fe ty ) • w aste o r m is m an ag em en t o f r e so urc es ( e .g . n eg lig en t p urc h ase s o r l e ase s) • p erv ertin g j u stic e o r a cco unta b ility ( e .g . c o verin g u p p oor p erfo rm an ce, h in derin g a n o ffic ia l in vestig atio n) • p ers o nnel a n d w ork pla ce g rie v an ces ( e .g . b ully in g, f a v ouritis m , u nfa ir d is m is sa l) . Gre en e a n d L attin g ( 2 004) a rg ue c o nvin cin gly t h at w his tle b lo w in g s h ould b e s e en a s p art of t h e a d vocacy r o le o f a ll h um an s e rv ic e p ro fe ssio nals , p artic u la rly s o cia l w ork ers . T he AASW C ode o f E th ic s, f o r e x am ple , s ta te s t h at: Socia l w ork ers w ill a ddre ss s u sp ecte d o r c o nfir m ed p ro fe ssio nal m is c o nduct, i n co m pete n ce, uneth ic a l b eh avio ur o r n eg lig en ce b y a c o lle a gue t h ro ugh t h e a ppro pria te o rg anis a tio nal, pro fe ssio nal o r l e g al c h annels . S ocia l w ork ers s h ould f a m ilia ris e t h em se lv es w ith t h e c o m pla in ts pro cesse s o f t h eir w ork p la ce a nd w ith t h e A ASW p ro ced ure s f o r c o m pla in ts a gain st m em bers. (A ASW , 2 002: 1 8) Ofte n , p eo ple b elie v e t h at w his tle b lo w ers c o m e t o a s tic k y e n d i n t h at t h ey a re s u bje ct t o re p ris a ls b y t h e t a rg ete d o rg an is a tio n. C erta in ly t h ere h av e b een s o m e v ery p ublic e x am ple s, of w hic h t h e m yste rio us d eath o f K are n S ilk w ood f e atu re s p ro m in en tly . U nfo rtu nate ly , i n a re v ie w o f s tu die s o f w his tle b lo w in g, D aw so n ( 2 000) f o und t h at f e w w his tle b lo w ers s e em t o hav e d eep ly c o nsid ere d o r w ere e v en a w are o f t h e l ik ely p ers o nal c o nse q uen ces o f e x te rn al dis c lo su re . I n a s tu dy b y D e M aria a n d J a n ( 1 997) r e p orte d i n D aw so n’s p ap er, 7 1 p er c en t o f th e s a m ple s ta te d t h at t h ey h ad s u ffe re d o ffic ia l r e p ris a ls , a n d a t e llin g 9 4 p er c en t h ad su ffe re d u noffic ia l r e p ris a ls . U noffic ia l r e p ris a ls a re ‘ h ard t o i n vestig ate b ecau se t h e offe n din g a ctio n i s a m big uous, s u btle o r d en ia b le ’ ( D e M aria a n d J a n , 1 997: 4 6). D aw so n su ggests t h at t h e m ost c o m mon i s w ork pla ce o str a cis m . O th er f o rm s o f u noffic ia l r e p ris a l note d b y D aw so n i n clu de t h e q uestio nin g o f a n d a tta ck s o n m otiv es, a ccu sa tio ns o f d is lo yalty an d d ysfu nctio nality , p ublic h um ilia tio n, a n d t h e d en ia l o f w ork n ecessa ry f o r p ro m otio n. Fear o f u noffic ia l r e p ris a ls c an s to p p eo ple f ro m s p eak in g u p w hen p erh ap s t h ey s h ould . To a v oid n eg ativ e r e p ris a ls , i t i s i m porta n t t h at i f a w ork er h as e n co unte re d w ro ngdoin g a n d is c o nsid erin g b lo w in g t h e w his tle , i t b e d one p ro perly . F ortu nate ly G re en e a n d L attin g (2 004) h av e d ev elo ped g uid elin es f o r r e sp onsib le w his tle b lo w in g. T hey s u ggest t h at i t i s im porta n t t o a sse ss t h e s itu atio n a n d o ne’s o w n p re p are d ness t o g o f o rw ard . T hey s u ggest t h at pra ctitio ners s h ould a sk t h em se lv es: • I s t h e w ro ngdoin g s e v ere e n ough t o w arra n t i n te rv en tio n? • I s t h e p ote n tia l b en efit t o t h e s e rv ic e u se rs w orth t h e t h re ats t o t h e o rg an is a tio n’s p ublic i m ag e? • I s t h e e v id en ce c re d ib le a n d s u ffic ie n t? • A m I m otiv ate d b y u nre so lv ed a n ger f ro m m y p ast o r p re se n t? • C an I l iv e w ith m yse lf i f I r e m ain s ile n t? • C an I l iv e w ith m yse lf i f I s p eak u p? 151 • A m I p re p are d t o f a ce a d vers e c o nse q uen ces? The f o llo w in g s tr a te g ie s m ay b e a g ood w ay t o p ro ceed : • Beg in f ir st w ith o ffe n din g c o lle a gues . T he A ASW C ode o f E th ic s s u ggests t h at s o cia l w ork ers th in kin g o f w his tle b lo w in g s h ould f ir s t t a lk t o t h at c o lle ag ue ( o r c o lle ag ues). I f t h at d oes n ot w ork , more a ctio n i s r e q uir e d . • Esta blis h a t r a ck r e co rd o f c re d ib ility . T his i m plie s t h at i t i s d if fic u lt f o r n ew w ork ers t o b e t a k en se rio usly . E ffe ctiv e w his tle b lo w ers a re r e sp ecte d p eo ple . T his r e ality w as w ell i llu str a te d b y t h e su ccess o f s e n io r n urs e a n d i n te n siv e c are m an ag er T oni H offm an w hen s h e a le rte d t h e Q ueen sla n d public t o t h e a ctiv itie s o f s u rg eo n D r J a y an t P ate l a t B undab erg B ase H osp ita l i n Q ueen sla n d. • Assu m e o th ers i n t h e o rg anis a tio n a re c o ncern ed . W ork ers s h ould m ak e a n e ffo rt t o s e e w heth er th eir i m med ia te s u perv is o rs a n d c o lle ag ues s h are t h e c o ncern s. I f s o , t h ey s h ould a tte m pt t o s o lic it th eir c o lla b ora tio n. • Obta in c o rro bora tin g e vid en ce a nd s u pporte rs . I t i s i m porta n t t o i n vestig ate t h oro ughly . I f p ossib le , su pport s h ould b e g ain ed f ro m a n yone w ho h as w itn esse d t h e a ctiv ity i n q uestio n. • Keep c a re fu l r e co rd s . W ork ers s h ould r e m em ber t h at w his tle b lo w in g o fte n e n ds u p i n l e g al co nte x ts f o r r e so lu tio n. C are fu l d ocu m en ta tio n a n d a c le ar c h ro nolo gic al r e co rd h elp m ain ta in cre d ib ility . • Use t h e c h ain o f c o m mand . U nle ss t h e s itu atio n i s a n i m med ia te e m erg en cy , w ork ers s h ould r e sp ect org an is a tio n’s ( u su al) p ra ctic e o f p re fe rrin g a n i n te rn al i n vestig atio n i n itia lly . O nly i f f ru str a te d a t all l e v els o f t h e c h ain o f c o m man d s h ould a w ork er t a k e a c o m pla in t o uts id e o f t h e o rg an is a tio n. • Obta in t h e a dvic e o f d is p assio nate , e xp ert o uts id ers . A dvic e c an b e s o ught f ro m a r a n ge o f b odie s. For e x am ple , m ost s ta te O m budsm en h av e a d vis e rs w ho w ill c o nsu lt w ith p eo ple . I n a d ditio n, m ost pro fe ssio nal b odie s s u ch a s t h e A ASW a n d t h e A ustr a lia n P sy ch olo gic al A sso cia tio n ( A PA ) h av e eth ic s c o m mitte es t h at c an a ls o b e c o nsu lte d ( G re en e a n d L attin g, 2 004). CO NCLU SIO N This c h ap te r h as p ro vid ed a p re lim in ary o verv ie w o f t h e r e aso ns w hy h um an s e rv ic e org an is a tio ns s h ould d ev elo p e ffe ctiv e c o m pla in ts m ech an is m s. C ulm in atin g i n a d is c u ssio n ab out w his tle b lo w in g, w e c o nsid ere d s o m e g uid elin es f o r d ev elo pin g a w ork ab le c o m pla in ts mech an is m a s w ell a s g uid elin es f o r r e sp ondin g t o p ro ble m s o r c o ncern s t h at w ork ers m ay witn ess. I n t h is c o nclu din g s e ctio n, i t i s i m porta n t t o n ote t h at h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns sh ould t h em se lv es t a k e t h e d ev elo pm en t o f f o rm al c o m pla in ts m ech an is m s v ery s e rio usly . I n fa ct, a p ro fe ssio nal o rg an is a tio n w ould m onito r c o m pla in ts o ver t h e y ears a n d u se t h em t o pin poin t a re as o r a ctiv itie s t h at n eed s c ru tin y, e v alu atio n a n d p erh ap s r e fo rm . A fte r a ll, a pers o n c o m pla in in g o r a w his tle -b lo w er c an o fte n b e t h e c an ary i n t h e m in esh aft, w arn in g o f pote n tia l c ata str o phe. W hile t h is i s c le arly i m porta n t, t h e r e al r e aso n f o r d ev elo pin g a n effe ctiv e c o m pla in ts -m an ag em en t p ro cess i s t o b uild t h e p ro fe ssio nalis m o f b oth h um an se rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns a n d h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers i n t h e i n te re sts o f p ro m otin g s e rv ic e u se r wellb ein g. Chap te r r ev ie w q uestio n s 11.1 W hat i s t h e i n te lle ctu al r e aso n d ev elo ped b y H ase n fe ld ( 2 000) f o r d ev elo pin g e ffe ctiv e co m pla in ts m ech an is m s? 11.2 W hy a re s o cia l w ork ers a l ittle u neasy w hen i t c o m es t o d is c u ssin g a cco unta b ility w ith se rv ic e u se rs ? 11.3 W hat a re f o ur f e atu re s o f a g ood c o m pla in ts m ech an is m ? 11.4 W hy a re s e rv ic e u se rs o fte n u nw illin g t o c o m pla in ? 11.5 W hat a re d ual r e la tio nsh ip s? 152 11.6 W hat a re t h e s te p s a w ork er s h ould t a k e b efo re b lo w in g t h e w his tle ? OTH ER R ESO URCES The V ic to ria n O m budsm an Whis tle B lo w ers P ro te ctio n A ct 2 001, < www.o m budsm an .v ic .g ov.a u /w ww/h tm l/3 7-w his tle b lo w ers .a sp >. The N ew S outh W ale s O m budsm an ’s h an dbook, In vestig atin g C om pla in ts , < www.o m bo.n sw .g ov.a u /s h ow .a sp ?id = 132 >. T his i s o ne o f t h e m ore e x te n siv e a n d th oro ugh p ublic atio ns a v aila b le a b out h an dlin g c o m pla in ts . The J o in t P arlia m en ta ry O m budsm an Unre a so nable C om pla in ant C onduct: I n te rim P ra ctic e Manual , < www.o m bo.n sw .g ov.a u /s h ow .a sp ?id = 456 >. T his p ublic atio n p ro vid es m an y ‘s c rip ts ’ t h at c an b e u se d t o f a cilita te t h e h an dlin g o f c o m pla in ts . Ele ctr o nic c o py o f Whis tle b lo w in g i n t h e A ustr a lia n P ublic S ecto r , < http ://e p re ss.a n u.e d u.a u /w his tle b lo w in g_cita tio n.h tm l >. KEY R EA DIN G S Gre en e, A .D . a n d L attin g, J .K . 2 004, ‘ W his tle -b lo w in g a s a F orm o f A dvocacy : G uid elin es fo r t h e P ra ctitio ner a n d O rg an is a tio n’, Socia l W ork , v ol. 4 9: 2 19–30. Ream er, F .G . 2 003, ‘ B oundary I s su es i n S ocia l W ork : M an ag in g D ual R ela tio nsh ip s’, Socia l Work , v ol. 4 8: 1 21–33. Ream er, F .G . a n d S ie g el, H .D . 1 992, ‘ S hould S ocia l W ork ers B lo w T heir W his tle s o n In co m pete n t C olle ag ues? ’, i n E . G am brill a n d R . P ru ger ( e d s), Contr o versia l I s su es i n Socia l W ork , A lle n a n d B aco n, B osto n, p p. 6 6–73. 153 C H APT ER T W ELV E Pro fe ssio n al e th ic s a n d e th ic a l r ea so n in g S U M MARY I n t h is c h ap te r, w e b eg in w ith t h e c o ncep t o f m ultip le t r u th s, a n i d ea t h at i s p artic u la rly u se fu l f o r s tu dyin g t h e p ro fe ssio nal e th ic s o f h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers . I t f e atu re s i n c ase s tu die s t h at i llu str a te d ile m mas f a cin g p ra ctitio ners i n d iv ers e s e ttin gs. R efe re n ce i s m ad e t o h ow p ro fe ssio ns j u stif y t h eir c o des o f e th ic s. W e t h en p re se n t a n i n tr o ductio n t o t h e e th ic al t h eo rie s t h at i m pact m ost u pon h um an s e rv ic es, f o llo w ed b y d if fe re n t m odels f o r e th ic al r e aso nin g a n d t h e s k ills r e q uir e d t o r e sp ond t o e th ic al d ile m mas. K ey c o m ponen ts o f t h e p ro fe ssio nal c o de o f e th ic s o f t h re e h um an s e rv ic e o ccu patio ns i llu str a te s ig nif ic an t c o m monality , w hic h i n t u rn s u pports o ur a rg um en t f o r s itu atin g p ro fe ssio nal e th ic s w ith in a s o cia l j u stic e f ra m ew ork a n d a b ro ad er g lo bal h um an r ig hts p ara d ig m . I N TR O DUCTIO N T he n otio n t h at t h ere a re m ultip le t r u th s i s e sp ecia lly a p plic ab le t o w ork i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es. L is h m an ( 1 998: 9 0) r e fe rs t o t h e w ay e th ic al i s su es a ris in g o ut o f t e n sio ns b etw een i n div id ual r ig hts , p ublic w elf a re , i n eq uality a n d s tr u ctu ra l o ppre ssio n c h alle n ge o ur i n te rp re ta tio n o f r ig hts , d utie s a n d r e sp onsib ilitie s. I n deed , t h ere m ay b e n o ‘ rig ht a n sw er’ ( B an ks, 1 995). T he c o m ple x ity o f w ork in g w ith m an y d if fe re n t ‘ o th ers ’ ( in t e rm s o f r a ce, c la ss, g en der a n d c u ltu re ) i n h um an s e rv ic e w ork h ig hlig hts t h e s ig nif ic an ce o f t h e n otio n o f m ultip le t r u th s. T he d if fe re n t w ay s, f o r e x am ple , i n w hic h w ork ers r e sp ond t o c erta in t a sk s t h at, a t f a ce v alu e, m ay p re se n t a s s tr a ig htf o rw ard p ro ced ura l m atte rs c an l e ad t o o utc o m es t h at m ay h av e a l o ng-te rm c ritic al i m pact o n s e rv ic e u se rs . Work in g i n a n on-p ro fit c o m munity -b ase d o rg an is a tio n p ro vid in g s e rv ic es a n d p ro gra m s t o r e fu gees, c an p re se n t w ork ers w ith s ig nif ic an t c h alle n ges. S erv ic e u se rs o f s u ch o rg an is a tio ns o fte n s e ek h elp w ith t h eir a p plic atio ns t o t h e g overn m en t t o s p onso r r e la tiv es t o j o in t h em i n A ustr a lia . W hen a ssis tin g r e fu gees t o f ill o ut t h e a p pro pria te f o rm s, a w ork er w ill h ear a ‘ tr u th ’ i n t h e a p plic an ts ’ s p onta n eo us r e sp onse s t o e ach q uestio n. S hould a w ork er t e ll t h e a p plic an ts t h at, o n t h e b asis o f t h e i n fo rm atio n p ro vid ed , t h eir r e la tiv e w ill n ot b e g ra n te d a v is a i f t h at i s t h eir o pin io n? O r s h ould t h e w ork er p ro vid e a ll t h e i n fo rm atio n h e o r s h e h as t o p eo ple w an tin g t o s p onso r r e la tiv es t o c o m e t o A ustr a lia p rio r t o a ssis tin g w ith t h e 154 ap plic atio n p ro cess? W e w ould s u ggest t h at t h e l a tte r a p pro ach i s m ore a p pro pria te , w ith t h e work er c are fu lly e x pla in in g c u rre n t r e fu gee i n ta k e p olic y a n d a le rtin g p ote n tia l a p plic an ts t o th e c rite ria u se d t o d ete rm in e e lig ib ility f o r a f a m ily r e u nio n v is a . S uch a n a p pro ach em pow ers p ote n tia l a p plic an ts i n t h at t h ey c an s h ap e t h eir a p plic atio ns t o ‘ fit’ p olic y , a n d i n doin g s o m ax im is e t h eir c h an ces o f s u ccess. As y ou r e ad t h is c h ap te r, w e e n co ura g e y ou t o r e fe r b ack t o t h is s c en ario , r e la tin g i t t o t h e dif fe re n t t y pes o f e th ic al r e aso nin g a n d d ecis io n-m ak in g m odels , a n d r e fle ctin g u pon w here you w ould ‘ fit’ i n t e rm s o f y our p ers o nal, p ro fe ssio nal a n d p olitic al i d en tity . S hould t h e work er b e c o m ple te ly i m partia l w hen p ro vid in g r e fu gee a p plic an ts w ith i n fo rm atio n? Alte rn ativ ely , s h ould t h e w ork er u nash am ed ly p ro m ote t h e a p plic an ts ’ a n d t h eir f a m ily mem bers ’ h um an r ig hts ? S hould t h e w ork er e x pect t h e s e rv ic e u se r t o t e ll t h e ‘ tr u th ’ i n an sw erin g t h e q uestio ns o n t h e a p plic atio n f o rm , o r s h ould t h e w ork er e n co ura g e t h e ap plic an t t o r e sp ond w ith i n fo rm atio n a rtic u la te d i n s u ch a w ay t h at a m ore s tr a te g ic alte rn ativ e ‘ tr u th ’ i s a rtic u la te d ? W hat i s t h e c o rre ct e th ic al r e sp onse i n s u ch s itu atio ns? WHAT I S T H E M EA NIN G O F E TH IC S? Eth ic s i s t h e b ra n ch o f p hilo so phy t h at d eals w ith m ora lity , d is tin guis h in g b etw een t h e g ood an d e v il, t h e r ig hts a n d w ro ngs i n h um an a ctio ns. E th ic s a ls o i n volv es q uestio ns o f d utie s, oblig atio ns a n d v alu es. G en era lly , e th ic s p re se n ts a s b oth a s e t o f p rin cip le s g uid in g h um an co nduct a n d a t h eo ry o r s y ste m o f m ora l v alu es. P ro fe ssio nal e th ic s— su ch a s l e g al a n d med ic al e th ic s— re fe rs t o t h e p rin cip le s o f c o nduct g overn in g a n i n div id ual, a p ro fe ssio nal o r a g ro up. R ath er t h an t h in kin g a b out e th ic s a s a s y ste m o f n eatly d ev elo ped a n d u nam big uous ru le s, w e s u ggest y ou v ie w e th ic s a s a f o rm o f d is c o urs e — a p artic u la r t y pe o f c o nvers a tio n, fo r e x am ple , t h at s h ap es c o nduct a s i t i s u nderta k en ( D ab by e t a l., 2 008: 1 99). T his a p pro ach ack now le d ges t h e s ig nif ic an ce o f c o nte x t a n d i s c o m patib le w ith t h e c o ncep t o f e th ic s in volv in g ‘ m ultip le t r u th s’. Over t h e p ast d ecad e, s e v era l t h eo ris ts h av e p ro m ote d t h e v ie w t h at e th ic s a n d e th ic al co nduct a re d ynam ic a n d a ctiv ely d ev olv in g t h ro ugh c o lla b ora tiv e d is c o urs e . V alu es— fo r ex am ple , t h ose e m bed ded i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio nal p olic ie s a n d p ra ctic es— are o pen ly re v ie w ed , e n gag in g s e rv ic e u se rs a n d o th er r e le v an t s e ctio ns o f t h e c o m munity a s sta k eh old ers i n d ev elo pin g r e sp onse s t o c o m mon c ritic al i s su es. G old ste in , c ite d i n D ab by e t al. ( 2 008: 2 43), t a k es u s e v en f u rth er a w ay f ro m t h e t r a d itio nal p ro fe ssio nal a p pro ach t o eth ic s a s a f ix ed s e t o f r u le s a s r e fe re n ce p oin ts f o r a ctio n, s u ggestin g t h at ‘ e th ic al a n d m ora l unders ta n din g i s b est l e arn ed t h ro ugh t h e e x perie n ce o f h um an r e la tio nsh ip s a n d i ts m an y varia tio ns’. L ik e a rtis ts , h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers e n gag e w ith ‘ c lie n ts , c o lle ag ues, en vir o nm en ts a n d e x perie n ces’ ( 2 008: 2 43) t o c re ate o ur a p pro ach es t o e th ic s. TH E R O LE O F P R O FE SSIO NAL E TH IC S Acco rd in g t o S ken e ( 1 996), p ro fe ssio ns g en era lly h av e a c o de o f e th ic s t o j u stif y s e lf – re g ula tio n ( a s o ppose d t o g overn m en t r e g ula tio n), t o m ain ta in s ta n dard s, t o s e cu re co m plia n ce, t o p ro m ote i n te rn al c o hesio n a n d t o r e g ula te e n tr y i n to t h eir p ro fe ssio n. Pro fe ssio nal c o des o f e th ic s g en era lly ‘ a tte m pt t o o utlin e a f a ir b ala n ce o f i n te re sts b y re d ucin g t h e p ow er d if fe re n ce a m ong c lie n ts , w ork ers , a n d a g en cie s’ ( W eav er, 2 001: 7 ). Eth ic al p rin cip le s p ro vid e o vera ll g uid elin es a b out h ow p ro fe ssio nals s h ould a ct. Ban ks ( 2 006) p re se n ts f iv e m ain r e aso ns w hy p ro fe ssio ns h av e t h eir o w n c o des o f e th ic s: 1. t o c o ntr ib ute t o t h e ‘ p ro fe ssio nal s ta tu s’ o f a n o ccu patio n 155 2. t o e sta b lis h a n d m ain ta in p ro fe ssio nal i d en tity 3. t o g uid e p ra ctitio ners a b out h ow t o a ct 4. t o p ro te ct s e rv ic e u se rs f ro m m alp ra ctic e a n d a b use 5. t o d is c ip lin e a n d r e g ula te t h e p ro fe ssio n. While c o des o f e th ic s a re c lo se ly a sso cia te d w ith p ro fe ssio nalis m a n d p ro fe ssio nal i d en tity , so m e A m eric an w rite rs h av e d ra w n a tte n tio n t o d if fic u ltie s i n a p ply in g t h ese t o t h e co m ple x ity o f h um an s e rv ic e p ra ctic e ( C hen ow eth a n d M cA ulif fe , 2 008: 7 8). I t h as b een su ggeste d t h at c o des a re d esig ned m ore t o p ro te ct p ro fe ssio nals t h an t o p ro te ct c lie n ts , a n d t o deal w ith c o nflic ts b etw een p ro fe ssio nal e th ic s a n d i n stitu tio nal p olic ie s a n d p ra ctic es. T he fo llo w in g c ase s tu dy h ig hlig hts t h e e th ic al c o m ple x itie s t h at c an a ris e w hen a c ritic al i s su e in volv es m ultip le p artie s. In c o ntr a st t o t h e ‘ m acro ’ c o m munity i s su e o f h om ele ssn ess, t h e f o llo w in g c ase s tu dy portr a y s t h e e th ic al d ile m ma f a cin g f a m ily a n d m ed ic al s ta ff r e g ard in g a n i n div id ual p atie n t. Case s tu dy: E th ic a l c o m ple x it y A p ublic p ark w ith g ard en s n ear t h e b each i n a n i n ner u rb an m unic ip ality h as b een u se d b y hom ele ss p eo ple s in ce t h e 1 990s. T he s a m e t h re e m en h av e b een t a k in g s h elte r t h ere a t n ig ht f o r th e p ast f e w m onth s. S om e l o cal r e sid en ts c o m pla in t o t h e l o cal c o uncil, r e q uestin g t h at ‘ th e p ark be r e tu rn ed t o t h e r a te p ay ers ’. T he p ark r e sid en ts m ain ta in t h at ‘ w e h av e b een a d vis e d b y p olic e th at i t i s p erfe ctly l e g al f o r u s t o s le ep i n t h e a re a a s t h e p olic e t o ld u s t h is i s a “ fre e c o untr y ”’. They h av e e x pre sse d c o ncern , h ow ev er, a b out t h e l o ss o f t h eir p ers o nal b elo ngin gs, w ith alle g atio ns t h at t h e c o uncil w ork ers h av e b een s te alin g t h eir s le ep in g b ag s, b la n kets a n d t e n t. Councillo r A t o t h e C ouncil C EO : ‘ Y ou m ig ht r e m em ber I r a is e d t h is i s su e a c o uple o f w eek s a g o ab out s o cia l i n clu sio n o n t h e s tr e ets . I m en tio ned t h is i s su e a s t h ere a re s o m e v ery d ir ty m attr e sse s, pillo w s a n d b la n kets l e ft t h ere f o r p eo ple t o s le ep o vern ig ht, w ith t h e p la ce b ein g u se d d urin g t h e day f o r t h e p eo ple h av in g a b arb eq ue o r u sin g t h e p la y gro und. I t’ s a t o ugh o ne, n ot s u re w hat i s th e b est w ay t o h an dle i t.’ Councillo r B t o t h e C EO : ‘ I h ear t h ere h av e b een t h re e h om ele ss m en t a k in g s h elte r i n t h e g ard en s overn ig ht. I h av e b een t o ld t h at o ne o f t h em m ay b e A borig in al. I h av e b een t o ld t h at t h ey w ere la st w eek g iv en a n “ ev ic tio n” n otic e. I f u rth er h ear t h at t h eir b la n kets a re b ein g r e m oved f ro m beh in d t h e s h elte r d urin g t h e d ay . I f t h is i s t r u e, i t m ay b e p ote n tia lly v ery b ad p ublic ity , a n d ille g al. W ho i n t h e p ark s a re a a n d t h e c o uncil c o m munity s e rv ic es u nit m ig ht k now a b out t h is ? ’ Dis c u ssio n q uestio n • A s t h e C ouncil C om munity S erv ic es H ousin g W ork er, w hat w ill y ou s a y a t t h e p ublic m eetin g calle d t o a d dre ss t h is ? ETH IC AL T H EO RIE S Eth ic a l t h eo ry g iv es u s w ays o f a rtic u la tin g d ecis io ns t h at h ave a m ora l o r v a lu e b asis t o t h em . (C hen ow eth a n d M cA ulif fe , 2 008: 5 3) The f o llo w in g o verv ie w o f t h eo rie s i n flu en cin g h um an s e rv ic e p olic ie s a n d p eo ple d ra w s co nsid era b ly u pon B an ks ( 1 995, 2 006) a n d C hen ow eth a n d M cA ulif fe ( 2 008). C hen ow eth an d M cA ulif fe p oin t o ut t h at e th ic al t h eo rie s a re e ith er c o nse q uen tia lis t o r n on- co nse q uen tia lis t. C onse q uen tia lis t t h eo rie s t a k e t h e p ossib le c o nse q uen ces o f a ctio ns i n to acco unt, w hile n on-c o nse q uen tia lis t t h eo ris ts s e e t h e c o nse q uen ces a s i r re le v an t. T he m ost co m monly r e fe rre d t o e th ic al t h eo ry t h at i s n ot c o ncern ed w ith p ossib le c o nse q uen ces i s 156 deo nto lo gy . D eo nto lo gy t h eo ry c o nsid ers t h at w hat i s r ig ht i s : d ete rm in ed b y d uty , r ig hts o r oblig atio ns; a ssu m es t h at a ll h um an b ein gs a re r a tio nal; a n d a ssu m es t h at m ora l r u le s a re univ ers a l a n d a p ply a cro ss a ll c u ltu re a n d t im es. A d eo nto lo gic al t h in ker i s g ro unded i n t h e belie f t h at a ctio ns c an b e d ete rm in ed a s r ig ht o r w ro ng, g ood o r b ad , r e g ard le ss o f t h eir co nse q uen ces. A dhere n ce t o r u le s i s t h e c en tr a l i m pera tiv e. O nce f o rm ula te d , t h e e th ic al r u le s sh ould h old u nder a ll c ir c u m sta n ces. I n c o ntr a st, a t e le o lo gic al ( o r c o nse q uen tia lis t) t h in ker belie v es i n t h e i m porta n ce o f c o nse q uen ces ( M attis o n, 2 000). A n on-c o nse q uen tia lis t deo nto lo gy t a k es n o a cco unt o f c u ltu re o r c ir c u m sta n ces. a c o nse q uen tia lis t t e le o lo gy p la ces im porta n ce o n b oth . Case s tu dy: E th ic s o f c a re An e ld erly f e m ale p atie n t w ith A lz h eim er’s d is e ase a n d a c erta in t y pe o f a g gre ssiv e c an cer i s atte n din g h osp ita l t o r e ceiv e b lo od t r a n sfu sio ns t o k eep h er a liv e. T ra n sfu sio ns w ere i n itia lly e v ery th re e m onth s, t h en b i- m onth ly , t h en f o rtn ig htly . T he p atie n t, w ho i s i n a w heelc h air , i s a b le t o walk a b out s e m i- in dep en den tly f o r o nly o ne d ay a fte r e ach t r a n sfu sio ns a n d t h en b eco m es bed rid den . T he d octo rs a re w onderin g a b out c o ntin uin g t h e t r a n sfu sio ns b ecau se o f t h e i n ab ility o f her b ody t o m an ag e t h e b urd en o f d is e ase , a n d w ith t h e l ik elih ood o f t r a n sfu sio ns b eco m in g week ly , a n d p ossib ly e v en d aily . T he d octo rs a re n ow s a y in g t h at t h ey c an ’t d o m uch m ore ; t h at th ey c an ’t s e e h ow i n cre ase d t r a n sfu sio ns w ill s a v e h er l if e , o r i m pro ve h er e v ery day e x perie n ce o f her l if e . T he f a m ily a re a w are o f a ll t h ese f a cts b ut s till w an t t h e t r a n sfu sio ns t o c o ntin ue. I f tr a n sfu sio ns a re s to pped , t h eir m oth er w ill d ie ; s h e w ill a ls o d ie w ith t h e t r a n sfu sio ns b ut t h e questio n i s w hen . Dis c u ssio n q uestio n As t h e h osp ita l s o cia l w elf a re w ork er, w hat w ould y ou s a y t o t h e f a m ily , k now in g t h at e ith er w ay th e o utc o m e i s t h at t h e p atie n t w ill d ie ? In e x pla in in g e th ic al t h eo rie s i n flu en cin g h um an s e rv ic es p ra ctic e, B an ks ( 2 006) g ro ups th em i n to t w o a p pro ach es: t h ose t h at f o cu s o n p rin cip le s o f a ctio n a n d t h ose t h at a re c h ara cte r an d r e la tio nsh ip b ase d . I n clu ded i n p rin cip le -b ase d t h eo rie s a re t h e K an tia n a n d u tilita ria n ap pro ach es a n d t h e r a d ic al a n d a n ti- o ppre ssiv e a p pro ach es w hic h h av e e m erg ed i n h um an se rv ic es s in ce t h e 1 970s. The K an tia n c o re p rin cip le s tip ula te s t h at ‘ w e s h ould t r e at o th ers a s b ein gs w ho h av e e n ds . . . n ot j u st a s o bje cts o r a m ean s t o o ur o w n e n ds’ ( B an ks, 2 006: 2 9). T his p rin cip le o f r e sp ect fo r p ers o ns i s i n te g ra l t o w ork i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es. R atio nality a n d a s e n se o f d uty ( a s oppose d t o i n clin atio n) a re k ey f a cto rs i n K an tia n e th ic s. U tilita ria n is m i s d efin ed a s ‘ th e rig ht a ctio n i s t h at w hic h p ro duces t h e g re ate st b ala n ce o f g ood o ver e v il ( th e p rin cip le o f utility )’ ( B an ks, 2 006: 3 6). U tilita ria n is m h as p la y ed a k ey r o le i n t h e p ublic l if e o f W este rn so cie ty , s h ap in g t h e f ra m ew ork o f t h e p arlia m en ta ry a n d j u stic e s y ste m s, p olitic al l ib era lis m , an d t h e ‘ w elf a re s ta te ’ ( B essa n t, 2 009). Both K antia n a nd u tilita ria n t h eo rie s o f e th ic s a re p re m is e d o n t h e a ssu m ptio n o f t h e h um an b ein g a s a f r e ely a ctin g i n div id ual . . . [ a nd] . . . r e fle ct t h e t w in v a lu es o f f r e ed om a nd i n div id ualis m t h at l ie at t h e h ea rt o f w este rn c a pita lis t s o cie tie s. ( B an ks, 2 006: 3 8) Fro m t h e 1 970s u p t o t h e p re se n t, r a d ic al m ovem en ts f o llo w ed b y a n ti- o ppre ssiv e a n d critic al a p pro ach es h av e e m erg ed a s a r e cu rre n t t h em e i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es p ra ctic e lite ra tu re , p ro m otin g c o lle ctiv e a ctio n f o r s o cia l c h an ge a n d c allin g f o r a llia n ces a cro ss in dustr y , c h urc h a n d c o m munity s e cto rs . J o rd an ( w ith J o rd an , 2 000) r e fe rs t o ‘ a n ti- o ppre ssiv e ap pro ach es’, w hic h i n clu de a n ti- ra cis t a n d a n ti- d is c rim in ato ry , a n ti- a g eis t, a n ti- a b le is t, 157 fe m in is t a n d a n ti- h ete ro norm ativ e m odes o f p ra ctic e. T he ‘ p ers o na i s p olitic al’ c o ncep t asso cia te d w ith t h e r is e o f t h ese m ovem en ts h as h ad a s ig nif ic an t i m pact u pon t h e e d ucatio n an d i d en tity o f h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers d urin g t h e d ecad es s in ce t h e 1 970s. I ts s ig nif ic an ce lie s i n t h e w ay i t a llo w ed m an y i s su es p re v io usly r e le g ate d t o t h e p riv ate d om ain t o b e bro ught o ut i n to t h e o pen f o r r e d re ss. Ban ks ( 2 006) i n clu des t h e p rin cip le o f s o cia l j u stic e i n w hat s h e n om in ate s a s t h e prin cip le -b ase d a p pro ach es, w hic h s h e s u ggests l in ks w ith b oth u tilita ria n a n d r a d ic al ap pro ach es t o e th ic s. S ocia l j u stic e i s f o unded u pon t h e c o ncep ts o f e q uality , j u stic e a n d ‘d is tr ib utiv e j u stic e’. T he n otio n o f d is tr ib utiv e j u stic e, a p rin cip le o f s ig nif ic an t i m porta n ce in m odern W este rn e th ic al t h in kin g, i s e sp ecia lly r e le v an t t o t h ose w ho a re r e sp onsib le f o r dis tr ib utin g p ublic r e so urc es s u ch a s c o unse llin g, c are o r m oney . I t i s a c o m ple x s e t o f i d eas th at a tte m pts t o p ro vid e a m ean s f o r m ak in g i m porta n t d ecis io ns a b out w ho g ets w hat i n so cie tie s s u ch a s A ustr a lia . I ts c o m ple x ity , h ow ev er, i s b ey ond t h e s c o pe o f t h is c h ap te r t o ad dre ss. F or t h ose w ho w is h t o e x plo re i t f u rth er, s e e t h e l in k a t t h e e n d o f t h e c h ap te r f o r more i n fo rm atio n. Ban ks g ro ups v ir tu e e th ic s, ‘ th e e th ic s o f c are ’ a n d ‘ p ost- m odern e th ic s’ u nder t h e ch ara cte r- a n d r e la tio nsh ip -b ase d a p pro ach es. V ir tu e e th ic s e m phasis e s t h e r o le o f c h ara cte r, with t h e t e rm ‘ v ir tu e’ r e fe rrin g t o t r a its s u ch a s c o ura g e, p ru den ce, r a tio nality a n d te m pera n ce. V ir tu e e th ic s o rig in ate s f ro m c la ssic al G re ek p hilo so phers l ik e S ocra te s, P la to an d A ris to tle , w ho r e g ard ed v ir tu e a s t h e b asis o f c o lle ctiv e j u stic e a n d o f a l if e l iv ed w ell: ‘ A key e le m en t o f v ir tu e e th ic s i n volv es u nders ta n din g h ow w e i d en tif y o urs e lv es a s a p artic u la r kin d o f p ers o n.’ ( B essa n t, 2 009: 4 29–30) I t a ls o v alu es t h e p artic u la r r e la tio nsh ip s p eo ple hav e w ith e ach o th er ( B an ks, 2 006). F or t h is r e aso n, v ir tu e e th ic s i s p artic u la rly r e le v an t t o pro fe ssio ns i n t h e h um an s e rv ic es, a s e th ic al i s su es s o o fte n a ris e f ro m ‘ th e n atu re o f t h e re la tio nsh ip s a n d o ur r e sp onsib ilitie s i n t h ose r e la tio ns— to t h e c lie n t, o th er c o lle ag ues, o ur su perv is o rs , t h e a g en cy i ts e lf ’ ( R hodes, c ite d i n B an ks, 2 006: 5 6) The ‘ e th ic s o f c are ’ a p pro ach t a k es i n to a cco unt t h e p artic u la rity o f e ach s itu atio n a n d peo ple ’s r e la tio nsh ip s w ith e ach o th er. C hen ow eth a n d M cA ulif fe ( 2 008) p oin t o ut t h at t h is ap pro ach m oves b ey ond t h e f o cu s o n t h e i n div id ual t o c o nsid er t h e i n div id ual i n t h eir re la tio nsh ip s w ith s ig nif ic an t o th ers a s w ell a s t h eir s o cio politic al c o nte x t. T hey s u ggest t h at eth ic al d ecis io ns r e la te t o w hat a c arin g r e sp onse w ould i n volv e, r a th er t h an n om in ate w hat would b e t h e u niv ers a l r ig ht o r c o rre ct r e sp onse . Alth ough g en era lly a sso cia te d w ith p rin cip le -b ase d e th ic s o r t h e ‘ e th ic s o f j u stic e’, r ig hts – base d a p pro ach es t o e th ic s h av e a ls o b een d ev elo ped i n dep en den tly o f e th ic al t h eo rie s b ase d on f o undatio nal p rin cip le s ( B an ks, 2 006). O th er t h eo rie s r e fe rre d t o b y C hen ow eth a n d McA ulif fe ( 2 008) i n clu de t h e: pro te ctio n o f c iv il, h um an, l e g al a nd p olitic s s ta tu s o f i n div id uals t h ro ugh a s o cia l c o ntr a ct (c o ntr a cta ria nis m ); a nd t h e v ie w in g o f i n div id uality a s p art o f a c o m munity ( c o m munita ria nis m ). Contr a cta ria nis m . . . f o cu se s o n s o cia l o rd er a nd t h e a gre em en ts t h at p eo ple h ave w ith e a ch o th er about h ow t h ey s h ould b e g overn ed i n r e la tio n t o p rin cip le s o f j u stic e a nd f a ir n ess. Com munita ria nis m . . . r e q uir e s u s t o l o ok m ore c lo se ly a t s o cia l c o nte xt. ( 2 008: 5 5) ETH IC AL R EA SO NIN G To d ate , w e h av e u se d t h e t e rm ‘ e th ic al i s su es’ f a ir ly g en era lly . B an ks ( 2 006), h ow ev er, re fe rs t o t h e n eed t o d is tin guis h b etw een e th ic al i s su es, e th ic al p ro ble m s a n d e th ic al dile m mas. 158 Eth ic a l i s su es These f re q uen tly a ris e i n t h e c o nte x t o f s ta te w elf a re s y ste m s w here t h e p ro fe ssio nal h as decis io n-m ak in g p ow er ( o n b eh alf o f t h e s ta te ) i n t h eir r e la tio nsh ip w ith t h e s e rv ic e u se r. Ban ks ( 2 006) i d en tif ie s f o ur m ain t y pes o f e th ic al i s su e t h at f re q uen tly f a ce w ork ers i n hum an s e rv ic es, a n d t h at m ay b eco m e e th ic al p ro ble m s a n d d ile m mas. T hese a re : • In div id ual r ig hts a nd w elfa re . T he s e rv ic e u se r’s r ig ht t o c h oic e i n d ecis io n-m ak in g; t h e w ork er’s re sp onsib ility t o p ro m ote t h e w elf a re o f t h e s e rv ic e u se r • Public w elfa re . T he r ig hts a n d i n te re sts o f p artie s o th er t h an t h e s e rv ic e u se r • Equality , d iffe re n ce a nd s tr u ctu ra l o ppre ssio n . B ala n cin g e q ual a ccess a n d o pportu nitie s w ith t h e re sp onsib ility t o w ork f o r c h an ges i n p olic y a n d s o cie ty f o r t h ose e sp ecia lly d is a d van ta g ed — due, fo r e x am ple , t o c u ltu re , a g e o r r e sid en ce ( i.e . t h ose l iv in g i n r u ra l, r e m ote o r i s o la te d p la ces) • Pro fe ssio nal r o le s, b oundarie s a nd r e la tio nsh ip s . A dap tin g a cco rd in g t o t h e n atu re o f t h e p ositio n an d c o nte x t ( e .g . a c ase m an ag er i n a b ure au cra cy o r a c o m munity w ork er w ith a n eig hbourh ood cen tr e r e sid in g i n a n u rb an o r r u ra l a re a). Eth ic a l p ro b le m s This r e fe rs t o d if fe re n t m ora l d ecis io ns f o r w hic h t h e r ig ht c o urs e o f a ctio n i s c le ar. S uch i s th e s itu atio n w hen a w ork er b eco m es a w are o f u neth ic al p ra ctic e i n h is o r h er w ork pla ce a n d fe els o blig ed t o e x pose t h is — an a ct s o m etim es r e fe rre d t o a s ‘ w his tle b lo w in g’ ( s e e Chap te r 11 ). H ow t h is i s a p pro ach ed w ill d ep en d u pon w heth er t h e s itu atio n a ris e s f ro m t h e u neth ic al beh av io ur o f a n oth er i n div id ual ( fo r e x am ple , a c o unse llo r o vers te p pin g t h e p ro fe ssio nal re la tio nsh ip b oundarie s w ith a s e rv ic e u se r) o r a n i s su e t h at m ay i m pact ( d ir e ctly o r in dir e ctly ) u pon s e rv ic e u se rs g en era lly ( fo r e x am ple , d is c lo su re o f l o ng w aitin g l is t s ta tis tic s fo r f a m ilie s ‘ a t r is k ’ w ho r e q uir e s p eed y s e rv ic es). Ream er ( 2 001) r e co m men ds c au tio n i n a d dre ssin g s u ch s c en ario s. B y t h is h e i s s u ggestin g th at y ou: a sse ss t h e s e v erity o f t h e s itu atio n; e x am in e t h e q uality o f e v id en ce a v aila b le t o verif y t h e e th ic al a b use ; w eig h u p t h e l ik ely e ffe ct o f e x posu re o n a ll p artie s a n d org an is a tio n/s i n volv ed ; a n d r e fle ct u pon y our m otiv atio n f o r t a k in g u p t h e m atte r. W hat i s th e v ia b ility o f a ch ie v in g t h e l o ng-te rm o utc o m e b y a lte rn ativ e m ean s? In c o ntr a st w e a re s o m etim es f a ced w ith s itu atio ns t h at a re u neth ic al b ut f o r w hic h t h ere i s no p ro fe ssio nal o r l e g al m an tle t o d ra w u pon. A n A BC Four C orn ers t e le v is io n p ro gra m ( 5 April 2 010) e x pose d t h e d am ag e e x perie n ced b y s e v era l i n div id uals a n d f a m ilie s partic ip atin g o ver a n um ber o f y ears i n w eek -lo ng ‘ th era p y’ p ro gra m s p ro vid ed i n a r u ra l re tr e at i n A ustr a lia b y a n u nqualif ie d c o unse llo r. T he p ro fe ssio nal c o unse llo rs i n te rv ie w ed o n Four C orn ers e x pre sse d c o ncern a b out t h e a b use o f e th ic s t h at w as o ccu rrin g, b ut w ere unab le t o t a k e a ctio n o w in g t o l a ck o f r e le v an t p ro fe ssio nal r e g is tr a tio n o r g overn m en t le g is la tio n. Eth ic a l d ile m mas Eth ic al d ile m mas a re t h ose w here t h e w ork er i s f a ced w ith ‘ a c h oic e b etw een t w o e q ually unw elc o m e a lte rn ativ es, w hic h m ay i n volv e a c o nflic t o f m ora l v alu es, a n d i t i s n ot c le ar whic h c h oic e w ould b e t h e r ig ht o ne’ ( B an ks, 2 006: 1 2). O ur v ie w , e x pre sse d i n t h e in tr o ductio n t o t h is c h ap te r, i s t h at o fte n t h ere i s n o ‘ rig ht’ d ecis io n. B an ks r e fe rs t o t h e co m ple x itie s a sso cia te d w ith e th ic al d ecis io n-m ak in g i n h um an s e rv ic es w hen e ach p ers o n in volv ed i n t h e s itu atio n s e es i t d if fe re n tly a cco rd in g t o t h eir k now le d ge, e x perie n ce a n d 159 valu es. T his i s i llu str a te d i n t h e M ultip le t r u th s c ase s tu dy a b out M arth a, a s e rv ic e u se r w ith a re g io nal c are n etw ork . Eth ic al d ile m mas m ay o fte n a ris e f ro m c o m petin g v alu es a n d l o yaltie s. A s i n dic ate d i n t h e Marth a s c en ario , t h e p rin cip le o f s e lf -d ete rm in atio n c an c o nflic t w ith h ow t h e c ase m an ag er in te rp re ts a d uty o f c are . C om petin g i n te re sts m ay e m erg e f ro m d if fe re n t m em bers o f a g ro up with w hic h y ou a re w ork in g, o r t h ere m ay b e c o nflic t b etw een w elf a re f o r t h e i n div id ual a n d th e s e rv ic e n eed s o f t h e m ajo rity . Chen ow eth a n d M cA ulif fe ( 2 008) p re se n t m odels f o r e th ic al r e aso nin g i n t h re e d if fe re n t way s: a p ro cess m odel, r e fle ctiv e m odels a n d t h e i n clu siv e m odel. A u se fu l pro cess m odel i s th e E TH IC m odel o f d ecis io n-m ak in g ( d ev elo ped b y C ongre ss, 1 999), w here b y t h e f o llo w in g ste p s/c h eck lis t w ill f a cilita te a ‘ re aso ned d ecis io n’. 1. E xam in e r e le v an t p ers o nal, s o cie ta l, a g en cy , c lie n t a n d p ro fe ssio nal v alu es. 2. T hin k a b out w hat e th ic al s ta n dard o f t h e r e le v an t m ode o f e th ic s a p plie s t o t h e s itu atio n, a s w ell a s ab out r e le v an t l a w s a n d c ase d ecis io ns. 3. H yp oth esis e a b out p ossib le c o nse q uen ces o f d if fe re n t d ecis io ns. 4. I d en tif y w ho w ill b en efit a n d w ho w ill b e h arm ed i n v ie w o f s o cia l w ork ’s c o m mitm en t t o t h e most v uln era b le . 5. C on su lt w ith s u perv is o r a n d c o lle ag ues a b out t h e m ost e th ic al c h oic e. Case s tu dy: M ult ip le t r u th s Marth a, a w om an i n h er e ig htie s, h as b een a sse sse d a s b ein g i n t h e ‘ h ig h-c are ’ n eed c ate g ory . Alth ough s h e i s s e p ara te d f ro m h er p artn er, h e p la y s a n i m porta n t c arin g r o le . S he i s s till v ery men ta lly a le rt a n d s e lf -d ete rm in ed , m ain ta in in g a s m uch c o ntr o l a s p ossib le o ver h er s itu atio n— in oth er w ord s, a s e x pre sse d b y h er c ase m an ag er a t t h e c are r c o ord in atio n a g en cy , ‘ s h e d ir e cts ev ery th in g’. T his i n volv es d ete rm in in g h ow h er ‘ p ack ag e m oney ’ ( $ 500 p er w eek ) i s t o b e s p en t. Certa in t y pes o f n atu ro path y a re i n clu ded i n s e rv ic es n eg otia te d t o d ate , a s w ell a s h er r e q uest f o r kin esio lo gy— ‘s o t h e a g en cy h as t o p ay f o r t h is ’. A lth ough M arth a’s n eed f o r c are i s i n cre asin g, sh e r e je cts a d m is sio n t o a n urs in g h om e. A n i m porta n t p art o f h er d ay i s m ed ita tio n b etw een n oon an d 2 .0 0 p .m . S he d oes n ot a p pro ve c are rs v is itin g h er d urin g t h ese h ours . Ten sio n h as a ris e n b etw een t h e c are rs e m plo yed t o a tte n d t o M arth a a t h om e ( tw ic e d aily , s e v en day s a w eek ), t h eir e m plo yin g a g en cy , t h e c ase m an ag er a n d M arth a a b out e ach o f t h eir v ie w s i n re la tio n t o : • h ow M arth a i s a llo catin g h er ‘ p ack ag e m oney ’ • f le x ib ility o f a ccess h ours f o r c are rs v is itin g M arth a i n r e la tio n t o v is its r e q uir e d t o o th er s e rv ic e use rs • h er a ttitu de t o w ard s f u tu re c are /a cco m modatio n. Dis c u ssio n q uestio n • W hat w ould b e y our p la n o f a ctio n a s t h e c ase m an ag er w ork in g w ith M arth a? REFL EC TIV E M ODELS These a re b ase d o n f e m in is t p ers p ectiv es, w ith e m phasis o n s e rv ic e u se r e m pow erm en t th ro ugh a m ean in gfu l r e la tio nsh ip w ith t h e w ork er, a ctiv e e n gag em en t i n a d dre ssin g t h e i s su e an d i n clu sio n i n t h e d ecis io n-m ak in g p ro cess. W ith in t h e r e fle ctiv e m odels a re e m erg in g alte rn ativ e m odels t h at p ro m ote c o lle ctiv is t c u ltu re s a n d g ro up s o lid arity i n c o ntr a st t o t h ose of o ur W este rn i n div id ualis t c u ltu re . A ppro ach es s u ch a s t h ese r a is e t e n sio n f o r h um an se rv ic e w ork ers , w ho a re o fte n c o nstr a in ed b y t h e o rg an is a tio nal c u ltu re t o w hic h t h ey a re acco unta b le , t h em se lv es o fte n i n fo rm ed b y a n i n div id ualis e d m odel o f C hris tia n ity . B an ks 160 poin ts o ut, f o r e x am ple , t h at t h e I n te rn atio nal S ta te m en t o f S ocia l W ork P rin cip le s t e n d t o b e base d o n ‘ J u deo -C hris tia n a n d h um an is tic t r a d itio ns’, w hic h r e fle ct t h e i n div id ual a s t h e fu ndam en ta l u nit i n s o cie ty ( C hen ow eth a n d M cA ulif fe , 2 008: 2 8). The in clu siv e m odel i n te g ra te s k ey c o m ponen ts o f t h e a b ove w ith a cco unta b ility , c ritic al re fle ctio n, c u ltu ra l s e n sitiv ity a n d c o nsu lta tio n— th e f o ur d im en sio ns C hen ow eth a n d McA ulif fe ( 2 008) c o nsid er c ritic al t o s o und e th ic al r e aso nin g. U sin g a s p ir a l a p pro ach , e ach ste p i n volv es ‘ a sk in g q uestio ns, f in din g o ut i n fo rm atio n, a sse ssin g a lte rn ativ e a ctio ns, im ple m en tin g a ctio n a n d e v alu atin g o utc o m es’ ( 2 008: 1 00). Ream er’s ( 1 999) e th ic al d ecis io n-m ak in g f ra m ew ork ( b elo w ) i s b ase d u pon a s e t o f guid elin es c o nsis te n t w ith t h e o vera ll v alu es o f h um an s e rv ic e o ccu patio ns, t o h elp w ork ers id en tif y t h e n atu re o f e th ic al d ile m mas a n d c ritic ally r e fle ct u pon h ow t o r e so lv e t h em . • R ule s a g ain st b asic h arm t o a n i n div id ual’ s s u rv iv al t a k e p re ced en ce o ver r u le s a g ain st h arm s s u ch as l y in g o r r e v ealin g c o nfid en tia l i n fo rm atio n o r t h re ats t o a d ditiv e g oods. • A n i n div id ual’ s r ig ht t o s e lf -d ete rm in atio n t a k es p re ced en ce o ver h is o r h er r ig ht t o b asic w ellb ein g. • T he o blig atio n t o o bey l a w s, r u le s a n d r e g ula tio ns t o w hic h o ne h as v olu nta rily a n d f re ely c o nse n te d ord in arily o verrid es o ne’s r ig ht t o e n gag e v olu nta rily a n d f re ely i n a m an ner t h at c o nflic ts w ith th ese . • I n div id ual’ s r ig hts t o w ellb ein g m ay o verrid e l a w s, r u le s, r e g ula tio ns a n d a rra n gem en ts o f v olu nta ry asso cia tio n i n c ase s o f c o nflic t. • T he o blig atio n t o p re v en t b asic h arm s a n d t o p ro m ote p ublic g oods s u ch a s h ousin g, e d ucatio n a n d public a ssis ta n ce o verrid es t h e r ig ht t o c o m ple te c o ntr o l o ver o ne’s p ro perty . Ste p s r e co m men ded b y R eam er ( 1 999) t o m ak e d ecis io ns a b out e th ic al d ile m mas a re : 1. I d en tif y t h e e th ic al i s su es, i n clu din g t h e p ro fe ssio nal v alu es a n d d utie s t h at c o nflic t. 2. I d en tif y t h e i n div id uals , g ro ups a n d o rg an is a tio ns l ik ely t o b e a ffe cte d b y t h e e th ic al d ecis io n. 3. T en ta tiv ely i d en tif y a ll v ia b le c o urs e s o f a ctio n a n d t h e p artic ip an ts i n volv ed i n e ach , a lo ng w ith th e p ote n tia l b en efits a n d r is k s f o r e ach . 4. T horo ughly e x am in e t h e r e aso ns i n f a v our o f a n d o ppose d t o e ach c o urs e o f a ctio n, c o nsid erin g re le v an t • e th ic al t h eo rie s, p rin cip le s a n d g uid elin es • c o des o f e th ic s a n d l e g al p rin cip le s • p ro fe ssio nal p ra ctic e t h eo ry a n d p rin cip le s • p ers o nal v alu es ( in clu din g r e lig io us, c u ltu ra l, a n d e th nic v alu es a n d p olitic al i d eo lo gy), partic u la rly t h ose t h at c o nflic t w ith o ne’s o w n. 5. C onsu lt w ith c o lle ag ues a n d a p pro pria te e x perts ( s u ch a s a g en cy s ta ff, s u perv is o rs , a g en cy ad m in is tr a to rs , a tto rn ey s, e th ic s s c h ola rs ). 6. M ak e t h e d ecis io n a n d d ocu m en t t h e d ecis io n-m ak in g p ro cess. 7. M onito r, e v alu ate a n d d ocu m en t t h e d ecis io n. ( 1 999: 7 6–7) Pre v io us c ase s tu die s h av e h ig hlig hte d d ile m mas t h at w e h av e l e ft o pen f o r r e so lu tio n. T he fo llo w in g E th ic al d ile m ma c ase s tu dy a b out a h osp ita l s o cia l w ork er i n clu des t h e o utc o m e o f th e s itu atio n a fte r f o llo w in g R eam er’s f ir s t f o ur s te p s. In t h e c ase s tu dy, L au ra f o llo w ed s te p s o ne t o f o ur s u ggeste d b y R eam er. H ow ev er, t h e natu re o f t h is d ile m ma n ecessita te d d is c re te c o nsu lta tio n ( s te p 5 ) p rio r t o d ecis io n-m ak in g. Docu m en ta tio n r e fe rre d t o i n s te p s 6 a n d 7 r e g ard in g t h e e n title m en t t o p ay m en ts f o llo w in g th e m oto r a ccid en t w as n ot a p pro pria te i n t h ese c ir c u m sta n ces. Case s tu dy: E th ic a l d ile m ma Lau ra i s a s o cia l w ork er i n t h e I n te n siv e C are U nit ( IC U ) o f a l a rg e p ublic h osp ita l w here e th ic al dile m mas f re q uen tly a ris e w hen c o m passio n f o r s e rv ic e u se rs c o nflic ts w ith i n stitu tio nal 161 re g ula tio ns. S he e n gag es w ith t h e f a m ily o f a m an a d m itte d w ith b ra in i n ju rie s w ho i s d eem ed non-s u rv iv ab le a fte r i n volv em en t i n a s in gle -c ar m oto r v eh ic le a ccid en t. T he m an , s e lf -e m plo yed , was s u pportin g h is w if e M elis sa ( 3 2) a n d t w o s o ns a g ed 7 a n d 9 . O verc o m e b y g rie f, M elis sa i s fu rth er s tr e sse d a b out p ote n tia l l o ss o f t h eir h ouse a n d w ay o f l if e . A s t h is w as a c ar a ccid en t a n d he w as n ot o ver t h e l im it i n t e rm s o f d ru gs o r a lc o hol, L au ra a ssis te d M elis sa i n d ealin g w ith t h e fo rm al m oto r a ccid en t i n su ra n ce s y ste m t o h elp o ut w ith s o m e o f t h e i m med ia te a n xie tie s. I n t h e co urs e o f t h e c o nvers a tio n, M elis sa t e lls L au ra t h at s h e t h in ks i t w as s u ic id e. S he h as n ot s p oken of t h is f e ar t o a n yone, a s s h e f e els i t w ould d ev asta te h is p are n ts ( w hom L au ra h as a ls o m et a n d who a re u nders ta n dab ly s h atte re d ), a n d w ould h av e a t e rrib le i m pact o n h is s o ns a n d h is f rie n ds. Melis sa t e lls L au ra t h at f o r t h e p ast t w o m onth s h e h as b een t a lk in g a b out k illin g h im se lf , te llin g h er t h at s h e a n d t h e b oys w ould b e b ette r o ff w ith out h im , t e llin g h er t h at h e ‘ h ad t o g o’ a s a w ay o f k eep in g h er s a fe . M elis sa s a y s t h at s h e w ould t r y t o j o ke t h ese c o nvers a tio ns o ff, b ut o n th e n ig ht b efo re h is a ccid en t, h e w as t a lk in g v ery m uch l ik e t h is . O n t h e d ay o f t h e a ccid en t, s h e sa id h e w oke h ap py a n d t o ld h er h e h ad e v ery th in g f ig ure d o ut a n d s h e n eed n ot w orry a n ym ore . He t o ok t h e l u nch s h e h ad p ack ed f o r h im a n d h ead ed o ut t h e d oor a s u su al. H e d id n ot d riv e to w ard s w ork , b ut i n ste ad h ead ed o ut t o t h e c o untr y — where a fte r t w o h ours o f d riv in g, h e r a n i n to a t r e e. Lau ra k now s t h at i f t h is i s s u ic id e, M elis sa a n d h er s o ns w ill n ot b e e lig ib le f o r a n y i n su ra n ce cla im . L au ra a ls o h as c o nsid era b le e m path y f o r M elis sa a n d h er s o ns, a n d k now s t h at t h e a ccid en t cla im p ay m en t w ill a ssis t i n h elp in g t h em f in an cia lly t h ro ugh t h is d if fic u lt t im e. L au ra a ls o k now s th at s u ic id e m ak es f o r a v ery c o m plic ate d g rie f, a n d M elis sa f e els h er s o ns a n d f a m ily d on’t n eed to k now t h is . Dis c u ssio n q uestio n s • W hat w ould y ou d o i f y ou w ere t h e s o cia l w ork er? • W hat d id L au ra d o? Lau ra t a lk ed t h is t h ro ugh w ith M elis sa . S he h ad n ot r e co rd ed M elis sa ’s i n te rp re ta tio n o f h er husb an d’s d eath . T ogeth er t h ey a g re ed t h at t h ere h ad b een n o d is c u ssio n a b out t h is f a cto r. L au ra fo cu se d o n h elp in g M elis sa c o pe w ith h er g rie f a n d r e d ucin g t h e f in an cia l i m pact o f h er h usb an d’s death u pon l o ved o nes, a w are t h at n o o th er i n div id uals w ould b e h arm ed b y t h is a p pro ach . IN DIV ID UALIS T A ND C O LLEC TIV IS T M ORAL R EA SO NIN G Jo rd an ( w ith J o rd an , 2 000) m ain ta in s t h at c u rre n t p olitic al m ora lity i n W este rn s o cie ty i s atte m ptin g t o c o m bin e t w o d if fe re n t m odes o f e th ic al r e aso nin g— th e l ib era l i n div id ualis t a n d th e e g alita ria n c o lle ctiv is t t r a d itio ns. I n s o cia l p olic y , t h e c o lle ctiv is t a p pro ach s u ggests t h at se rv ic es a re p ro vid ed a s a b asic r ig ht t o a ll c itiz en s. T he i n div id ualis t a p pro ach i n volv es pro vis io n a cco rd in g t o m em bers h ip o r e n title m en t, d ete rm in ed o n w hat t h e p ers o n m erits o r dese rv es. I n div id ualis m f a v ours i n stitu tio ns t h at p ro m ote i n div id ual r e sp onsib ility , w ith in div id uals b ein g a cco unta b le f o r t h e o utc o m es o f t h eir d ecis io n a n d c h oic es. C olle ctiv is m , on t h e o th er h an d, f a v ours i n stitu tio ns t h at p ro m ote c are , m utu ality , s o lid arity a n d in te rd ep en den cy , f a cilita tin g s u pport a n d c o opera tio n ( J o rd an w ith J o rd an , 2 000: 4 3). SE R VIC E U SE R /C O M MUNIT Y I N VO LV EM EN T Bris k m an a n d N oble ( 1 999) r e fe r t o t h e f a ct t h at u se rs i n cre asin gly a re d em an din g t h at t h eir se rv ic es b e d eliv ere d i n t e rm s o f t h eir o w n v alu es, n ot t h ose o f t h e p ro fe ssio nals ( a s p ortr a y ed by t h e c ase s tu dy o f M arth a d ev elo ped a b ove). A gen cie s a re b eco m in g o blig ed t o f ra m e co des o f e th ic s s p ecif ic t o t h eir c lie n te le . E xam ple s o f t h is i n A ustr a lia c an b e f o und i n t h e co des o f e th ic s d ev elo ped b y s e x ual a ssa u lt c en tr e s ( C A SA s), I n dig en ous o rg an is a tio ns a n d 162 so m e o f t h e c o nsu m er-le d a g en cie s f o r p eo ple w ith d is a b ilitie s. B ris k m an a n d N oble s u ggest th e u se o f a c o m munity d ev elo pm en t m odel w here b y s e rv ic e u se rs a re a b le t o m eet t o geth er an d d efin e t h e n atu re o f t h e s e rv ic e r e q uir e d , a s w ell a s a p pro pria te w ay s o f p ro vid in g t h is . A t th e i n div id ual l e v el, D ab by e t a l. ( 2 008) a rg ue t h at i f a m ora l d ile m ma i n volv es t h e w ork er’s in te rfa ce w ith t h e s e rv ic e u se r, t h e s e rv ic e u se r s h ould b e e n gag ed i n t h e p erc ep tio n, co nstr u ctio n a n d r e so lu tio n o f t h e d ile m ma f a cin g t h e w ork er. RURAL C ULTU RES Gin sb erg ’s ( 2 005) s tu dy o f w ork ers i n r u ra l c o m munitie s, c ite d i n D ab by e t a l. ( 2 008) f o und th at ‘ d ual r e la tio nsh ip s’ m ay b e i n ev ita b le i n a r u ra l c o nte x t. D ual r e la tio nsh ip s o ccu r w hen a work er h as m ore t h an o ne r e la tio nsh ip w ith a s e rv ic e u se r. F or e x am ple , a d ual r e la tio nsh ip would e x is t w hen a w ork er i n a s m all t o w n w as a ls o a m em ber o f t h e l o cal c o uncil. I n t h is situ atio n, t h e w ork er m ig ht b e c alle d o n t o m ak e d ecis io ns i n o ne a re n a t h at c o uld co unte rm an d d ecis io ns m ad e i n t h e o th er. I n t h e s p ecia l c ir c u m sta n ces f o und i n s m all co m munitie s, i n div id ualis tic ‘ c lin ic al’ a p pro ach es t o p ro fe ssio nal e th ic s a n d p ro fe ssio nal boundarie s a re n ot n ecessa rily a p pro pria te t o c o m munity p ra ctic es. I n a s m all c o m munity , where c o m munal r e la tio nsh ip s m atte r, r ig id ly d efin ed p ro fe ssio nal r o le b oundarie s w ill co nsta n tly b e c h alle n ged . MULTIC ULTU RAL C O M MUNIT IE S Sim ila r t o t h e t y pes o f r u ra l c o nte x ts d is c u sse d a b ove, w hen w ork in g w ith s m all c u ltu ra lly an d l in guis tic ally d iv ers e c o m munity o rg an is a tio ns, t h e p ro fe ssio nal t e rm w e a ssig n t o t h e ‘o th er’ ( fo r e x am ple , p atie n t, c lie n t, c u sto m er, s e rv ic e u se r, c o nsu m er, c o m munity m em ber, lo cal c itiz en ) w ill i m pact o n o ur r e la tio nsh ip w ith t h em , a n d o ur r e sp onse t o c erta in c u ltu ra l acts t h at m ay p re se n t a s e th ic al i s su es. Receiv in g g ifts r a ngin g f r o m a d oze n s p rin g r o lls t o f o ur n ew c a r t y re s i n a ckn ow le d gem en t o f assis ta nce p ro vid ed , b ein g r e q ueste d t o n am e t h e n ew born c h ild o f a y o ung c o uple w ith w hom I h ad had c lo se a nd s ig nific a nt c o nta ct f o r s e vera l m onth s. W hat s h ould t h e p ro fe ssio nal’ s r e sp onse b e, giv en th e i n te rp la y o f t w o d iffe re n t v a lu e s y ste m s; t h at i s , w hite A nglo -S ocia l W ork v a lu es e m bodyin g a c o m mitm en t t o i n dep en den ce, s e p ara tio n o f t h e p riv a te f r o m t h e p ublic , a nd d em arc a tio n; a nd t h e Cam bodia n s y ste m e m bodyin g h osp ita lity a nd r e cip ro city ? [ th is ] . . . r e m in ded m e c o nsta ntly o f t h e im porta nce o f a ckn ow le d gin g t h e v a lu es o f t h e o th er. I h ad t o l e a rn t o r e ceiv e a s w ell a s g iv e. I h ad to b e p re p are d t o c h alle n ge t h e v a lu es w hic h i n fo rm ed m y p ra ctic e. ( F ook e t a l., 2 000: 1 49) ORG ANIS A TIO NAL C ULTU RES In c o ntr a st t o p ro fe ssio nal e th ic s, S in cla ir ( 1 996) d ra w s a tte n tio n t o t h e f a ct t h at m ech an is m s to e n fo rc e t h e e n actm en t o f o rg an is a tio nal e th ic s a re s w if t a n d p ow erfu l, w here as t h e pro ced ure s r e q uir e d i n a d dre ssin g b re ach es o f p ro fe ssio nal c o des a re p ro lo nged a n d cu m bers o m e. M ore o ver, c o nflic ts m ay a ris e a m ongst d if fe re n t p ro fe ssio nal c o des a n d org an is a tio nal c o des w hen o rg an is a tio ns c o m pris e s e v era l d if fe re n t g ro ups o f p ro fe ssio nals : For e xa m ple , a c o nsu ltin g o rg anis a tio n m ay c o nta in g ro ups o f e n gin eers, a rc h ite cts a nd s o cia l work ers o r p la nners. O n a ny o ne p ro je ct t h e v a rio us p ro fe ssio nal c o des a nd t h e o rg anis a tio nal c o de mig ht s u ggest d iffe re n t n orm s o f d is c lo su re o f i n fo rm atio n t o t h e c lie n t. A m atte r r e g ard ed b y s o cia l work ers a s a n e sse n tia l s u bje ct f o r c lie n t c o nsu lta tio n m ig ht b e r e g ard ed b y p artn ers a s a 163 manageria l d ecis io n w ith in t h e o vera ll t e rm s o f t h e c o ntr a ct a nd b y t h e e n gin eers a s a p ro fe ssio nal pra ctic e r e q uir in g r e fe re n ce t o a p ro fe ssio nal b ody. ( S in cla ir , 1 996: 9 1) SK IL LS R EQ UIR ED F O R E TH IC AL D EC IS IO N-M AK IN G Critic al f a cto rs i n t h e a b ility t o e n gag e m ean in gfu lly i n e th ic al d is c u ssio ns a n d d ecis io n- mak in g a re : f ir s t, k now le d ge a b out y our p ro fe ssio nal c o de o f e th ic s; s e co nd, f a m ilia rity w ith your o rg an is a tio ns c o de o f e th ic s o r g uid elin es; t h ir d , f ra m ew ork s t o h elp c la rif y c o nflic tin g valu es a n d e th ic al d ile m mas; a n d f in ally , a w are n ess o f y our o w n p ers o nal v alu es t h ro ugh critic al r e fle ctio n. Cle ak a n d W ils o n ( 2 007) p ro vid e a u se fu l f ra m ew ork f o r a n aly sin g e th ic al d ile m mas. Belo w i s a n a d ap te d v ers io n o f t h e t e x t t h at a im s a t h elp in g s tu den ts i n Makin g t h e M ost o f Fie ld P la cem en ts . 1. D efin e t h e e th ic al i s su e/p ro ble m /d ile m ma. 2. G ath er a ll r e le v an t i n fo rm atio n, t h en a n aly se t h e s itu atio n t h ro ugh d is c u ssin g i t w ith p eers , t e am mem bers a n d p eo ple w ith p re v io us e x perie n ce i n t h is m atte r w ho m ay b e a w are o f p re ced en ts . Consid er t h e p ers p ectiv es o f a ll p artie s i n volv ed . 3. I d en tif y b ro ad e th ic al p rin cip le s t h at c o uld g uid e a ctio n. 4. R efe r t o y our p ro fe ssio n’s c o de o f e th ic s, t h e a g en cy ’s c o de o f c o nduct f o r g uid an ce a n d a n y re le v an t r ig hts -re la te d b odie s ( fo r e x am ple , G uard ia n sh ip A dvocacy B oard , L eg al A id ). 5. E xplo re t h e s itu atio n o f t h e s e rv ic e u se r/s i n volv ed ; w here a p pro pria te , e n gag e t h em i n d ia lo gue to r e fle ct o n d if fe re n t p ers p ectiv es. 6. D efin e y our o ptio ns. A fte r d is c u ssio n w ith y our s u perv is o r/ m an ag er, a rriv e a t a r e so lu tio n. I n re fle ctin g o n t h e e th ic al b asis o f y our p ra ctic e, i t i s i m porta n t t o r e m ain o pen t o o th er o ptio ns a n d possib le o utc o m es. HUM AN R IG HTS: T O W ARDS R IG HTS-B A SE D P R ACTIC E In h is c o ntr ib utio n t o a v olu m e d ev ote d t o g lo bal e th ic s i n t h e n ew c en tu ry , J o nes ( 2 001) re fe rs t o h um an r ig hts a n d t h e p rin cip le o f n atio nal s e lf -d ete rm in atio n a s t h e t w o g lo bal norm s t h at a re m ost w id ely r e co gnis e d i n o ur w orld . S o w here d oes o ur o blig atio n t o pro fe ssio nal e th ic s f it i n r e la tio n t o h um an r ig hts ? I n r e fe rrin g t o a lte rn ativ es t o t h e co nven tio nal f ra m in g o f p ro fe ssio nal e th ic s t h at m an y w ork ers a re s e ek in g, I fe ( 2 001) belie v es t h at t h e h um an r ig hts p ara d ig m i s a v ia b le a lte rn ativ e. I fe v ie w s r ig hts a n d e th ic s a s co m ple m en ta ry t o e ach o th er, b ut w ith i m porta n t d if fe re n ces. H e s e es l e ss w ork er-im pose d co ntr o l f u nctio n a tta ch ed t o t h e d is c o urs e o f r ig hts . T he a ssu m ptio n i s t h at w e f o llo w a r ig hts pers p ectiv e ‘ a s a r e su lt o f m ora l s u asio n r a th er t h an f e ar o f s a n ctio ns’ ( Ife , 2 001: 1 04). Ife a ls o a rg ues t h at p ro fe ssio nal e th ic s a re e sse n tia lly i n div id ualis t i n t h eir o rie n ta tio n— as an i n div id ual p ro fe ssio nal e n gag es i n i n div id ual d ecis io ns. T his i s r e fle cte d i n t h e In te rn atio nal F ed era tio n o f S ocia l W ork ers ’ s ta te m en t o f e th ic al p rin cip le s, w hic h : aim s t o e n co ura ge s o cia l w ork ers a cro ss t h e w orld t o r e fle ct o n t h e c h alle n ges a nd d ile m mas t h at fa ce t h em a nd m ake e th ic a lly i n fo rm ed d ecis io ns a bout h ow t o a ct i n e a ch p artic u la r c a se ( IF SW , 2004: i ) . It a ck now le d ges t h at ‘ s o cia l w ork ers a re o fte n i n t h e m id dle o f c o nflic tin g i n te re sts a n d may f u nctio n ‘ a s b oth h elp ers a n d c o ntr o lle rs ’ ( IF SW , 2 004: 1 ). McD onald ( 2 006) p ro m ote s a h um an -rig hts b ase d p ra ctic e a s t h e w ay f o rw ard f o r h um an se rv ic es i n t h e t w en ty -fir s t c en tu ry . R easo ns f o r t h is r e la te t o i t p ro vid in g: 164 • ‘ a n u nam big uous a n d i n sp ir in g m ora lity a n d p olitic s’ f o r w ork ers o pera tin g i n a w ith erin g w elf a re sta te • a f ra m ew ork f o r c o ncep tu al l in ks a cro ss t h e p riv ate – public s e cto rs , f a cilita tin g c o nstr u ctiv e p ublic en gag em en t w ith t h e e x pan din g p riv ate s e cto r • i n te rn atio nally a ck now le d ged d ocu m en ts f o r r e fe re n ce i n t h e f o rm o f t h e U niv ers a l D ecla ra tio n o f Hum an R ig hts , t h e I n te rn atio nal C oven an t o n C iv il a n d P olitic al R ig hts a n d t h e I n te rn atio nal Coven an t o n E co nom ic , S ocia l a n d C ultu ra l R ig hts ( 2 006: 1 77). CO DES O F E TH IC S F O R H UM AN S E R VIC ES In A ustr a lia , t h e s o cia l a n d c o m munity s e rv ic es i n dustr y a u sp ic es a d iv ers ity o f o ccu patio ns an d p ositio ns i n h um an s e rv ic es. M ajo r p ro fe ssio ns i n t h is s e cto r f o r w hic h t h ere a re accre d ite d h ig her e d ucatio n/te rtia ry p ro gra m s a n d s p ecif ic i n dustr y a w ard s a re s o cia l w ork , welf a re w ork , y outh w ork a n d c o m munity w ork . H ere w e l is t t h e o vera ll a im s o f e ach g ro up as s ta te d i n t h e c o des o f e th ic s d ev elo ped b y t h eir p ro fe ssio nal a sso cia tio ns, l o okin g partic u la rly a t c o m monalitie s a cro ss t h e d if fe re n t p ro fe ssio nal c o des. A s f o rm al g overn m en t re g is tr a tio n h as n ot b een o bta in ed b y a n y o f t h ese o ccu patio ns, m em bers h ip o f t h e pro fe ssio nal a sso cia tio ns i s v olu nta ry , a s i s a d here n ce t o t h eir c o des o f e th ic s. Socia l w ork : I n te rn atio n al f e d era tio n The A ustr a lia n A sso cia tio n o f S ocia l W ork ers ( A ASW ), a n atio nal b ody, i s a m em ber o f t h e In te rn atio nal F ed era tio n o f S ocia l W ork ers ( IF SW ). T he I F SW o utlin es t w elv e g en era l a re as of p ro fe ssio nal c o nduct f o r i n clu sio n i n t h e c o des o f e th ic s o f m em ber c o untr ie s. L is te d belo w ( in a m ore s u ccin ct m an ner t h an i n t h e o rig in al) t h ese s tip ula te t h at s o cia l w ork ers : • a re e x pecte d t o d ev elo p a n d m ain ta in t h e r e q uir e d s k ills a n d c o m pete n ce • s h ould n ot u se t h eir s k ills f o r i n hum an e p urp ose s s u ch a s t o rtu re o r t e rro ris m • s h ould a ct w ith i n te g rity • s h ould a ct w ith c o m passio n, e m path y a n d c are t o s e rv ic e u se rs • s h ould n ot s u bord in ate t h e n eed s o r i n te re sts o f s e rv ic e u se rs t o t h eir o w n n eed s o r i n te re sts • h av e a d uty o f s e lf -c are , p ers o nally a n d p ro fe ssio nally , t o e n su re p ro vis io n o f a p pro pria te s e rv ic es • s h ould m ain ta in c o nfid en tia lity , a n e x cep tio n r e la tin g t o a g re ate r e th ic al r e q uir e m en t ( e .g . pre se rv atio n o f l if e ) • a re a cco unta b le f o r t h eir a ctio ns t o s e rv ic e u se rs , c o lle ag ues, e m plo yers , p ro fe ssio nal a sso cia tio ns an d t h e l a w , a n d t h at t h ese a cco unta b ilitie s m ay c o nflic t • s h ould c o lla b ora te w ith s c h ools o f s o cia l w ork t o s u pport h ig h-q uality s tu den t f ie ld e d ucatio n • s h ould f o ste r a n d e n gag e i n e th ic al d eb ate w ith c o lle ag ues a n d e m plo yers , t a k in g r e sp onsib ility f o r eth ic ally i n fo rm ed d ecis io ns • s h ould b e p re p are d t o j u stif y t h eir d ecis io ns a n d b e a cco unta b le f o r t h e o utc o m es • s h ould w ork t o c re ate c o nditio ns w ith e m plo yers a n d n atio nally w here b y t h e I F SW p rin cip le s a n d natio nal c o de o f e th ic s a re m ain ta in ed , e v alu ate d a n d u pheld . ( a d ap te d f ro m I F SW , 2 004c) Austr a lia n A sso cia tio n o f S ocia l W ork ers The p urp ose o f t h e A ASW C ode o f E th ic s i s t o : • i d en tif y t h e v alu es a n d p rin cip le s t h at u nderp in e th ic al p ra ctic e • p ro vid e g uid an ce a n d s ta n dard s f o r e th ic al c o nduct a n d a cco unta b le s e rv ic e • p ro vid e a f o undatio n f o r e th ic al r e fle ctio n a n d d ecis io n-m ak in g 165 • g uid e s o cia l w ork ers i n d ete rm in in g t h e d em an ds t h ey m ay l e g itim ate ly m ak e o n t h eir e m plo yers , co lle ag ues a n d t h e A ASW • c la rif y s o cia l w ork ers ’ a ctio ns i n i n dustr ia l o r l e g al d is p ute s • a ct a s b asis f o r i n vestig atio n a n d a d ju dic atio n o f f o rm al c o m pla in ts a b out u neth ic al c o nduct. Key c o m ponen ts o f t h e A ASW C ode o f E th ic s a re : • hum an d ig nity a nd w orth —dem onstr a te r e sp ect f o r c lie n ts , a n d s e ek t o p ro m ote t h eir d ig nity , in div id uality , r ig hts , c u ltu ra l a ffilia tio ns, a n d t h eir p artic ip atio n i n t h e d ecis io n-m ak in g p ro cess • so cia l j u stic e —pro m otin g p olic ie s, p ra ctic es a n d s o cia l c o nditio ns t h at u phold a ccess, e q uity , partic ip atio n; a ctin g w ith out p re ju dic e; a im in g t o e m pow er i n div id uals , f a m ilie s, g ro ups a n d co m munitie s; p ro m otin g p ublic p artic ip atio n • se rv ic e t o h um anity —in clu din g ‘ d uty o f c are ’ a n d f a cilita tin g a ccess t o r e so urc es, s e rv ic es a n d rig hts , i n clu din g u nderta k in g a d vocacy • in te g rity —ta k in g c are o f t h e p ro fe ssio n, t r u th fu lly r e p re se n tin g y our q ualif ic atio ns, e n su rin g t h at pro fe ssio nal p olic ie s a n d p ro ced ure s a re u pheld ( n ot p ers o nal v ie w s o r p olic ie s) a n d r e co gnis in g co nflic ts o f i n te re st i f t h ey a ris e • co m pete n ce —as a w ork er, e x pan din g l e v els o f k now le d ge, t h eo ry a n d s k ill, u tilis in g a n a p pro pria te su perv is o r o r a p pro pria te f o rm s o f s u perv is io n. Fro m t h e a b ove g en era l c o de o f e th ic s a re d ra w n g uid elin es l in kin g e th ic s a n d v alu es t o re sp onsib ilitie s t o s ig nif ic an t o th ers i n d if fe re n t c o nte x ts . T hese a re o ne’s r e sp onsib ilitie s t o clie n ts , r e sp onsib ilitie s t o c o lle ag ues, r e sp onsib ilitie s i n t h e w ork pla ce, r e sp onsib ilitie s i n partic u la r s e ttin gs a n d r e sp onsib ilitie s t o t h e p ro fe ssio n. The A ustr a lia n I n stit u te o f W elf a re a n d C om munit y W ork ers The A ustr a lia n I n stitu te o f W elf a re a n d C om munity W ork ers ( A IW CW ) i s a n atio nal b ody co m pris in g a r a n ge o f h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers e m plo yed i n t h e s o cia l a n d c o m munity s e rv ic es se cto r. T his i n clu des w elf a re w ork ers , c o m munity w ork ers , y outh w ork ers , g ro up w ork ers , pro je ct o ffic ers , c o unse llo rs , c ase m an ag ers , r e sid en tia l c are w ork ers , h om e a n d c o m munity care w ork ers , n eig hbourh ood c en tr e c o ord in ato rs , d is a b ilitie s w ork ers a n d a d vocacy w ork ers (C hen ow eth a n d M cA ulif fe , 2 008). T he A IW CW ’s a im s a re t o : • p ro m ote p ublic a w are n ess o f A IW CW a im s a n d o bje ctiv es • p ro m ote r e le v an t e d ucatio n a n d t r a in in g o f e m plo yees o r p ote n tia l w ork ers i n w elf a re a n d co m munity w ork • i d en tif y a n d d ocu m en t c o m pete n cy s ta n dard s f o r w elf a re a n d c o m munity w ork • r e g is te r q ualif ie d p ers o ns a n d p ro m ote p ra ctic e s ta n dard s c o nsis te n t w ith t h e A IW CW C ode o f Eth ic s • u phold t h e r ig hts a n d i m pro ve, p ro te ct a n d f o ste r t h e i n te re sts o f A IW CW m em bers t h ro ugh l ia is o n with a p pro pria te i n dustr y b odie s • m ain ta in t h e e m plo ym en t s ta n dard s o f t h e w elf a re a n d c o m munity w ork f ie ld • i n flu en ce s o cia l c h an ge w here i n co nsis te n cie s, d efic ie n cie s a n d i n ju stic e a p pear i n t h e f ie ld • c o nsu lt w ith a sso cia te d o rg an is a tio ns w ith in t h e i n dustr y . ( A IW CW , i n C hen ow eth a n d M cA ulif fe , 2008: 9 6–7) Chen ow eth a n d M cA ulif fe p oin t o ut t h e s im ila ritie s i n a im s, p rin cip le s a n d l a n guag e o f t h e AIW CW C ode o f E th ic s a n d t h at o f t h e A ASW . You th w ork : Y ou th A ffa ir s C ou ncil o f V ic to ria 166 The C ode o f E th ic al P ra ctic e f o r y outh w ork ers , w ritte n b y t h e Y outh A ffa ir s C ouncil o f Vic to ria , i s b ase d o n a h um an r ig hts f ra m ew ork . I t d ra w s u pon t h e U N C onven tio n o n t h e Rig hts o f t h e C hild , t h e D ecla ra tio n o f H um an R ig hts a n d t h e D ecla ra tio n o n t h e R ig hts o f In dig en ous P eo ple s. T he C ode o f E th ic al P ra ctic e i s b ase d o n t h e f o llo w in g p rin cip le s o f youth w ork . T he c o de w ill g uid e y outh w ork ers t o e n ab le a n d e n su re : • t h e e m pow erm en t o f y oung p eo ple • y oung p eo ple ’s p artic ip atio n • s o cia l j u stic e f o r y oung p eo ple • t h e s a fe ty o f y oung p eo ple • r e sp ect f o r y oung p eo ple ’s h um an d ig nity a n d w orth • y oung p eo ple ’s c o nnecte d ness t o i m porta n t p eo ple i n t h eir l iv es, s u ch a s f a m ily a n d c o m munity • p ositiv e h ealth a n d w ellb ein g o utc o m es f o r y oung p eo ple • t h e p ositiv e t r a n sitio ns a n d h ealth d ev elo pm en t o f y oung p eo ple . ( Y outh A ffa ir s C ouncil o f Vic to ria , 2 008: 9 ) Belo w a re t h e a re as o f p ra ctic e r e sp onsib ilitie s r e q uir e d t o w ork e th ic ally w ith y oung peo ple : • r e co gnitio n o f I n dig en ous p eo ple s • d uty o f c are • y oung p eo ple a s t h e p rim ary c o nsid era tio n • b oundarie s • p riv acy a n d c o nfid en tia lity • t r a n sp are n cy , h onesty a n d i n te g rity • s o cia l c o nte x t • a n ti- o ppre ssiv e p ra ctic e: n on-d is c rim in atio n, e q uity a n d s e lf -a w are n ess • c o opera tio n a n d c o lla b ora tio n • k now le d ge, s k ills a n d s e lf -c are . Asse ssin g t h ese s u m maris e d c o des o f e th ic s o f s o cia l w ork , w elf a re a n d c o m munity w ork , an d y outh w ork , i t i s c le ar t h at t h e c o m monalitie s a cro ss t h ese h um an s e rv ic e p ro fe ssio ns outw eig h t h e d if fe re n ces. CRIT IC AL S E LF-R EFL EC TIO N: P E R SO NAL, P R O FE SSIO NAL AND P O LIT IC AL ‘ M E’ What a re m y e th ic al v alu es a n d w here d o I ‘ fit’ ? T hese a re c o re q uestio ns f a cin g e v ery hum an s e rv ic e w ork er. W ork ers h av e r e sp onsib ilitie s t o s e rv ic e u se rs , t h eir p ro fe ssio n a n d/o r th eir u nio n, t h eir e m plo yin g o rg an is a tio n a n d t o s o cie ty m ore b ro ad ly ( a d ap te d f ro m B an ks, 2006: 1 29). U nderly in g t h ese f o rm ally a ck now le d ged d utie s i s a w ork er’s p ers o nal, pro fe ssio nal a n d p olitic al i d en tity . B an ks i d en tif ie s t h re e ‘ ty pic al m odels ’ o f h um an s e rv ic e pra ctitio ner: t h e c o m mitte d /r a d ic al; t h e p ro fe ssio nal; a n d t h e t e ch nic al- b ure au cra t. W hile s h e pre se n ts t h em a s d is tin ct, i t i s c le ar t h at w ork ers c an e x hib it a m ix o f a ll t h re e i n v ary in g bala n ces, w hic h i n a ll l ik elih ood w ill s h if t g iv en d if fe re n t c o nte x ts a n d c ir c u m sta n ces. The p ositio n a n d c o nte x t i n w hic h y ou c h oose t o w ork d if fe rs a cco rd in g t o w heth er y ou a re co m mitte d t o b rin gin g a b out c h an ge b ey ond e m pow erin g i n div id ual s e rv ic e u se rs (c o m mitte d /r a d ic al m odel) , w heth er y ou p la ce p rio rity o n t h e p ro fe ssio nal i m ag e w ith au to nom y e n ab lin g y ou t o c o ncen tr a te o n t h e r ig hts a n d i n te re sts o f i n div id ual s e rv ic e u se rs (p ro fe ssio nal m odel) o r w heth er y ou f e el c o m fo rta b le c o nfin in g y our r o le s a n d d utie s t o t h ose pre sc rib ed b y t h e a g en cy ( te ch nic al- b ure au cra tic m odel) . 167 Fie ld e x perie n ce o fte n p ro vid es a v alu ab le o pportu nity t o e x plo re y our i d en tity a n d t h e work fo rc e t o d is c o ver w here y ou f it c o m fo rta b ly i n r e la tio n t o y our p ers o nal, p ro fe ssio nal an d p olitic al p ers o na. I n t h e c u rre n t ‘ ris k ’-d om in ate d c lim ate i n W este rn s o cie ty ( m ost v is ib le in t h e c h ild p ro te ctio n a re n a), p ositio ns i n t h e t e ch nic al- b ure au cra tic c o nte x t a re i n cre asin g. How ev er, o th er g ro w in g a re as o f r e sp onse t o s o cia l n eed s p ro vid e o pen in gs f o r a lte rn ativ e models . B an ks ( 2 006: 1 39) r e fe rs t o t h e ‘ n ew p ro fe ssio nalis m ’, a n a p pro ach t h at h as e le m en ts of t h e t e ch nic al- b ure au cra tic a p pro ach ‘ w hile s till r e ta in in g t h e n otio n o f p ro fe ssio nal ex pertis e ’. A n e x am ple o f t h is c an b e f o und i n t h e s o cia l c are c ase -m an ag em en t p ositio ns work in g w ith e ld erly p eo ple a n d w ith p eo ple w ho h av e d is a b ilitie s. M ore o ver, t h ere i s a div ers ity o f i n novativ e o utr e ach p ro gra m s t o s p ecif ic i s o la te d h ig hly v uln era b le a n d dis a d van ta g ed p eo ple ( fo r e x am ple , s tr e etw ork w ith d ru g- a n d a lc o hol- d ep en den t p eo ple o r with s e x w ork ers ) i n o ur c itie s, a s w ell a s i n cre asin g o pportu nitie s a s v olu nte ers o r p ro je ct work ers t o l e arn a b out a lte rn ate w ay s o f l iv in g a n d w ork in g i n i n te rn atio nal a id /d ev elo pm en t work i n o th er c o untr ie s. A ll o f t h ese p ro vid e c o nte x ts w here d if fe re n t w ay s o f w ork in g c an b e ex plo re d . CO NCLU SIO N This c h ap te r h as p ro vid ed a n i n tr o ductio n t o t h e m ean in g o f p ro fe ssio nal e th ic s a n d e th ic al th eo rie s t h at a re p artic u la rly r e le v an t t o t h e h um an s e rv ic es. W e h av e o utlin ed h ow o ur a b ility to e ffe ctiv ely r e sp ond t o e th ic al i s su es, p ro ble m s a n d d ile m mas i s d ep en den t u pon o ur unders ta n din g o f d if fe re n t a p pro ach es t o e th ic al r e aso nin g, o ur k now le d ge o f o ur o w n pro fe ssio n’s c o de o f e th ic s a n d o ur c ritic al d ecis io n-m ak in g s k ills . R efle ctio n u pon y our o w n pers o na w ill h elp y ou i d en tif y w here y ou s itu ate y our p ro fe ssio nal e th ic s i n t h e b ro ad er hum an r ig hts p hilo so phy. We e n d t h is b ook w ith a n a ck now le d gem en t t h at w ork in g p ro fe ssio nally i n t h e h um an se rv ic es a n d i n h um an s e rv ic e o rg an is a tio ns i s v ery c h alle n gin g— in te lle ctu ally , e m otio nally , mora lly a n d p olitic ally . W hile w e h av e g iv en y ou s o m e p oin te rs , w e s u ggest t h at y ou s h ould co ntin ue t o s e ek k now le d ge a b out y our o rg an is a tio nal c o nte x t, y our s e rv ic e u se rs , y our pra ctic e, y our b elie fs , y our v alu es a n d y our p ers o nal p olitic s. A ll h um an s e rv ic e w ork ers a re en gag ed i n a c o ntin uous p ro cess o f b eco m in g a bette r w ork er, c o m mitte d t o p ro gre ssin g o n th e j o urn ey o f l if e lo ng l e arn in g. Chap te r r ev ie w q uestio n s 12.1 W hy d oes e ach p ro fe ssio n h av e a c o de o f e th ic s? 12.2 W hat a re t h e d if fe re n ces b etw een e th ic al i s su es, e th ic al p ro ble m s a n d e th ic al d ile m mas? 12.3 W hat a re t h e t h re e d if fe re n t m odels f o r e th ic al r e aso nin g r e fe rre d t o b y C hen ow eth a n d McA ulif fe ( 2 008)? 12.4 W hat s te p s w ould y ou f o llo w i n h an dlin g a n e th ic al d ile m ma w hen i t a ris e s i n y our w ork with a s e rv ic e u se r? 12.5 W hat r e aso ns p ro m ote h um an r ig hts -b ase d p ra ctic e? 12.6 R efle ctin g u pon y our p ers o nal e x perie n ce, f ie ld e d ucatio n a n d w ork e x perie n ce, w ith whic h o f t h e t h re e ‘ ty pic al m odels ’ o f h um an s e rv ic e p ra ctic e— co m mitte d r a d ic al, pro fe ssio nal o r t e ch nic al b ure au cra tic — do y ou i d en tif y ? OTH ER R ESO URCES AASW C ode o f E th ic s 1 999, < www.a asw .a sn .a u /d ocu m en t/ite m /9 2 >. 168 Google C ultu ra l D ic tio nary , L eg al D ic tio nary , M ed ic al D ic tio nary , D is tr ib utiv e J u stic e, < www.d is tr ib utiv e-ju stic e.c o m /m ain pag e_ fra m e-e .h tm >. KEY R EA DIN G S Ban ks, S . 2 006, Eth ic s a nd V alu es i n S ocia l W ork ( 3 rd e d .) , P alg ra v e M acm illa n , Basin gsto ke. Chen ow eth , L . a n d M cA ulif fe , D . 2 008, The R oad t o S ocia l W ork a nd H um an S erv ic e Pra ctic e ( 2 nd e d .) , C en gag e L earn in g, M elb ourn e. Ife , J . 2 001, Hum an R ig hts a nd S ocia l W ork : T ow ard s R ig hts B ase d P ra ctic e, C am brid ge Univ ers ity P re ss, M elb ourn e. 169 R EFE R EN CES A lla n , J . 2 009, ‘ D oin g C ritic al P ra ctic e’, i n J . A lla n , L . B ris k m an a n d B . 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Youth A ffa ir s C ouncil o f V ic to ria I n c. 2 008, Code o f E th ic a l P ra ctic e: A F ir st S te p f o r t h e Vic to ria n Y outh S ecto r , a v aila b le a t < www.c ard in ia .v ic .g ov.a u /f ile s/C ode_ of_ eth ic s_ fo r_ youth _w ork ers .p df >, a ccesse d 1 0 May 2 010. 178 T ab le o f C on te n ts C O VER P A GE 1 T IT LE P A GE 3 C O PY RIG HT P A GE 4 C O NTEN TS 6 L IS T O F T A BLES 7 I N TR O DUCTIO N 8 C H APT ER O NE U NDER ST A NDIN G O RG ANIS A TIO NS 11 C H APT ER T W O L EA DER SH IP I N H UM AN S E R V IC E O RG ANIS A TIO NS 25 C H APT ER T H REE S C O PIN G T H E C O NTEX T 38 C H APT ER F O UR R EC O RD IN G A ND R EPO RT-W RIT IN G 51 C H APT ER F IV E I N FO RM ATIO N D EV ELO PM EN T A ND M ANAGEM EN T I N H UM AN S E R V IC E O RG ANIS A TIO NS 65 C H APT ER S IX B U IL D IN G A ND M AIN TA IN IN G P R O FE SSIO NAL R ELA TIO NS 77 C H APT ER S E V EN S U PE R V IS IO N A ND S U PPO RT 94 C H APT ER E IG HT M ANAGIN G C O NFL IC T 105 C H APT ER N IN E P O W ER A ND A DVOCA CY 118 C H APT ER T EN A DM IN IS T R A TIV E E TH IC S I N H UM AN S E R V IC E O RG ANIS A TIO NS 130 C H APT ER E LEV EN P R EPA RIN G F O R A ND D EA LIN G W IT H C O M PL A IN TS 142 C H APT ER T W ELV E P R O FE SSIO NAL E TH IC S A ND E TH IC A L R EA SO NIN G 154 R EFE R EN CES 170 179
JST204 – Young People and CrimeAssessment 1:Length: 1,500 wordsRationaleThis assessment task will assess the following learning outcome/s: be able to provide a general overview of the statutory frame
JU VE N IL E JU STIC E YO U TH A N D C R IM E I N A U STR ALIA FIF TH E D IT IO N Chris C unneen   Rob W hit e   Kelly R ic h ard s 2 O xfo rd U niv ersit y P re ss i s a d ep artm en t o f t h e U niv ersit y o f O xfo rd . I t f u rth ers t h e U niv ersit y ’s o b je ctiv e o f e x ce lle n ce i n r e se arc h , s c h ola rsh ip , a n d e d u ca tio n b y p u blis h in g w orld w id e. O xfo rd i s a r e g is te re d t r a d em ark o f O xfo rd U niv ersit y P re ss i n t h e U K a n d i n c e rta in o th er c o u n tr ie s. P u blis h ed i n A ustr a lia b y O xfo rd U niv ersit y P re ss 2 53 N orm an by R oad , S o u th M elb ou rn e, V ic to ria 3 205, A ustr a lia © C hris C un neen , R ob W hit e a n d K elly R ic h ard s 2 015 T h e m ora l r ig h ts o f t h e a u th ors h av e b een a sse rte d . F ir st e d it io n p u blis h ed 1 995 S eco n d e d it io n p u blis h ed 2 002 T h ir d e d it io n p u blis h ed 2 007 F o u rth e d it io n p u blis h ed 2 011 F if t h e d it io n p u blis h ed 2 015 A ll r ig h ts r e se rv ed . N o p art o f t h is p u blic a tio n m ay b e r e p ro d u ce d , s to re d i n a r e tr ie v al s y ste m , o r t r a n sm it te d , i n a n y f o rm o r b y a n y m ean s, w it h ou t t h e p rio r p erm is sio n i n w rit in g o f O xfo rd U niv ersit y P re ss, o r a s e x p re ssly p erm it te d b y l a w , b y l ic e n ce , o r u n der t e rm s a g re ed w it h t h e a p pro p ria te r e p ro gra p h ic s r ig h ts o rg an is a tio n . E n qu ir ie s c o n ce rn in g r e p ro d u ctio n o u ts id e t h e s c o p e o f t h e a b ove s h ou ld b e s e n t t o t h e R ig h ts D ep artm en t, O xfo rd U niv ersit y P re ss, a t t h e a d dre ss a b ove. Y ou m ust n ot c ir c u la te t h is w ork i n a n y o th er f o rm a n d y o u m ust i m pose t h is s a m e c o n dit io n o n a n y a cq u ir e r. N atio n al L ib ra ry o f A ustr a lia C ata lo gu in g-i n -P u blic a tio n d ata Cre ato r:   Cun neen , C hris , 1 953- a u th or. Tit le :   Ju ven il e j u stic e / C hris C un neen , R ob W hit e , K elly R ic h ard s. Edit io n :   Fif t h e d it io n . IS B N :   9780195598421 (p ap erb ack ) Note s:   In clu des b ib lio gra p h ic a l r e fe re n ce s a n d i n dex . Su bje cts :   Ju ven il e d elin qu en cy — Austr a lia — Tex tb ook s. Ju ven il e j u stic e , A dm in is tr a tio n o f— Austr a lia — Tex tb ook s. Ju ven il e d ete n tio n — Austr a lia — Tex tb ook s. Oth er C re ato rs/C on tr ib u to rs:   Whit e , R . D . (R ob ert D ou gla s), 1 956- a u th or. Ric h ard s, K elly , a u th or. D ew ey N um ber:   364.3 60994 R ep ro d u ctio n a n d c o m mun ic a tio n f o r e d u ca tio n al p u rp ose s T h e A ustr a lia n Cop yrig h t A ct 1 968 (t h e A ct) a llo w s a m ax im um o f o n e c h ap te r o r 1 0% o f t h e p ag es o f t h is w ork , w hic h ev er i s t h e g re ate r, t o b e r e p ro d u ce d a n d/o r c o m mun ic a te d b y a n y e d u ca tio n al i n stit u tio n f o r i t s e d u ca tio n al p u rp ose s p ro vid ed t h at t h e e d u ca tio n al i n stit u tio n (o r t h e b od y t h at a d m in is te rs i t ) h as g iv en a r e m un era tio n n otic e t o C op yrig h t A gen cy L im it e d (C A L) u n der t h e A ct. F o r d eta il s o f t h e C A L l ic e n ce f o r e d u ca tio n al i n stit u tio n s c o n ta ct: C op yrig h t A gen cy L im it e d L e v el 1 5, 2 33 C astle re ag h S tr e et S yd n ey N SW 2 000 T ele p h on e: (0 2) 9 394 7 600 F a csim il e : (0 2) 9 394 7 601 E m ail : in fo @ co p yrig h t.c o m .a u E dit e d b y J u de H un te r T ex t d esig n b y D en is e L an e T yp ese t b y d ia criT ech , C hen nai, I n dia 3 Pro ofr e ad b y P h il ip B ry an In dex ed b y K are n G il le n Prin te d b y S h eck W ah T on g P rin tin g P re ss Lin ks t o t h ir d p arty w eb sit e s a re p ro vid ed b y O xfo rd i n g ood f a it h a n d f o r i n fo rm atio n o n ly . O xfo rd d is c la im s an y r e sp on sib ili t y f o r t h e m ate ria ls c o n ta in ed i n a n y t h ir d p arty w eb sit e r e fe re n ce d i n t h is w ork . 4 CO N TE N TS Lis t o f T ab le s Lis t o f B ox es In tr o d u ctio n Ack n ow le d gm en ts PA R T I   HIS TO R Y, T H EO R Y, A N D I N STIT U TIO N S 5 1   The D ev elo p m en t o f J u ven ile J u st ic e 6 2   Theo rie s o f J u ven ile O ffe n din g 7 3   The N atu re o f C on te m pora ry J u ven ile C rim e 8 4   The I n st it u tio n s o f J u ven ile J u st ic e PA R T I I   TH E S O CIA L D YN AM IC S O F J U VE N IL E J U STIC E 9 5   Cla ss a n d C om mun it y 10 6   In dig en ou s Y ou n g P eo p le 11 7   Eth n ic M in orit y Y ou n g P eo p le 12 8   You n g W om en , Y ou n g M en , a n d G en der PA R T I II   TH E S TA TE , P U N IS H M EN T, A N D C O M MUN IT Y 13 9   Poli c in g t h e Y ou n g 14 10   Cou rts a n d S en te n cin g P ro cesse s 15 11   Dete n tio n a n d C om mun it y C orre ctio n s 16 12   You th C rim e P re v en tio n 17 13   Rest o ra tiv e J u st ic e a n d J u ven ile C on fe re n cin g Bib li o gra ph y In dex 18 L IS T O F T A B LE S 3 .1 Alle g ed o ffe n ders a n d r e co rd ed c rim e, N ew S o u th W ale s, A pril 2 009– M arc h 2 010 3 .2 Alle g ed o ffe n ces b y j u ven ile s a p pre h en ded b y p oli c e, V ic to ria , 2 012– 13 3 .3 Perso n s c h arg ed i n f in ali s e d c rim in al m atte rs i n t h e N ew S o u th W ale s C hild re n ’s C ou rt durin g 2 013, b y s e x a n d o ffe n ce t y p e 4 .1 Dep artm en t r e sp on sib le f o r a d m in is t e rin g j u ven ile j u st ic e s e rv ic es, b y j u ris d ic tio n 4 .2 Child re n ’s C om mis sio n ers, b y j u ris d ic tio n 4 .3 You th A ffa ir s C ou n cils ( o r e q u iv ale n t) , b y j u ris d ic tio n 5 .1 Pare n ts’ p erc ep tio n s o f t h e c h ara cte ris t ic s o f a g o od p re sc h ool 6 .1 You n g p eo p le i n d ete n tio n c en tr e s i n A ust r a li a , d aily a v era g e 2 012– 13, b y I n dig en ou s s t a tu s 6 .2 In dig en ou s a n d n on -I n dig en ou s j u ven ile s: p oli c e a p pre h en sio n b y o ffe n ce c a te g o ry , Queen sla n d, 2 009– 10 6 .3 You n g p eo p le r e fe rre d b y p oli c e t o a c o n fe re n ce o r t o c o u rt, b y I n dig en ou s s t a tu s 7 .1 Num ber o f j u ven ile s w ho c a m e i n to c o n ta ct w it h V ic to ria P oli c e, b y ‘ r a cia l a p pea ra n ce’, 2012– 13 7 .2 Num ber o f j u ven ile s w ho c a m e i n to c o n ta ct w it h V ic to ria P oli c e, b y c o u n tr y o f b ir th , 2012– 13 8 .1 Ju ven ile s ( 1 0– 17 y ea r o ld s) a p pre h en ded b y Q ueen sla n d p oli c e, 2 009– 10, b y s e x ( n um ber an d p erc en ta g e) 1 0.1 Cou rt o u tc o m es f o r p ro ven o ffe n ces, N ew S o u th W ale s C hild re n ’s C ou rt, 2 013 19 L IS T O F B OXE S 1 .1 Furth er r e so u rc es o n g ir ls ’ i n dust r ia l s c h ools 1 .2 His t o ric a l i n te rp re ta tio n s 2 .1 You th s u bcu lt u re s: T he J u ggalo s 2 .2 Sex u al b ia s i n r a p e t r ia ls i n vo lv in g s e x w ork ers 2 .3 Main f o cu s o f t h eo rie s o f y o u th o ffe n din g 3 .1 You n g p eo p le a n d p etr o l- a n d d eo d ora n t-s n if fin g i n r e m ote c o m mun it ie s 3 .2 Feta l A lc o h ol S p ectr u m D is o rd er a n d c o n ta ct w it h t h e j u ven ile j u st ic e s y st e m 3 .3 You n g p eo p le , c y b er-b u lly in g a n d s u ic id e: t h e c a se o f A lle m H alk ic 4 .1 Key j u ven ile j u st ic e l e g is la tio n i n A ust r a li a , 2 015 4 .2 In te rn atio n al h um an r ig h ts: j u ven ile j u st ic e 5 .1 Can berra ‘ c rim e f a m ili e s’ 5 .2 You th o ffe n din g a n d p are n ta l r e sp on sib ili s a tio n : t h e c a se o f F aceb ook p artie s i n Queen sla n d 6 .1 The a ccu ra cy o f d ata o n I n dig en ou s s t a tu s i n c rim in al j u st ic e r e p ortin g 6 .2 Brin gin g T hem H om e —th e N atio n al I n qu ir y i n to t h e S ep ara tio n o f A borig in al a n d T orre s Str a it I sla n der C hild re n f r o m T heir F am ili e s 7 .1 West e rn S yd n ey g an g r a p es 7 .2 The L ogan ‘ r io ts’ o f 2 013 7 .3 Reso u rc es o n y o u n g p eo p le a n d i m mig ra tio n d ete n tio n 8 .1 ‘H ap py s la p pin g’ 8 .2 Ju d ic ia l o b se rv atio n s r e g ard in g y o u n g f e m ale o ffe n ders 9 .1 You th a n d p oli c e p erc ep tio n s o f e a ch o th er 9 .2 The H aile -M ic h ael r a cia l d is c rim in atio n a n d p ro fili n g c a se 9 .3 Lesb ia n , G ay , B is e x u al, T ra n sg en der, I n te rse x a n d Q ueer ( L G BT IQ ) y o u n g p eo p le ’s ex p erie n ces o f p oli c in g 9 .4 Fair c o p ? C om mis sio n er C hris t in e N ix o n a n d t h e s h if t t o c o m mun it y -o rie n te d p oli c in g i n Vic to ria 9 .5 Poli c e, d ru g d ogs, a n d m usic f e st iv als 1 2.1 So cia l i n st it u tio n s a n d y o u n g p eo p le 1 2.2 Mod els o f y o u th c rim e p re v en tio n 1 2.3 Prin cip le s f o r p re v en tin g o ffe n din g b y I n dig en ou s y o u n g p eo p le 1 2.4 Tow ard s j u st ic e r e in vest m en t i n N ew S o u th W ale s 1 3.1 Thre e w ay s t o r e sp on d t o y o u n g o ffe n ders 1 3.2 You n g p eo p le , v ic tim s a n d r e st o ra tiv e j u st ic e 1 3.3 You n g o ffe n ders, r e st o ra tiv e j u st ic e c o n fe re n ces a n d a p olo gy 20 21 I N TR OD U CTIO N T his b ook is a b ou t y o u th a n d c rim e in A ust r a li a , a n d t h e in st it u tio n s a n d a g en cie s a sso cia te d w it h t h e ad m in is t r a tio n o f ju ven ile ju st ic e. It p ro vid es an o verv ie w an d in tr o d uctio n to th e m ain c o n cep ts a n d is su es o f ju ven ile ju st ic e in a w ay th at is a ccessib le y et c rit ic a l. T he in te n tio n is to p ro vid e b asic i n fo rm atio n a cro ss a b ro ad r a n ge o f a re a s, a n d i n s o d oin g r a is e a n um ber o f q u est io n s a b ou t t h e i n st it u tio n s o f j u ven ile j u st ic e a n d, i n deed , h ow w e t h in k a b ou t i s su es o f j u ven ile j u st ic e. Dep ic tio n s of yo u n g offe n ders an d ju ven ile ju st ic e ag en cie s are all to o oft e n base d upon e x ag gera tio n , s t e re o ty p e, a n d c o n je ctu re . P oli t ic ia n s a n d t h e m ed ia c o n st a n tly b em oan t h e p re se n t y o u th g en era tio n ’s la ck o f d is c ip li n e a n d r e sp ect. W e a re f r e q u en tly t o ld t h at m an y o f t h ese y o u n g p eo p le , e sp ecia lly c erta in ‘e th n ic ’ y o u th , a re b ey o n d r e d em ptio n . F or e v ery s t o ry a b ou t a y o u th g an g, t h ere i s a s im ult a n eo u s d em an d f o r a n e v en b ig ger s t ic k t o k eep y o u n g p eo p le i n l i n e. You n g p eo p le , i t s e em s, s h ou ld n ot b e s e en o r h ea rd . T hey s h ou ld n ot b e a llo w ed i n t h e s t r e et o r b e v is ib le in c it y c en tr e s o r lo ca l n eig h bou rh ood s. T o g ro w u p ‘g o od ’, t h ey n eed t o b e r e st r ic te d in w here t h ey c a n g o a n d w hat t h ey c a n d o. T o p ro te ct s o cie ty , y o u n g p eo p le n eed t o b e u n der c o n tr o l a n d u n der s u rv eilla n ce. When y o u n g p eo p le a ct u p, w hen t h ey c o m mit c rim es o r e n gag e in a n tis o cia l b eh av io u r, t h en t h ey m ust b e h eld r e sp on sib le f o r t h eir a ctio n s. T hey m ust p ay f o r t h eir t r a n sg re ssio n s. T hey m ust m ak e a m en ds f o r t h e h arm t h ey h av e c a u se d . T hey m ust b e m ad e t o c h an ge t h eir w ay s. The d is t o rte d o u tlo oks o n a n d p u n it iv e a p pro ach es t o y o u th b eh av io u r t h at a re s o p ro m in en t i n t h e m ed ia a n d i n t h e p oli t ic a l a re n a a re m ad e m an if e st i n m an y d if fe re n t w ay s i n t h e j u ven ile j u st ic e s y st e m . Sim ult a n eo u sly , h ow ev er, n on -c o erc iv e alt e rn ativ es are als o b ein g d ev elo p ed , as m an y p ra ctit io n ers a n d t h eo ris t s in t h e fie ld o f ju ven ile ju st ic e a p pre cia te m ore fu lly t h an o th ers in t h e c o m mun it y th e c o m ple x it ie s a n d d if fic u lt ie s o f li f e fo r y o u n g p eo p le in th e tw en ty -f ir st c en tu ry . O ngo in g d eb ate a n d d is c u ssio n s u rro u n d h ow p eo p le t h in k a b ou t t h e p ro b le m s o f ‘ y o u th c rim e’ a n d a ls o h ow b est to re sp on d to it . C om petin g o p in io n s in dic a te b oth th e h ig h ly p oli t ic a l n atu re o f j u ven ile j u st ic e a n d i m porta n t d if fe re n ces i n b asic p h ilo so p h ie s. It is m ore t h an t w o d eca d es s in ce t h e fir st e d it io n o f Ju ven ile J u st ic e w as p u bli s h ed b y O xfo rd U niv ersit y P re ss. S in ce th en w e h av e se en a t v ario u s tim es h eig h te n ed p u bli c c o n cern a n d m ora l p an ic s a b ou t e th n ic m in orit y y o u th , th e in cre a se in y o u n g w om en in th e ju ven ile ju st ic e sy st e m , a b ou t yo u n g re fu gees an d ab ou t yo u th gan gs; w e h av e se en th e d ev elo p m en t of m an dato ry s e n te n cin g r e g im es f o r ju ven ile o ffe n ders in t h e N orth ern T errit o ry ( sin ce r e p ea le d ) a n d W est e rn A ust r a li a (st ill in p la ce); th e a p pare n t a ccep ta n ce o f z ero to le ra n ce p oli c in g, e sp ecia lly in p u bli c s p aces; th e p ersis t e n t o ver-r e p re se n ta tio n o f In dig en ou s y o u n g p eo p le w it h in th e ju ven ile ju st ic e s y st e m ( w hic h h as g ro w n w orse in s o m e ju ris d ic tio n s) ; an d in te n sif ic a tio n o f in te rv en tio n in t h e l i v es o f y o u n g o ffe n ders a n d n on -o ffe n ders a li k e. In eq u ali t y a n d so cia l p ola ris a tio n a re g ro w in g, a cco m pan ie d by th e ra cia li s a tio n of crim in al ju st ic e an d th e crim in ali s a tio n of th e poor— e x acerb ate d b y th ose fe d era l go vern m en ts th at d o n ot ex h ib it a st r o n g co m mit m en t to so cia l i n clu sio n a n d s o cia l ju st ic e. W it h t h e d em is e o f t h e w elf a re s t a te a n d t h e r is e o f t h e r e p re ssiv e s t a te , d is c u ssio n h as o ft e n c en tr e d o n h ow b est to c o n tr o l, m an ag e, a n d c o n ta in th ose y o u th su ffe rin g m ost fr o m t h e d is a d van ta g es o f s o cia l, e co n om ic , a n d p oli t ic a l e x clu sio n . I n p ra ctic a l t e rm s t h ese c h an ges m an if e st t h em se lv es i n g ro w in g r e m an d p op u la tio n s a s m ore y o u n g p eo p le a re r e fu se d b ail, a n d t h e in tr o d uctio n o f m ore p u n it iv e le g is la tiv e m ea su re s s u ch a s m ove-o n p ow ers f o r p oli c e a n d 22 co u rt o rd ers p ro h ib it in g a n tis o cia l b eh av io u r. On th e p osit iv e sid e, g re a te r a tte n tio n is n ow b ein g g iv en to th e b asic r ig h ts a n d w ellb ein g o f yo u n g p eo p le . I n p artic u la r, t h ere h as b een a g ro w th in t h e h um an r ig h ts p ersp ectiv e a s a c rit ic a l persp ectiv e b y w hic h t o e v alu ate p oli c in g p ra ctic es, t h e o p era tio n o f c o u rts a n d y o u th c o n fe re n ces, an d th e co n dit io n s u n der w hic h y o u n g p eo p le are d eta in ed o r se n te n ced to co m mun it y w ork . Ren ew ed e m ph asis o n c rim e p re v en tio n h as li k ew is e b een u se d t o c h alle n ge e x p li c it ly t h e c o erc iv e ‘l a w a n d o rd er’ a p pro ach es. M ea n w hile , t h e p ra ctic es o f ‘r e st o ra tiv e ju st ic e’, w it h a n e m ph asis o n re p air in g s o cia l h arm , c a n s e rv e a s a n im porta n t c o u n te rw eig h t t o t r a d it io n al r e tr ib u tiv e m eth od s th at e m ph asis e p u n is h m en t. A ll A ust r a li a n s t a te s a n d t e rrit o rie s h av e s o m e d iv ersio n ary p ro cesse s i n pla ce, in clu d in g p oli c e c a u tio n in g a n d y o u th c o n fe re n ces. D ecre a sin g c rim e ra te s d urin g th e la st deca d e m ay y et p ro vid e a n o p portu n it y t o lo w er o u r le v els o f y o u th i n ca rc era tio n a n d e x p an d n on – pu n it iv e, s o cia lly s u pportiv e y o u th j u st ic e p oli c ie s. Analy sis o f t h e p rin cip le s, p oli c ie s, a n d p ra ctic es o f ju ven ile ju st ic e is n ev er a p oli t ic a lly n eu tr a l ex erc is e : th at is , it a lw ay s in vo lv es v alu e ju d gm en ts o f so m e k in d. In o u r v ie w , su ch re v ie w a n d ev alu atio n o u gh t t o b e g u id ed b y a v is io n o f s o cie ty , a n d o f y o u n g p eo p le , in w hic h h um an r ig h ts an d d ig n it y a re r e sp ecte d , a n d s o cia l e q u ali t y a n d h um an li b era tio n a re t h e g o als . T his m ea n s t h at is su es o f c la ss d iv is io n , ra cis m , se x is m , h om op h ob ia , a n d c o lo n ia li s m c a n n ev er b e fa r fr o m th e cen tr e o f a n aly sis . T he m arg in ali s a tio n o f s p ecif ic g ro u ps o f y o u n g p eo p le ( a n d t h eir fa m ili e s a n d co m mun it ie s) , an d th eir crim in ali s a tio n by th e m ain st r e a m crim in al ju st ic e sy st e m , re fle ct su bst a n tiv e i n eq u ali t ie s a n d t h e o p pre ssiv e s t r u ctu re s t h at s h ap e e v ery d ay l i f e i n A ust r a li a n s o cie ty . This b ook is d iv id ed in to th re e p arts. Part I , ‘H is t o ry , T heo ry , an d In st it u tio n s’, p ro vid es a his t o ric a l a n d t h eo re tic a l o verv ie w o f t h e d ev elo p m en t o f ju ven ile ju st ic e, i t s m ain i n st it u tio n s, a n d th e n atu re o f c o n te m pora ry ju ven ile c rim e a s d ete rm in ed b y t h e a ctio n s o f o ffic ia l s t a te a g en cie s. Part I I , ‘T he S o cia l D yn am ic s o f J u ven ile J u st ic e’, p ro vid es a n a n aly sis o f h ow c la ss, e th n ic it y , r a ce, an d g en der im pin ge u pon th e p ro cesse s a n d in st it u tio n s o f ju ven ile ju st ic e, a n d h ow p artic u la r gro u ps o f y o u n g p eo p le a re d ea lt w it h b y t h e s y st e m i n w ay s t h at r e fle ct t h eir s p ecif ic s o cia l l o ca tio n an d s t a tu s i n s o cie ty . Part I II , ‘T he S ta te , P un is h m en t, a n d C om mun it y ’, e x am in es t h e o p era tio n o f vario u s p arts o f th e ju ven ile ju st ic e sy st e m , fr o m p oli c e a n d c o u rts th ro u gh to d ete n tio n , c rim e pre v en tio n , a n d ju ven ile co n fe re n cin g. E ach s e ctio n o f t h e b ook p ro vid es a w id e-r a n gin g s u rv ey o f re le v an t f a cts a n d f ig u re s, l i t e ra tu re , a n d c o n cep ts, w hile r a is in g i s su es a n d p ersp ectiv es n ecessa ry t o a crit ic a l a p pra is a l o f k ey q u est io n s i n t h e j u ven ile j u st ic e a re a . If w e a re t o c o m pre h en d t h e s it u atio n o f y o u n g p eo p le a d eq u ate ly , a n d t o i n te rp re t t h eir p osit io n wit h in t h e f ie ld o f c rim in al ju st ic e, t h en a n aly sis m ust b e i n fo rm ed t h eo re tic a lly a s w ell a s v ali d ate d em pir ic a lly . A crit ic a l crim in olo gy is on e th at bu ild s upon th e kn ow le d ge an d co n cep tu al co n tr ib u tio n s o f so cia lly p ro gre ssiv e p ersp ectiv es a n d a p pro ach es. I n so d oin g, th e o b je ctiv e is to pro vid e a c le a r, u n am big u ou s p ic tu re o f t h e e x is t in g f ie ld , w hile r e ta in in g a c rit ic a l e d ge. The m is r e p re se n ta tio n o f y o u th o n t h e o n e h an d a n d t h e i n tr u siv en ess o f t h e s t a te o n t h e o th er, dem an d th at is su es o f y o u n g p eo p le a n d c rim e b e c o n sid ere d c a re fu lly a n d in a w id er so cia l a n d poli t ic a l c o n te x t. W e h op e th at, in it s o w n m od est w ay , th is b ook w ill a ssis t th ose w ho w is h to cre a te a m ore h um an e a n d s o cia lly j u st s y st e m o f j u ven ile j u st ic e i n A ust r a li a . 23 A CK N OW LE D GM EN TS T am ara B ell, K yli e B urg ess, P atr ic k D uP on t a n d P riy an ka G upta p ro vid ed r e se a rc h a ssis t a n ce t o t h e f if t h e d it io n o f Ju ven ile J u st ic e : Y ou th a n d C rim e i n A ust r a li a . The a u th ors a n d t h e p u bli s h er w is h t o t h an k t h e f o llo w in g c o p yrig h t h old ers f o r r e p ro d uctio n o f t h eir m ate ria l. Im ag es: A AP/D av id H un t f o r i m ag e o f L ogan C om mun it y m em bers; A la m y/Jim N ew berry f o r J u ggalo i m ag e; N ew sp ix /Ja y T ow n f o r C hris t in e N ix o n i m ag e. Tex t: A ust r a li a n C le a rin g H ou se f o r Y ou th S tu d ie s f o r e x tr a ct f r o m You n g P eo p le , D an ger o u s D riv in g a n d C ar C ult u re b y G ra h am , H . a n d W hit e , R . 2 007; A ust r a li a n H um an R ig h ts C om mis sio n f o r e x tr a ct f r o m The N atio n al I n qu ir y I n to th e Sep a ra tio n of A borig in al an d T orres Str a it Isla n der C hild ren fr o m T heir Fam ili e s ( N IS A TSIC 1 997); A ust r a li a n L aw R efo rm C om mis sio n fo r e x tr a ct fr o m R ep ort 8 4, Seen a n d H ea rd : P rio rit y fo r C hild ren in th e L eg a l P ro ce ss ; B on dy, J ., O gili v ie , A . & A st b u ry , B fo r e x tr a ct f r o m Liv in g o n t h e E dge: U nder st a n din g t h e S ocia l C on te x t o f K nife C arria ge a m on g Y ou n g P eo p le , R M IT U niv ersit y P re ss, M elb ou rn e; C om mis sio n er f o r C hild re n T asm an ia f o r e x tr a ct f r o m Vie w s: L ife In sid e A sh le y Y ou th D ete n tio n C en tr e , 2 010; C om mon w ea lt h o f A ust r a li a fo r e x tr a ct fr o m S en ate C om mun it y A ffa ir s R efr e n ces C om mit te e R ep ort Forg o tte n A ust r a li a n s: A rep ort on A ust r a li a n s w ho e x per ie n ce d i n st it u tio n al o r o u t- o f- h om e c a re a s c h ild ren . 2 004; I n te rn atio n al J o u rn al f o r C rim e, J u st ic e a n d S o cia l D em ocra cy fo r e x tr a ct fr o m T ufa il, W . & P oyn tin g, S . A C om mon “ O utla w ness” : C rim in ali s a tio n o f M usli m M in orit ie s in th e U K a n d A ust r a li a (2 013); M elb ou rn e U niv ersit y P re ss f o r e x tr a ct f r o m Fair C op b y C . N ix o n a n d J . C han dle r, 2 011; P ris o n R efo rm T ru st L on don f o r e x tr a ct f r o m Care- A S te p pin g S to n e t o C ust o d y? T he V ie w s o f C hild ren in C are o n t h e L in ks betw een C are, O ffe n din g an d C ust o d y . B la d es et al. (2 011); Q ueen sla n d P arli a m en ta ry C ou n cil f o r e x tr a ct f r o m t h e You th J u st ic e A ct 1 992 , s e ctio n 1 50; S ta te o f Q ueen sla n d f o r e x tr a ct f r o m Queen sla n d P oli c e S er v ic e 2 012 . Annual S ta tis t ic a l R ev ie w 2 011– 12 , Q PS: B ris b an e; S u pre m e C ou rt o f T asm an ia fo r c a se e x tr a ct; U nit e d N atio n s fo r e x tr a ct fr o m Con ven tio n o n th e R ig h ts o f C hild , G en er a l C om men t N o. 1 0 , U nit e d N atio n s C om mit te e o n th e R ig h ts o f th e C hild , 2 010. R ep rin te d w it h p erm is sio n o f t h e U nit e d N atio n s, fo r e x tr a ct fr o m Sta n dard M in im um R ule s fo r t h e A dm in is t r a tio n o f J u ven ile J u st ic e ( T he B eiji n g R ule s) , U nit e d N atio n s G en era l A sse m bly , 1 985, r e p rin te d w it h p erm is sio n o f t h e U nit e d N atio n s; V ic to ria P oli c e f o r e x tr a ct f r o m Crim e S ta tis t ic s 2 012/1 3 , V ic to ria P oli c e, M elb ou rn e. Every e ffo rt h as b een m ad e t o t r a ce t h e o rig in al s o u rc e o f c o p yrig h t m ate ria l c o n ta in ed in t h is b ook. T he p u bli s h er w ill b e p le a se d to h ea r fr o m co p yrig h t h old ers to re ctif y an y erro rs o r o m is sio n s. 24 PA RT I HIS TO R Y, T H EO R Y, AN D I N STIT U TIO N S 1   TH E D EVE LO PM EN T O F J U VE N IL E J U STIC E 2   TH EO R IE S O F J U VE N IL E O FFE N DIN G 3   TH E N ATU RE O F C O N TE M PO R AR Y J U VE N IL E C R IM E 4   TH E I N STIT U TIO N S O F J U VE N IL E J U STIC E 25 1 TH E D EVE LO PM EN T O F J U VE N IL E JU STIC E 26 C H AP TE R H IG H LIG H TS In tr o d u ctio n Early n in ete en th -c e n tu ry d eve lo p m en ts Poor o r c rim in al? Refo rm ato rie s a n d i n du str ia l s ch ools Th e r e alit y o f l if e i n t h e s ch ools Th e j u ve n il e c o u rt Ju dic ia l t h era p is ts Gen dere d a p pro ach es Polic e , l a w , a n d j u ve n il e d elin qu en cy Exp la in in g c h an ge Con clu sio n I N TR OD U CTIO N T o u n derst a n d t h e c o n te m pora ry d eb ate s a b ou t ju ven ile ju st ic e a n d t h e n atu re o f ju ven ile c rim e, i t i s im porta n t to th in k ab ou t is su es re la tin g to h is t o ry an d th eo ry . H av e ju ven ile s alw ay s b een i n vo lv ed i n c rim e, o r i s i t a m od ern p h en om en on ? H ow h av e o u r t h ou gh ts a b ou t y o u n g p eo p le a n d c rim e c h an ged ? H as th e p la ce o f y o u n g p eo p le in so cie ty c h an ged ? T he a im o f th is c h ap te r is to c o n sid er t h ese q u est io n s i n m ore d eta il t h ro u gh a n u n derst a n din g o f t h e h is t o ric a l d ev elo p m en t o f a s e p ara te ju ven ile ju st ic e s y st e m . T o b eg in w it h , it is w orth c o n sid erin g t h e t e rm s w e u se . F ir st , it is n ecessa ry t o r e a li s e t h at t h e c a te g o rie s ‘y o u th ’, ‘a d ole sc en t’, a n d ‘j u ven ile ’ a re n ot u n iv ersa l, n or a re t h ey n ecessa rily u se d c o n sis t e n tly w it h in a s o cie ty . I t is im porta n t t o k n ow w here p artic u la r id ea s a b ou t y o u n g p eo p le ca m e fr o m an d h ow th ese d ev elo p ed . T he so cia l co n st r u ctio n o f y o u th is n eit h er a n atu ra l n or a n eu tr a l p ro cess, n or i s i t d iv o rc ed f r o m w id er s o cia l, p oli t ic a l, a n d e co n om ic d ev elo p m en ts ( se e B ern ard & K urly ch ek 2 010; C ost e r 2 007). Seco n d, n otio n s o f ju ven ile d eli n qu en cy d ep en d o n a n d re cre a te p artic u la r id ea s a b ou t y o u n g p eo p le a s a se p ara te a n d so cia lly d efin ab le g ro u p. P ut sim ply , th ere c a n b e n o th eo ry o f ju ven ile o ffe n din g w it h ou t a c o n cep t o f ‘j u ven ile ’. F or e x am ple , in p u bli c u sa g e a n d a ca d em ic st u d y, th e w ord ‘ y o u th ’ h as o ft e n i m pli c it ly ( if n ot e x p li c it ly ) b een u se d t o r e fe r p rim arily to y o u n g m en . M uch o f t h e c o n cern w it h y o u th h as c o n sis t e n tly ig n ore d t h e e x p erie n ces o f y o u n g w om en , o r r e le g ate d t h ese t o s e co n dary i m porta n ce b eca u se o f s e x is t d efin it io n s a n d c o n cep tio n s o f t h e ‘r e a l w orld ’ ( se e C hap te r 8 ). Thir d , th e sy st e m s d ev elo p ed fo r d ea li n g w it h ju ven ile d eli n qu en cy a n d c rim e a re c re a te d a n d d ev elo p ed in partic u la r his t o ric a l co n te x ts. A co n sid ere d un derst a n din g of th e his t o ric a l d ev elo p m en t o f j u ven ile j u st ic e i s i m porta n t b eca u se o f t h e l e v el o f m yth olo gy s u rro u n din g j u ven ile o ffe n din g. The c o m mon t h em es o f l o ss o f a u th orit y i n t h e k ey i n st it u tio n s— th e f a m ily , e d uca tio n , a n d l a w e n fo rc em en t— co n st a n tly r e -e m erg e, a lo n g w it h c la im s th at p erm is siv en ess h as in cre a se d le v els o f j u ven ile v io le n ce a n d lo w ere d st a n dard s o f p u bli c b eh av io u r. W it h in th is sc en ario , th e so lu tio n s p ro p ose d a re o ft e n e q u ally s im ple : g re a te r le v els o f in te rv en tio n b y s t a te a g en cie s a rm ed w it h m ore p u n it iv e p ow ers. The co n cep t o f ju ven ile d eli n qu en cy d ate s fr o m th e ea rly n in ete en th cen tu ry . A cco rd in g to 27 Bern ard ( 1 992), o n e o f t h e f ir st u se s o f t h e t e rm w as i n t h e Rep ort o f t h e C om mit te e f o r I n vest ig a tin g th e C au se s o f t h e A la rm in g I n cr ea se o f J u ven ile D eli n qu en cy i n t h e M etr o p oli s , p u bli s h ed i n L on don i n 1816. T he c o n cep t o f j u ven ile d eli n qu en cy i s h is t o ric a lly c o n tin gen t ( th at i s , t h e c o n cep t d ev elo p ed at a p artic u la r m om en t in h is t o ry ). S ev era l c o m men ta to rs h av e a ls o a rg u ed t h at t h e ph en om en on o f ju ven ile crim e is als o co n tin gen t (B ern ard & K urly ch ek 2010). In deed , Ferd in an d (1 989) pro vo ca tiv ely a sk ed : ‘W hic h c a m e fir st : ju ven ile d eli n qu en cy o r ju ven ile ju st ic e?’ I n o th er w ord s, what a re t h e o rig in s o f a n d r e la tio n sh ip b etw een t h e b eh av io u rs t h at a re c h ara cte ris e d a s ju ven ile offe n din g, a n d t h e i n st it u tio n s a n d p ra ctic es o f t h e c rim in al ju st ic e s y st e m d ev elo p ed s p ecif ic a lly t o dea l w it h y o u th ? I n o u r v ie w , t h ey a ro se s im ult a n eo u sly . T he p h en om en on o f ju ven ile d eli n qu en cy ap pea rs to b e sp ecif ic a lly m od ern . S o m e co m men ta to rs h av e arg u ed th at it o ccu rre d w it h th e tr a n sit io n fr o m ru ra l to urb an so cie tie s an d is asso cia te d w it h fiv e fa cto rs, th ese bein g th e bre a k d ow n o f t r a d it io n al m ech an is m s o f s o cia l c o n tr o l, u rb an is a tio n , in dust r ia li s a tio n , p op u la tio n gro w th , a n d ju ven ile ju st ic e m ech an is m s t h at s y st e m atic a lly d ete ct ju ven ile o ffe n din g ( B ern ard & Kurly ch ek 2 010:3 4– 40). W hile t h ese f iv e f a cto rs a re im porta n t, it is o u r v ie w t h at t h e c la ss-b ase d natu re o f ju ven ile ju st ic e n eed s to b e r e co gn is e d ( se e Chap te r 5 ). T he tr a n sfo rm atio n s to w hic h Bern ard a n d K urly ch ek r e fe r o ccu rre d w it h t h e d ev elo p m en t o f i n dust r ia l c a p it a li s m , w hic h c re a te d an u rb an is e d w ork in g c la ss. N ew s y st e m s o f d ea li n g w it h y o u n g p eo p le t a rg ete d t h e y o u th o f t h is new ly f o rm ed c la ss. I n a d dit io n , t h e s y st e m s o f c o n tr o l t h at w ere in tr o d uced in to c o lo n ie s s u ch a s Aust r a li a w ere im pose d in a so cie ty th at w as a ls o in th e p ro cess o f d is p osse ssin g a n In dig en ou s min orit y . T he tr e a tm en t o f In dig en ou s y o u n g p eo p le b eca m e an im porta n t co m pon en t in th e dev elo p m en t o f ju ven ile ju st ic e in A ust r a li a , alt h ou gh as w e n ote in Chap te r 6 it w as to ta k e so m ew hat d if fe re n t f o rm s f r o m t h e t r e a tm en t o f n on -I n dig en ou s c h ild re n . The k ey p erio d in u n derst a n din g t h e d ev elo p m en t o f a s e p ara te s y st e m f o r d ea li n g w it h ju ven ile offe n ders is th e se co n d h alf o f th e n in ete en th cen tu ry . T his w as an im porta n t p erio d in th e co n st r u ctio n o f o th er a g e-b ase d d if fe re n ces in vo lv in g y o u n g p eo p le , in clu d in g r e st r ic tio n s o n c h ild la b ou r a n d t h e in tr o d uctio n o f c o m pu ls o ry s c h ooli n g. T he s t a te b eg an t o in te rv en e a ctiv ely in t h e pro vis io n o f ‘w elf a re ’ f o r t h e c h ild re n o f t h e ‘p eris h in g c la sse s’. In p ra ctic e, t h ese v ario u s m ea su re s were li n ked c lo se ly . F or e x am ple , in th e sa m e y ea r th at th e Publi c S ch ools A ct 1 866 (N SW ) w as passe d th e Refo rm ato ry S ch ools A ct (fo r yo u n g p eo p le co n vic te d o f crim in al o ffe n ces) an d th e In du st r ia l Sch ools A ct an d Work h ou se A ct (fo r vag ra n t ch ild re n ) w ere passe d in th e U nit e d Kin gd om . S p ecif ic a lly , in A ust r a li a t h e f ir st m oves t o id en tif y a n d r e co gn is e t h e c a te g o ry o f ‘y o u n g offe n ders’ o ccu rre d w it h t h e d ev elo p m en t o f in st it u tio n s fo r d ea li n g w it h n eg le cte d a n d d est it u te ch ild re n . T he m ajo r le g al c h an ge in A ust r a li a d urin g th e p erio d w as th e m od if ic a tio n o f c o u rt pro ced ure s to a llo w fo r ju ven ile s to b e d ea lt w it h su m marily (th at is , to h av e th eir le ss se rio u s ch arg es d ete rm in ed b y a m ag is t r a te ) (S ey m ou r 1 988:3 ). M ore b ro ad ly , ju ven ile ju st ic e w as an ele m en t in t h e e x p an sio n o f s t a te c o n tr o l a n d r e g u la tio n t h at o ccu rre d d urin g t h e la te r p art o f t h e nin ete en th a n d t h e e a rly t w en tie th c en tu rie s. EA R LY N IN ETE EN TH -C EN TU RY D EVE LO PM EN TS There a re a n um ber o f s im ila rit ie s in t h e m eth od s t h at w ere d ev elo p ed fo r d ea li n g w it h ju ven ile s acro ss vario u s n atio n s, in clu d in g A ust r a li a , N ew Z ea la n d, th e U SA , C an ad a, an d th e U nit e d Kin gd om . O ne r e a so n f o r t h ese s im ila rit ie s w as t h e e co n om ic , s o cia l, a n d p oli t ic a l t r a n sfo rm atio n s alr e a d y m en tio n ed t h at w ere o ccu rrin g a t t h e t im e. Until t h e e a rly n in ete en th c en tu ry , c h ild re n w ere e x p ecte d t o e n te r t h e a d ult w orld a t a y o u n g 28 ag e. C hild la b ou r w as s t ill r e g ard ed a s u n iv ersa l. F or e x am ple , in t h e e a rly p art o f t h e n in ete en th cen tu ry , so m e 8 0 p er cen t o f w ork ers in E ngli s h co tto n m ills w ere ch ild re n (M orris & G ille r 1987:4 ). S im ila rly , t h e c rim in al ju st ic e s y st e m d id li t tle t o fo rm ally s e p ara te c h ild re n fr o m a d ult s. There w as n o s e p ara te l e g al c a te g o ry o f ‘ j u ven ile o ffe n der’. At c o m mon l a w , t h e a g e o f c rim in al r e sp on sib ili t y w as s e v en y ea rs o ld . F or c h ild re n b etw een t h e ag es o f se v en a n d 1 4 y ea rs, th ere w as a p re su m ptio n th at th ey w ere in ca p ab le o f c o m mit tin g a n offe n ce ( doli i n ca pa x ). H ow ev er, t h is p re su m ptio n c o u ld b e r e b u tte d in c o u rt b y s h ow in g t h at t h e ch ild k n ew t h e d if fe re n ce b etw een r ig h t a n d w ro n g, a n d k n ew t h e a ct i n q u est io n t o b e w ro n g. I t i s not cle a r w heth er ru le s re la tin g to th e a g e o f crim in al re sp on sib ili t y w ere effe ctiv e in p ra ctic e: accu ra te k n ow le d ge o f c h ild re n ’s a g es m ig h t n ot h av e b een a v aila b le , o r m ag is t r a te s m ig h t h av e b een ig n ora n t o f t h e l a w . I n a n y c a se , c h ild re n u n der t h e a g e o f s e v en w ere i n ca rc era te d , a n d i n V ic to ria i n th e m id -1 860s, c h ild re n a s y o u n g a s s ix c o u ld b e f o u n d i n P en tr id ge G ao l ( S ey m ou r 1 988:6 ). In te rm s o f p u n is h m en t, a d ult s a n d ju ven ile s w ere tr e a te d th e sa m e: d ete rre n ce w as th e m ain ob je ct. A n E ngli s h ju d ge, a ft e r s e n te n cin g a 1 0 y ea r o ld t o d ea th , s t a te d t h at t h e c h ild w as a ‘p ro p er su bje ct f o r c a p it a l p u n is h m en t a n d o u gh t t o s u ffe r’. O n o n e d ay i n 1 815, f iv e c h ild re n b etw een e ig h t an d 1 2 yea rs o ld w ere h an ged in E ngla n d fo r p etty la rc en y (th eft ) (M orris & G ille r 1 987:6 ). Sim ila rly , in A ust r a li a , y o u th s w ere e x ecu te d , f lo gged , a n d s e n te n ced t o r o ad g an gs, t r a n sp orta tio n , an d i m pris o n m en t ( S ey m ou r 1 988:8 – 9). There is s o m e a rg u m en t, h ow ev er, o ver t h e e x te n t t o w hic h c h ild re n w ere t r e a te d t h e s a m e a s ad ult s. T he a g e o f th e o ffe n der w as so m etim es h eld to b e a m it ig atin g fa cto r in se n te n cin g. F or ex am ple , in R v . R oss [ 1 832] N ew S o u th W ale s S u pre m e C ou rt 5 8 th e ju d ge im pose d th e d ea th pen alt y a g ain st a 1 4 y ea r o ld , b u t b eca u se o f t h e ju ry ’s r e co m men datio n f o r m erc y t h e c a se w as s e n t to t h e G overn or fo r c o n sid era tio n o f c le m en cy ( B oersig 2 003:1 30). P la tt ( 1 977) su ggest s th at in ca se s r e la tin g t o c a p it a l p u n is h m en t, t h e p ro se cu tio n r e fu se d t o c h arg e, j u rie s r e fu se d t o c o n vic t, a n d pard on s w ere giv en m ore fr e q u en tly th an fo r ad ult s. N otio n s of ‘c o n ta m in atio n ’ w ere als o im porta n t in a rg u m en ts c o n cern in g t h e s e p ara tio n o f ju ven ile s fr o m a d ult o ffe n ders in p ris o n . I n 1836 i n E ngla n d, t h e r e p ort o f t h e I n sp ecto r o f P ris o n s n ote d t h at: ‘t h e b oy [ sic ] i s t h ro w n a m on g vete ra n s in g u ilt … a n d h is v ic io u s p ro p en sit ie s c h eris h ed a n d in fla m ed … H e e n te rs t h e p ris o n a ch ild in y ea rs, a n d n ot in fr e q u en tly a ls o in c rim e; b u t h e le a v es it w it h a k n ow le d ge in t h e w ay s o f wic k ed n ess’ ( c it e d in M orris & G ille r 1 987:8 ). I n A ust r a li a , t h ere w ere a tte m pts t o k eep c h ild re n se p ara te fr o m a d ult s, e v en w here th ey w ere h eld in th e sa m e ja il (D aria n -S m it h 2 010:3 ). S o m e mag is t r a te s atte m pte d to av o id im pris o n in g yo u n g p eo p le b y d is c h arg in g fir st o ffe n ders, u sin g co n dit io n al d is c h arg es b y p la cin g c h ild re n i n t h e c a re o f p are n ts o r i n st it u tio n s, o r u sin g c o n dit io n al pard on s ( S ey m ou r 1 988:9 ). B oersig ( 2 003) s u ggest s t h at in so m e c a se s c o n sid era tio n w as g iv en t o th e y o u th o f t h e o ffe n der w hen s e n te n cin g. T hese p ra ctic es m od if ie d a n o th erw is e d ra co n ia n c o d e. The in cre a sin g p ris o n p op u la tio n in t h e U nit e d K in gd om d urin g t h e m id -n in ete en th c en tu ry a ls o pro m pte d r e fo rm ( M ay 1 981). In t h e U SA , t h e f ir st ju ven ile i n st it u tio n s w ere h ou se s o f r e fu ge s u ch a s t h e N ew Y ork H ou se o f Refu ge. T his r e fu ge w as e st a b li s h ed in 1 825 a ft e r n um ero u s r e p orts d re w a tte n tio n t o t h e f a ct t h at pen it e n tia rie s c o n ta in ed n o se p ara te fa cili t ie s fo r ju ven ile s. H ow ev er, it a p pea rs th at fe w o f th e yo u th se n t to th e re fu ge w ou ld h av e g o n e to th e p en it e n tia ry in a n y c a se . M an y w ere th ere fo r vag ra n cy ( th at is , b ein g p en nile ss a n d u n em plo yed in a p u bli c p la ce). T he ‘p la cin g o u t’ s y st e m f o r ju ven ile s, w here b y y o u th w ere s e n t t o w ork o n f a rm s ( B ern ard 1 992), d ev elo p ed a t a b ou t t h e s a m e tim e. There w as a se n se o f cris is in th e ea rly n in ete en th cen tu ry co n cern in g so cia l is su es su ch as 29 urb an is a tio n , in dust r ia li s a tio n , a n d t h e g ro w th o f t r a d e u n io n s a n d w ork in g-c la ss m ili t a n cy , a lo n g wit h c o n cern s a b ou t p au peris m , v ag ra n cy , a n d ju ven ile c rim e. T here w ere a ls o c h an ges in t h e w ay crim e w as b ein g c o n cep tu ali s e d . A s w e d is c u ss in Chap te r 2 , c la ssic a l c rim in olo gy s a w c rim e a s a n ou tc o m e o f f r e e w ill, a n d t h e r o le o f p u n is h m en t a s d ete rre n ce. H ow ev er, b y t h e e a rly n in ete en th cen tu ry th ere w as a g ro w th in c la ssif ic a to ry sy st e m s o f c rim in al c a u sa tio n re la te d to th e ris e o f posit iv is t crim in olo gy. For ex am ple , th e 1816 re p ort in to ju ven ile deli n qu en cy in L on don , men tio n ed e a rli e r, st a te s th e m ain c a u se s o f ju ven ile d eli n qu en cy to b e th e im pro p er c o n duct o f pare n ts, th e w an t o f ed uca tio n , an d th e w an t o f su it a b le em plo ym en t. T he sa m e re p ort als o id en tif ie s p ro b le m s w it h th e se v erit y o f th e crim in al co d e, a n d th e p oor a n d d efic ie n t st a te o f poli c in g. I n o th er w ord s, t h e r e sp on sib ili t y f o r ju ven ile o ffe n din g w as n ot n ecessa rily s e en a s s o le ly th at o f t h e y o u n g p erso n ( M orris & G ille r 1 987:1 6). Gro w th in th e co lle ctio n o f crim in al st a tis t ic s fa cili t a te d a fo cu s o n ju ven ile s. B y th e m id – nin ete en th c en tu ry , c rim in al s t a tis t ic s i n E ngla n d a n d W ale s w ere s h ow in g t h at t h e 1 5- t o 2 0-y ea r- old ag e gro u p w as o ver-r e p re se n te d in o ffe n din g fig u re s (M orris & G ille r 1 987:7 ). T hus, th e dev elo p m en t o f s t a tis t ic s, c o m bin ed w it h t h at o f o th er d is c ip li n es, a llo w ed fo r t h e d is c o very o f a ‘n ew p ro b le m ’. Con te m pora ry r e li g io u s v ie w s a ls o f it te d w ell w it h t h e n otio n t h at d eli n qu en cy w as t h e r e su lt o f so cia l a n d m ora l c o n dit io n s r a th er t h an in nate d ep ra v it y . T he f o cu s o n t h e p h ysic a l c o n dit io n s o f th e p oor in cre a se d , a s d id th e v ie w th at w ork in g-c la ss fa m ili e s w ere in effe ctiv e a n d u n re li a b le in th eir p are n tin g. PO OR O R C R IM IN AL? In A ust r a li a , t h e f ir st s t e p s t o w ard s c re a tin g a s e p ara te s y st e m f o r j u ven ile s o ccu rre d a s a r e su lt o f t h e pro b le m o f d ea li n g w it h y o u n g p eo p le w ho w ere a rriv in g a s t r a n sp orte d c o n vic ts. A ppro xim ate ly 1 5 per c en t o f a ll t r a n sp orte d c o n vic ts s e n t t o A ust r a li a w ere u n der t h e a g e o f 1 8 y ea rs ( D aria n -S m it h 2010:3 ). F ro m t h e l a te e ig h te en th c en tu ry , v ario u s s c h em es i n vo lv in g a p pre n tic esh ip s w ere u tili s e d , an d b y t h e b eg in nin g o f t h e n in ete en th c en tu ry t h ere w ere a tte m pts t o s e p ara te c h ild c o n vic ts f r o m th e c o n ta m in atio n o f a d ult s. B y 1 819 a ju ven ile s e ctio n o f t h e C arte r B arra ck s w as e st a b li s h ed f o r co n vic t b oys, w hile g ir l c o n vic ts w ere d eta in ed in th e P arra m atta F em ale F acto ry ( D aria n -S m it h 2010:3 – 4). Orp h an s c h ools w ere e st a b li s h ed f r o m t h e e a rly 1 800s t o d ea l w it h d est it u te c h ild re n . T he o rig in s of th e c h ild w elf a re sy st e m in A ust r a li a in clu d e th e e st a b li s h m en t o f th e F em ale O rp h an S ch ool (1 801); t h e M ale O rp h an S ch ool ( 1 819); t h e B en ev o le n t A sy lu m ( 1 821) f o r ‘ d est it u te , u n fo rtu n ate , need y f a m ili e s’; t h e F em ale S ch ool o f I n dust r y ( 1 826); t h e R om an C ath oli c O rp h an S ch ool ( 1 837); an d th e R an dw ic k A sy lu m fo r D est it u te C hild re n (1 858). B y th e 1 880s th e R an dw ic k A sy lu m alo n e h eld 8 00 n eg le cte d o r o rp h an ed c h ild re n ( D aria n -S m it h 2 010:5 ). B oth t h e f e m ale a n d m ale orp h an s c h ools a d op te d t h e p oli c y o f a p pre n tic in g c h ild re n o u t t o w ork . L eg is la tiv e c h an ges i n N ew So u th W ale s b eg in nin g in 1 828 a n d 1 834 e n ab le d m ag is t r a te s to p la ce o rp h an s a s a p pre n tic es. Furth er l e g is la tiv e c h an ges o ccu rre d u n til t h e l a te 1 850s t h at e x p an ded t h e c a te g o ry o f c h ild re n w ho co u ld b e b ou n d o ver a s a p pre n tic es ( S ey m ou r 1 988:2 1– 3). There w as o verla p b etw een th e p ro cesse s o f c rim in ali s a tio n a n d th e d ev elo p m en t o f sp ecif ic welf a re in st it u tio n s. A c h ild in p overty c o u ld b e d ea lt w it h u n der v ag ra n cy la w s a n d p ote n tia lly im pris o n ed , o r t h e c h ild c o u ld b e t r e a te d a s d est it u te a n d k ep t in a w elf a re in st it u tio n . T hus, it is possib le t o s e e t h e d ev elo p m en t o f d if fe re n t s t r a te g ie s fo r d ea li n g w it h is su es e sse n tia lly r e la te d t o 30 poverty a n d y o u n g p eo p le , w hic h r a is e s im porta n t q u est io n s a b ou t d is c re tio n a n d d ecis io n -m ak in g pow ers. C erta in ly , p art o f t h e m eth od o f d ea li n g w it h p overty w as r e fle cte d in m id dle – a n d u pper- cla ss n otio n s o f t h e ‘d ese rv in g’ a n d ‘u n dese rv in g’ p oor ( D on zelo t 1 979). A lt h ou gh a ll p oor p eo p le sh are d s im ila r m ate ria l c o n dit io n s, a d is t in ctio n w as m ad e b etw een t h e d ese rv in g a n d u n dese rv in g on th e b asis o f th eir b eh av io u r, a ttit u d es, a n d re sp ecta b ili t y . W elf a re a n d c h arit a b le in st it u tio n s were t h ere t o a ssis t t h ose d efin ed a s t h e d ese rv in g p oor, w hile t h e ‘ o th ers’ w ere t r e a te d a s c rim in al. I t ap pea rs t h at m an y c h ild re n s e n t t o j a il i n A ust r a li a w ere t h ere a s a r e su lt o f v ag ra n cy c h arg es. A l a rg e pro p ortio n o f t h e 2 30 c h ild re n u n der 1 4 y ea rs o f a g e s e n t t o p ris o n in V ic to ria d urin g 1860 a n d 1861 h ad b een s e n te n ced f o r v ag ra n cy ( S ey m ou r 1 988:1 8– 19). T hus, t h ey w ere i m pris o n ed f o r t h e crim e o f p overty r a th er t h an f o r c o m mit tin g a n y s u bst a n tiv e o ffe n ce. REFO R M ATO R IE S A N D I N DU STR IA L S C H OOLS Durin g th e m id -n in ete en th c en tu ry , th ere w ere tw o fu n dam en ta l m oves to w ard s e st a b li s h in g a se p ara te s y st e m f o r d ea li n g w it h ju ven ile s. O ne w as t o c h an ge t h e r o le o f t h e m ag is t r a te ’s c o u rt in re la tio n t o h ea rin g o ffe n ces a g ain st j u ven ile s; t h e o th er w as t o e st a b li s h r e fo rm ato rie s a n d i n dust r ia l sc h ools . In t h e U nit e d K in gd om , t h e f ir st p arli a m en ta ry b ills t o a lt e r p ro ced ure s f o r d ea li n g w it h j u ven ile s were d eb ate d in 1 821, 1 829, a n d 1 837. H ow ev er, it w as n ot u n til 1 847 t h at t h e Ju ven ile O ffe n der s Act w as p asse d . T his le g is la tio n in cre a se d t h e p ow ers o f m ag is t r a te s t o h ea r s u m marily la rc en y a n d th eft o ffe n ces c o m mit te d b y t h ose u n der 1 4 y ea rs o f a g e. I n A ust r a li a , t h e m eth od o f d ea li n g w it h ‘y o u n g o ffe n ders’ b eg an t o c h an ge i n 1 849 w it h t h e i n tr o d uctio n o f a n ‘A ct t o p ro vid e f o r t h e c a re an d e d uca tio n o f i n fa n ts w ho m ay b e c o n vic te d o f f e lo n y o r m is d em ea n ou r’ ( 1 3 V ic t. N o. 2 1). T he le g is la tio n d ea lt w it h y o u n g p eo p le u p t o 1 9 y ea rs o ld , a n d a llo w ed t h e c o u rt t o a p pre n tic e y o u n g offe n ders. A m ore s ig n if ic a n t l e g is la tiv e c h an ge w as t h e i n tr o d uctio n o f a n ‘A ct f o r t h e m ore s p eed y tr ia l an d p u n is h m en t o f Ju ven ile O ffe n ders’ (1 4 V ic t. N o. 2 ) in 1 850. T he A ct ex te n ded th e su m mary ju ris d ic tio n to y o u n g p eo p le u n der 1 4 y ea rs o ld w ho w ere ch arg ed w it h la rc en y an d asso cia te d o ffe n ces. T he le g is la tio n a ls o a llo w ed fo r d if fe re n t a n d le sse r p en alt ie s t o b e a p pli e d t o ju ven ile s c o n vic te d o f l a rc en y t h an w ere a p pli e d t o a d ult s f o r t h e s a m e c rim es, a n d b eg an t h e p ro cess of d ev elo p m en t o f c h ild re n ’s c o u rts i n A ust r a li a . I t c re a te d n ot o n ly d if fe re n t p ro ced ure s f o r d ea li n g wit h y o u n g p eo p le th an fo r d ea li n g w it h a d ult s w ho h ad c o m mit te d th e sa m e c rim es, b u t a ls o dif fe re n t p en alt ie s f o r d if fe re n t o ffe n ces. The e st a b li s h m en t o f re fo rm ato rie s (n ow k n ow n a s ju ven ile d ete n tio n c en tr e s) re p re se n te d a majo r c h an ge in d ea li n g w it h y o u n g p eo p le . I n t h e U nit e d K in gd om , t h e s t a tu to ry r e co gn it io n o f re fo rm ato ry a n d in dust r ia l sc h ools fo r th e ‘d an gero u s’ a n d ‘p eris h in g’ c la sse s o ccu rre d w it h th e You th fu l O ffe n der s A ct 1 854 a n d t h e In du st r ia l S ch ools A ct 1 857 . S im ila rly , r e fo rm ato rie s a p pea re d in th e U SA in th e m id -n in ete en th c en tu ry . I n A ust r a li a , in dust r ia l a n d r e fo rm ato ry sc h ool A cts were p asse d in m ost st a te s b etw een 1 863 a n d 1 874 a m id c o n cern a b ou t d est it u te c h ild re n a n d crit ic is m o f t h e l a ck o f a lt e rn ativ es t o i m pris o n m en t f o r y o u n g o ffe n ders. Engli s h r e fo rm ers s u ch a s M ary C arp en te r w ere i n flu en tia l i n d ev elo p in g n ew m eth od s o f d ea li n g wit h y o u n g p eo p le . T hey sa w d is c ip li n e th ro u gh p u n is h m en t a s in effe ctiv e: ra th er, th ey so u gh t fu n dam en ta l an d la st in g re h ab ili t a tio n th ro u gh ch an ge w it h in th e yo u n g p erso n . T he is su e o f tr a in in g a n d r e fo rm w as e sse n tia lly o n e o f e ffe ctiv en ess r a th er t h an b en ev o le n ce. I t d em on st r a te d a fu n dam en ta l s h if t a w ay f r o m d ete rre n ce a s a r a tio n ale f o r p u n is h m en t. C arp en te r n ote d t h at r e fo rm occu rre d ‘o n ly w hen t h e c h ild ’s s o u l i s t o u ch ed , w hen h e y ie ld s f r o m t h e h ea rt’. C arp en te r p la y ed a 31 le a d in g ro le in th e re fo rm m ovem en t, p artic u la rly w it h h er b ook Refo rm ato ry S ch ools fo r th e Child ren of th e P er is h in g a n d D an ger o u s C la sse s a n d fo r Ju ven ile O ffe n der s , p u bli s h ed in 1 851. Carp en te r’s w ork m ad e a dis t in ctio n betw een th e est a b li s h m en t of re fo rm ato ry sc h ools fo r deli n qu en ts ( o f t h e ‘d an gero u s c la sse s’) a n d in dust r ia l s c h ools f o r t h e p oor ( th e p re -d eli n qu en ts o f th e ‘p eris h in g c la sse s’) . H ow ev er, b oth r e g im es s t r e sse d r e li g io u s i n st r u ctio n , e le m en ta ry e d uca tio n , an d i n dust r ia l t r a in in g. The A ust r a li a n le g is la tio n c o n ta in ed d efin it io n s o f t h e s it u atio n s in w hic h ‘n eg le cte d ’ c h ild re n co u ld b e p la ced i n i n st it u tio n s. F or e x am ple , t h e Neg le cte d a n d C rim in al C hild ren ’s A ct 1 864 ( V ic ), s 13, d efin ed a n eg le cte d c h ild a s a n y c h ild fo u n d b eg gin g o r r e ceiv in g a lm s; ‘w an derin g a b ou t’, o r hav in g n o h om e o r v is ib le m ea n s o f su bsis t e n ce; o r a n y c h ild ‘w hose p are n t r e p re se n ts t h at h e is un ab le to c o n tr o l su ch c h ild ’. In so m e c a se s, th e le g is la tio n sim ply re ca st th e e x is t in g v ag ra n cy defin it io n s as bein g ap pli c a b le to ch ild re n , bu t it als o ad ded n ew d efin it io n s th at w ere th e fo re ru n ner o f m od ern n otio n s o f ‘u n co n tr o lla b ili t y ’. T he le g is la tio n in V ic to ria , Q ueen sla n d, a n d New S o u th W ale s a ls o p ro vid ed f o r t h e e st a b li s h m en t o f in dust r ia l s c h ools f o r t h ose y o u n g p eo p le defin ed a s n eg le cte d ( S ey m ou r 1 988:3 7– 43). In a d dit io n , t h e n ew l e g is la tio n p ro vid ed f o r s p ecia l p ro ced ure s f o r d ea li n g w it h y o u n g o ffe n ders. In V ic to ria , Q ueen sla n d, a n d S o u th A ust r a li a , a c h ild c o n vic te d o f a n o ffe n ce c o u ld b e se n t t o a re fo rm ato ry s c h ool r e g ard le ss o f t h e s e rio u sn ess o f t h e o ffe n ce. I n N ew S o u th W ale s, a y o u n g p erso n who h ad b een c o n vic te d o f a n o ffe n ce t h at w as p u n is h ab le b y 1 4 o r m ore d ay s o f im pris o n m en t co u ld b e co m mit te d to a re fo rm ato ry . T hese ch an ges re p re se n te d an im porta n t sh if t in th e se n te n cin g o f y o u n g p eo p le t h ro u gh t h e s e p ara tio n o f t h e n atu re o f t h e o ffe n ce fr o m t h e p en alt y im pose d , a n d a n ew f o cu s o n t h e o ffe n der r a th er t h an t h e o ffe n ce. Alt h ou gh t h e s y st e m e st a b li s h ed t w o g ro u ps— neg le cte d c h ild re n a n d y o u n g o ffe n ders— in r e a li t y th ere w as a b lu rrin g o f d is t in ctio n s. In m ost A ust r a li a n st a te s, y o u n g o ffe n ders c o u ld b e se n t to in dust r ia l s c h ools b y t h e c o u rt u n der c erta in c ir c u m st a n ces. A m en dm en ts t o le g is la tio n d urin g t h e 1870s fu rth er b lu rre d th e d is t in ctio n b etw een th e tw o g ro u ps, w hen c o u rts w ere e m pow ere d to se n d n eg le cte d c h ild re n t o r e fo rm ato rie s if t h ey h ad b een le a d in g a n ‘i m mora l o r d ep ra v ed li f e ’. I n ad dit io n , n eg le cte d c h ild re n c o u ld b e t r a n sfe rre d a d m in is t r a tiv ely t o t h e r e fo rm ato ry s y st e m i f t h ey pro ved d if fic u lt t o m an ag e. The n ew le g is la tio n a ls o e m pow ere d c o u rts t o c o m mit y o u n g p eo p le f o r e x te n ded p erio d s. T his pow er e x p re sse d t h e n otio n t h at y o u n g p eo p le w ere b ein g c o m mit te d fo r t r a in in g a n d e d uca tio n . Offe n ders w ere t o b e c o m mit te d f o r l e n gth y p erio d s, r e g ard le ss o f w heth er t h e c rim e w as s e rio u s. A s a re su lt , th e n orm al se n te n cin g c o n sid era tio n th at a p u n is h m en t sh ou ld b e p ro p ortio n al to th e se rio u sn ess o f t h e c rim e w as n ot s e en a s p art o f t h e l a w g o vern in g j u ven ile s ( S ey m ou r 1 988:4 8– 9). A fu rth er fa cto r t h at w as im porta n t in t h e d ev elo p m en t o f t h e ju ven ile ju st ic e s y st e m w as t h at re le a se w as d ete rm in ed b y t h e in st it u tio n ’s a d m in is t r a tio n r a th er t h an b y t h e c o u rt. A ddit io n ally , th e co n dit io n s o f re le a se (o n ‘l i c en ce’, fo r ex am ple ) w ere als o d ete rm in ed b y th e in st it u tio n ’s ad m in is t r a tio n . T his a d m in is t r a tiv e d is c re tio n w as l e g it im ate d b y a n i d eo lo gy t h at a ssu m ed t h e s t a te was a ctin g i n t h e b est i n te re st s o f t h e c h ild . The u se o f r e fo rm ato rie s a n d in dust r ia l s c h ools in t h e U nit e d K in gd om w as s im ila r t o t h at in Aust r a li a . T he offe n ce w as oft e n ir re le v an t to co m mit ta l. R efo rm ato rie s en co u ra g ed ea rly in te rv en tio n u n re la te d t o t h e n atu re o f t h e ju ven ile ’s o ffe n ce, a n d a b ou t h alf t h e ju ven ile s s e n t t o re fo rm ato rie s w ere s e n t t h ere o n t h eir f ir st c o n vic tio n . I n a d dit io n , r e fo rm w as b ase d o n d is c ip li n e th ro u gh w ork . Y et t h e ‘w ork ’ w as n ot t r a in in g o r s k ills a cq u is it io n , b u t la b orio u s a n d m on oto n ou s work d esig n ed t o p ro d uce in div id uals w ho w ou ld b e s u it a b le f o r a n y m en ia l jo b ( M orris & G ille r 32 1987:2 4– 7). In t h e U SA , t h ere w ere i m porta n t le g al c h alle n ges c o n cern in g t h e p la cem en t o f y o u n g p eo p le i n hou se s of re fu ge, re fo rm ato rie s, an d in dust r ia l sc h ools . T he Pen nsy lv an ia Su pre m e C ou rt dete rm in ed t h e C ro u se c a se in 1 838, in w hic h M ary A nne C ro u se h ad n ot c o m mit te d a c rim in al offe n ce b u t w as s e en t o b e i n d an ger o f g ro w in g u p t o b e a p au per. S h e w as c o m mit te d t o a h ou se o f re fu ge, t h e c o u rt d ecid in g t h at h old in g h er t h ere w as le g al b eca u se s h e w as b ein g h elp ed a n d n ot pu n is h ed . T he s t a te a ssu m ed t h e r o le o f pa ren s p a tr ia e , w here b y it a cte d in t h e r o le o f t h e c h ild ’s pare n ts, w ho w ere s e en a s i n ca p ab le o f f u lf illi n g t h e t a sk . F urth er, b eca u se C ro u se w as b ein g h elp ed an d n ot p u n is h ed , t h ere w as s e en t o b e n o n eed f o r t h e p ro te ctio n o f f o rm al d ue p ro cess ( su ch a s pre su m ptio n o f i n nocen ce, o r g u ilt p ro ven b ey o n d r e a so n ab le d ou bt) ( fo r m ore d eta ils , s e e B ern ard 1992:6 8– 70). T he C ro u se c a se w as im porta n t a s th e fir st U S le g al c h alle n ge to th e p ra ctic e o f co m mit tin g y o u n g p eo p le t o h ou se s o f r e fu ge a n d r e fo rm ato rie s e v en w here t h ey h ad c o m mit te d n o crim in al o ffe n ce. The O ’C on nell ca se (fo r d eta ils , se e B ern ard 1 992), w hic h w as d ete rm in ed in th e Illi n ois Su pre m e C ou rt in 1 870, s a w t h e c o u rt r e je ct t h e pa ren s p a tr ia e a rg u m en t ( th e c o u rt a ctin g in t h e best in te re st s o f t h e c h ild a n d p ro te ctin g t h e c h ild ) a n d o rd er t h e r e le a se o f O ’C on nell fr o m t h e Chic a g o R efo rm S ch ool. T he c o u rt h ea rd o f th e h arsh c o n dit io n s in th e sc h ool, a n d fo u n d th at O’C on nell w as b ein g p u n is h ed , n ot h elp ed . T he c o u rt w as o f t h e v ie w t h at O ’C on nell w as b ein g im pris o n ed , a lt h ou gh h e h ad n ot c o m mit te d a c rim in al o ffe n ce. T he O ’C on nell d ecis io n i n flu en ced th e est a b li s h m en t o f th e ju ven ile co u rt in C hic a g o in 1 899, an d le d to su ch ch alle n ges b ein g cir c u m ven te d b y n ew d efin it io n s o f d eli n qu en cy ( B ern ard 1 992:7 0– 3). The r a tio n ale f o r t h e e st a b li s h m en t o f r e fo rm ato rie s w as t h at t h ey w ou ld p ro vid e a s p ecia l f o rm of pris o n dis c ip li n e fo r yo u n g peo p le an d tr a n sfo rm deli n qu en ts in to la w -a b id in g cit iz en s. Acco rd in g t o P la tt ( 1 977), r e fo rm ato ry li f e w as d esig n ed t o t e a ch t h e v alu e o f a d ju st m en t, p riv ate en te rp ris e , t h rif t , a n d s e lf -r e li a n ce. L ik e M ary C arp en te r’s a im t o ‘t o u ch t h e s o u l’, t h e r e fo rm ato ry mast e rs s o u gh t t o ‘r e v o lu tio n is e … t h e e n tir e b ein g’ ( P la tt 1 977:5 2). T his t r a n sfo rm atio n i n vo lv ed a dif fe re n t m od e o f p u n is h m en t, a n d ca n b e co n te x tu ali s e d w it h in b ro ad er ch an ges o ccu rrin g in pu n is h m en t d urin g t h e s e co n d h alf o f t h e n in ete en th c en tu ry . B y t h e e n d o f t h at c en tu ry , t h e f o cu s had sh if t e d fr o m th e b eli e f th at a c rim in al sh ou ld b e p u n is h ed a cco rd in g to th e se v erit y o f th e offe n ce to a v ie w th at th e o ffe n der sh ou ld r e ceiv e tr e a tm en t. T re a tm en t w as to b e b ase d o n th e dia g n osis o f t h e p erso n ’s p ath olo gic a l c o n dit io n , a n d a ls o e n ab le d t h e e x p an sio n a n d d iv ersif ic a tio n of p en al s a n ctio n s. A cco rd in g t o G arla n d, t h is d ev elo p m en t m ark ed t h e b eg in nin g o f a n ew m od e o f se n te n cin g t h at c la im ed t o t r e a t o ffe n ders a cco rd in g t o t h eir s p ecif ic c h ara cte ris t ic s o r n eed s, a n d not e q u ally o n th e b asis o f th e se rio u sn ess o r n atu re o f th e o ffe n ce (G arla n d 1 985:2 8, F ou ca u lt 1977). TH E R EA LIT Y O F L IF E I N T H E S C H OOLS If s o m uch f a it h w as p la ced i n t h e d ev elo p m en t o f t h e n ew m eth od s o f c o n tr o l a n d r e fo rm atio n , i t i s fa ir to a sk w hat th e o u tc o m es w ere . A lt h ou gh a se p ara te p en al sy st e m h ad b een e st a b li s h ed fo r yo u n g peo p le , in so m e are a s ch ild re n w ere st ill im pris o n ed w it h ad ult s. In th e U SA , th e re fo rm ato rie s w ere d esc rib ed a s ‘o verc ro w ded , p oorly eq u ip ped , b ad ly sit u ate d a n d m ore li k e a pris o n th an a sc h ool’ (P la tt 1 977:1 46). In th e U nit e d K in gd om , th e re a li t y o f th e sc h ools w as sim ila rly fa r fr o m th e rh eto ric . A cco rd in g to H arris an d W eb b (1 987:1 4), th ere w ere se rio u s pro b le m s in th e re cru it m en t o f su it a b le st a ff, an d p u n is h m en ts w ere se v ere , in clu d in g so li t a ry 33 co n fin em en t, w hip pin g, a n d d ie ts o f b re a d a n d w ate r. S u ch p u n is h m en ts m ir ro re d th ose in th e ad ult s y st e m . I n a d dit io n , e a rly a tte m pts t o s e p ara te ju ven ile o ffe n ders fr o m a d ult o ffe n ders w ere not s u ccessfu l. T he p ris o n b oats u se d f o r y o u n g p eo p le w ere i n w orse c o n dit io n t h an t h ose u se d f o r ad ult s. In A ust r a li a , p ris o n b oats w ere u se d a s r e fo rm ato rie s in V ic to ria , S o u th A ust r a li a , Q ueen sla n d, an d N ew S o u th W ale s d urin g t h e l a tte r p art o f t h e n in ete en th c en tu ry . T here w as a s e rie s o f o ffic ia l in vest ig atio n s in to c o n dit io n s in th e re fo rm ato rie s a n d in dust r ia l sc h ools d urin g th e 1 870s a n d 1880s. T he in qu ir ie s in S o u th A ust r a li a , N ew S o u th W ale s, V ic to ria , an d T asm an ia p ain te d a pic tu re o f t h e i n st it u tio n s a s b ru ta l j a ils ( S ey m ou r 1 988:5 8– 61). Refo rm ato rie s an d in dust r ia l sc h ools w ere oft e n co m bin ed , th us fu rth er un derm in in g th e dis t in ctio n b etw een ‘ n eg le cte d ’ y o u n g p eo p le a n d y o u n g o ffe n ders. I n deed , t h e c rit e ria f o r r e fe rra l t o re fo rm ato ry a n d i n dust r ia l s c h ools w ere v ag u e: The p er is h in g c la sse s: R eg ard ed a s p re -d eli n qu en t, t h ey w ere s e en a s t h e l e g it im ate o b je ct o f t h e st a te ’s i n te rv en tio n . T he s o -c a lle d p eris h in g c la sse s c o n sis t e d o f y o u n g p eo p le w ho h ad ‘n ot y et fa lle n ’ i n to c rim e, b u t w ho w ere l i k ely t o d o s o b eca u se o f p overty . The d an ger o u s c la sse s: T hese c o n sis t e d o f y o u n g p eo p le w ho h ad a lr e a d y c o m mit te d o ffe n ces an d w ho h ad r e ceiv ed t h e ‘ p ris o n b ra n d’. The m ix in g o f w elf a re a n d c rim in al c a se s w it h in t h e s y st e m s o f d ete n tio n b eca m e a h allm ark o f dea li n g w it h y o u n g p eo p le in t h e ju ven ile ju st ic e s y st e m u n til w ell in to t h e c o n te m pora ry p erio d . Man y y o u n g p eo p le w ere s e n t t o r e fo rm ato rie s f o r m in or o ffe n ces. S ey m ou r p ro vid es e x am ple s o f yo u n g p eo p le b ein g g iv en l o n g c o m mit ta ls , s u ch a s a n in e-y ea r-o ld b oy i n S o u th A ust r a li a b ein g s e n t to a r e fo rm ato ry f o r s ix y ea rs f o r s t e a li n g s ix a p ple s ( S ey m ou r 1 988:5 6). O ne o u tc o m e w as t h at s u ch in st it u tio n s p ro vid ed fo r th e d ete n tio n o f yo u n g p eo p le w ho w ou ld n ot p re v io u sly h av e b een im pris o n ed . It h as b een s u ggest e d t h at i n t h e U nit e d K in gd om t h e ‘i n st it u tio n s c o n st it u te d a m ajo r e x te n sio n of co n tr o l over th e yo u n g, w hile sim ult a n eo u sly offe rin g th e ap pare n t possib ili t y of m ass re fo rm atio n a n d th e n ea r e li m in atio n o f ju ven ile c rim e’ ( H arris & W eb b 1 987:1 1). C erta in ly , it ap pea rs t h e r e fo rm ato rie s a ttr a cte d a n ew c li e n te le . M ore ju ven ile s w ere b ro u gh t in to t h e ju ven ile ju st ic e s y st e m a n d w ere s e n t t o r e fo rm ato rie s. I n E ngla n d b etw een 1 865 a n d 1 873, s o m e 2 6 3 26 ju ven ile s w ere s e n t t o r e fo rm ato rie s o r in dust r ia l s c h ools . I n a d dit io n , ju ven ile s w ere in ca rc era te d lo n ger t h an t h eir a d ult c o u n te rp arts: i n st e a d o f a n av era g e t h re e m on th s im pris o n m en t, t h ey s p en t tw o t o f iv e y ea rs i n r e fo rm ato rie s ( M orris & G ille r 1 987:2 4– 7). We c a n s u m maris e t h e e ffe cts o f c h an ges b ro u gh t a b ou t b y t h e i n tr o d uctio n o f r e fo rm ato rie s a n d in dust r ia l s c h ools a s: se p ara te p ro ced ure s f o r d ea li n g w it h y o u n g p eo p le f o r s o m e o ffe n ces dif fe re n t p en alt ie s f o r s o m e o ffe n ces f o r j u ven ile s w hen c o m pare d w it h p en alt ie s f o r a d ult s a d if fe re n t a n d s e p ara te p en al r e g im e f o r j u ven ile s dif fe re n t c rit e ria f o r i n te rv en tio n b etw een j u ven ile s a n d a d ult s overla p b etw een w elf a re a n d c rim in al i n te rv en tio n hig h le v els o f a d m in is t r a tiv e d is c re tio n o ver th ose y o u n g p eo p le w it h in th e ju ven ile p en al re g im e ex te n ded a n d i n dete rm in ate p erio d s o f d ete n tio n 34 ad ult s e n te n cin g t a rif fs n o l o n ger s e en a s r e le v an t t o j u ven ile s ea rli e r c o m mit ta l t o d ete n tio n f o r m in or o ffe n ces more y o u n g p eo p le i n ca rc era te d t h an p re v io u sly . It w as w it h in t h e c o n te x t o f t h ese c h an ges t h at t h e d ev elo p m en t o f s p ecia li s t c h ild re n ’s c o u rts to ok p la ce. W e d ea l w it h t h is i s su e i n t h e f o llo w in g s e ctio n . TH E J U VE N IL E C O U RT The n ew ju ven ile c o u rts th at d ev elo p ed a t th e e n d o f th e n in ete en th c en tu ry w ere b ase d o n th e notio n o f pa ren s p a tr ia e . T he c o n cep t h ad o rig in ally r e fe rre d t o t h e p ro te ctio n o f p ro p erty r ig h ts o f ju ven ile s a n d o th ers w ho w ere l e g ally i n co m pete n t; h ow ev er, i t c a m e t o r e fe r t o t h e r e sp on sib ili t y o f th e j u ven ile c o u rts a n d t h e s t a te t o a ct i n t h e b est i n te re st s o f t h e c h ild . As o n e e a rly t w en tie th -c en tu ry B rit is h c o m men ta to r p u t i t , t h e d octr in e o f pa ren s p a tr ia e a llo w ed th e c o u rt ‘t o g et a w ay f r o m t h e n otio n t h at t h e c h ild i s t o b e d ea lt w it h a s a c rim in al; t o s a v e i t f r o m th e b ra n d o f c rim in ali t y , t h e b ra n d t h at s t ic k s t o i t f o r l i f e ’ ( c it e d i n M orris & G ille r 1 987:1 2). Child re n ’s c o u rts w ere e st a b li s h ed a t r o u gh ly t h e s a m e t im e in t h e U nit e d K in gd om , t h e U SA , Can ad a, a n d A ust r a li a , t h is b ein g d urin g t h e la st d eca d es o f t h e n in ete en th c en tu ry a n d t h e e a rly yea rs o f t h e t w en tie th c en tu ry . T he p ow ers o f t h e c o u rt v arie d f r o m s t a te t o s t a te a n d c o u n tr y t o co u n tr y . In t h e U SA , t h e Illi n ois J u ven ile C ou rt A ct 1 899 e st a b li s h ed t h e ju ven ile c o u rt w it h t h e p ow er t o dete rm in e t h e le g al s t a tu s o f ‘t r o u ble so m e’ o r ‘p re -d eli n qu en t’ c h ild re n . S u ch c o u rts w ere a b le t o in vest ig ate a v arie ty o f b eh av io u r. S ta tu to ry d efin it io n s o f d eli n qu en cy in clu d ed a cts t h at w ou ld b e crim in al if c o m mit te d b y a d ult s; a cts th at v io la te d c o u n tr y , to w n, o r m un ic ip al o rd in an ces; a n d vio la tio n s o f vag u ely d efin ed ca tc h -a lls , su ch as vic io u s o r im mora l b eh av io u r, in co rrig ib ili t y , tr u an cy , p ro fa n e o r in decen t la n gu ag e, gro w in g u p in id le n ess, o r li v in g w it h an y vic io u s o r dis r e p u ta b le p erso n ( P la tt 1 977:1 38). The co n cep t o f pa ren s p a tr ia e au th oris e d th e co u rts to u se w id e d is c re tio n in re so lv in g th e pro b le m s o f y o u n g p eo p le . A c h ild w as n ot a ccu se d o f a c rim e, b u t o ffe re d a ssis t a n ce a n d g u id an ce. In te rv en tio n w as n ot su ppose d to ca rry th e st ig m a of a crim in al re co rd , an d h ea rin gs w ere co n ducte d i n r e la tiv e p riv acy w it h i n fo rm al p ro ceed in gs. The le g is la tio n in tr o d uced i n I lli n ois w as w ell r e ceiv ed b y t h e ju d ic ia ry a n d le g al p ro fe ssio n , a n d beca m e t h e f o u n datio n f o r o th er U S s t a te s. J u ven ile c o u rts w ere e st a b li s h ed i n W is c o n sin a n d N ew York in 1 901, a n d in O hio a n d M ary la n d in 1 902. B y 1 928, a ll b u t t w o U S s t a te s h ad a d op te d a ju ven ile c o u rt s y st e m . C an ad a a d op te d l e g is la tio n i n 1 908. The f ir st a n nual r e p orts f r o m t h e C ook C ou n ty ju ven ile c o u rt i n C hic a g o i n dic a te d t h at p u bli c – ord er o ffe n ces a n d sc h ool tr u an cy m ad e u p th e m ajo rit y o f c h arg es th at le d to th e ‘d eli n qu en cy ’ ca se s d ea lt w it h b y t h e c o u rt ( P la tt 1 977:1 40). F ailu re t o c o n fo rm t o n ew fo rm s o f s o cia l c o n tr o l (su ch a s c o m pu ls o ry e d uca tio n ) w as c le a rly a n i m porta n t s o u rc e o f d eli n qu en cy c la ssif ic a tio n s. In E ngla n d by th e en d of th e n in ete en th cen tu ry , so m e to w ns, su ch as M an ch est e r an d Bir m in gh am , h ad b eg u n to o p era te se p ara te ju ven ile co u rts. S ep ara te co u rts w ere est a b li s h ed th ro u gh ou t E ngla n d a n d W ale s a ft e r t h e C hild re n A ct 1 908 w as in tr o d uced . T he le g is la tio n g av e th e c o u rts c rim in al ju ris d ic tio n o ver c rim in al m atte rs a n d c iv il ju ris d ic tio n in r e la tio n to w elf a re matte rs. A cco rd in g t o H arris a n d W eb b, ‘i t m ad e t h e ju ven ile c o u rt it se lf a lo cu s f o r c o n fli c t a n d co n fu sio n , a v eh ic le fo r th e sim ult a n eo u s w elf a riz a tio n o f d eli n qu en cy a n d th e ju rid ic iz a tio n o f 35 need ’ ( 1 987:9 ). T he l e g is la tio n a ls o c o n ta in ed a v arie ty o f p ro vis io n s, o f w hic h t h ose d ea li n g w it h a se p ara te ju ven ile c o u rt w ere o n ly a p art. O th er se ctio n s d ea lt w it h th e p re v en tio n o f c ru elt y to ch ild re n , a n d p ro h ib it io n s o n b eg gin g a n d p ro st it u tio n . A t a ro u n d th e sa m e tim e, th e st a tu to ry cre a tio n o f p ro b atio n a n d p re v en tiv e d ete n tio n o ccu rre d . In A ust r a li a , t h e m ajo r r e a so n g iv en f o r e st a b li s h in g c h ild re n ’s c o u rts w as t h at t h ey e n su re d t h at yo u n g p eo p le w ere tr ie d se p ara te ly fr o m a d ult s a n d w ere n ot su bje ct to th e h arm fu l effe cts o f co n ta m in atio n a n d s t ig m a— partic u la rly w here t h e y o u n g p erso n w as b efo re t h e c o u rt o n n eg le ct matte rs. A ust r a li a n l e g is la tio n e st a b li s h in g s e p ara te c h ild re n ’s c o u rts w as i n tr o d uced a s f o llo w s: So u th A ust r a li a — Sta te C hild ren A ct 1 895 New S o u th W ale s— Neg le cte d C hild ren a n d J u ven ile O ffe n der s A ct 1 905 Vic to ria — Child ren ’s C ou rt A ct 1 906 Queen sla n d— Child ren ’s C ou rt A ct 1 907 West e rn A ust r a li a — Sta te C hild ren A ct 1 907 Tasm an ia — Child ren ’s C harte r 1 918 The A ust r a li a n le g is la tio n w as b ase d o n c h ild -s a v in g r h eto ric s im ila r t o t h at u se d in t h e U SA . The c o u rts w ere t o b e p are n ta l a n d in fo rm al, w it h c o rre ctio n a d m in is t e re d in a ‘f a th erly m an ner’ (S ey m ou r 1 988:7 0– 1). M ag is t r a te s w ere t o b e s p ecia lly s e le cte d , t r a in ed , a n d q u ali f ie d t o d ea l w it h yo u n g p eo p le ; p ro b atio n o ffic ers w ere to p la y a sp ecia l ro le in su perv is in g yo u n g p eo p le an d pre p arin g b ack gro u n d r e p orts. The le g is la tio n e st a b li s h in g c h ild re n ’s c o u rts in A ust r a li a g av e ju ris d ic tio n to th e c o u rts o ver crim in al m atte rs ( ju ven ile o ffe n din g) a n d w elf a re m atte rs ( n eg le cte d c h ild re n a n d y o u n g p eo p le ). The c h ild re n ’s c o u rts a ls o h ad e x clu siv e j u ris d ic tio n , w hic h m ea n t t h at o th er, l o w er c o u rts c o u ld n ot hea r c a se s in vo lv in g c h ild re n . T he le g is la tio n a ls o st ip u la te d th at th e c h ild re n ’s c o u rt h ad to sit se p ara te ly f r o m t h e o th er c o u rts, a n d t h at s p ecia l m ag is t r a te s h ad t o b e a p poin te d . I n p ra ctic e, m ost mag is t r a te s w ere sim ply d esig n ate d as ch ild re n ’s m ag is t r a te s, an d o n ly in th e m ajo r cit ie s d id an yth in g l i k e s p ecia l c o u rts e x is t ( S ey m ou r 1 988:9 6). There w ere i m porta n t v aria tio n s a m on g j u ris d ic tio n s c o n cern in g t h e e x te n t t o w hic h t h e j u ven ile co u rt d if fe re d f r o m t h e a d ult c rim in al c o u rts. F or i n st a n ce, t h e c h ild re n ’s c o u rt i n A ust r a li a w as n ot as d if fe re n t f r o m t h e a d ult c o u rts a s it w as in t h e U SA . I n t h e U SA , t h e y o u n g p erso n a p pea re d in th e c o u rt a s a r e su lt o f a d eli n qu en cy p etit io n , a n d t h e c o u rt h ad t o d ete rm in e w heth er t h e c h ild w as deli n qu en t, n ot w heth er t h ey h ad c o m mit te d a p artic u la r o ffe n ce. I n c o n tr a st , i n A ust r a li a t h e c o u rt had t o d ete rm in e w heth er t h e y o u n g p erso n h ad c o m mit te d a n o ffe n ce, a t l e a st i n r e g ard t o c rim in al matte rs. I n r e la tio n t o w elf a re m atte rs, t h e c o u rt h ad t o b e s h ow n t h at t h e c h ild o r y o u n g p erso n w as neg le cte d w it h in th e te rm s of th e le g is la tio n (a lt h ou gh th is w as n ot th e ca se in re la tio n to In dig en ou s c h ild re n ). Wit h t h e in cre a sin g s e p ara tio n o f c h ild re n fr o m a d ult s in t h e ju d ic ia l s y st e m , t h e p ro vis io n o f in fo rm atio n to th e c o u rt a b ou t th e y o u n g p erso n in cre a se d in im porta n ce. T he d ev elo p m en t o f pro b atio n w as a n im porta n t a d ju n ct t o t h e n ew c h ild re n ’s c o u rts. C harit y w ork ers f ille d a n eed b y pro vid in g sp ecia l k n ow le d ge to c o u rt a b ou t th e y o u n g p erso n ( M cC allu m 2 009:1 21). P ro b atio n pre d ate d t h e c h ild re n ’s c o u rts a n d h ad a ris e n f r o m v o lu n ta ry c h arit a b le a n d r e li g io u s w ork . I n t h e USA , m em bers o f t h e B oard o f S ta te C harit ie s h ad a tte n ded c o u rt h ea rin gs i n vo lv in g c h ild re n , a n d as a re su lt ab ou t on e-t h ir d of su ch ch ild re n w ere p la ced on p ro b atio n u n der th e m em bers’ su perv is io n . In th e U nit e d K in gd om , th e Fir st O ffe n der s A ct , p asse d in 1 887 , h ad allo w ed th e 36 su perv is io n o f m in or f ir st o ffe n ders b y ‘m is sio n arie s’ a n d v o lu n ta ry w ork ers. S im ila rly , in A ust r a li a th e co u rts h ad o ffe re d co n dit io n al d is c h arg es to o ffe n ders, an d th is h ad b een re fe rre d to as pro b atio n . T he d ev elo p m en t o f s e p ara te c o u rts fo r y o u n g p eo p le le d t o a m ore s y st e m atic u se o f pro b atio n , a n d in v ario u s p arts o f A ust r a li a th e c h ild re n ’s c o u rt le g is la tio n a llo w ed fo r ju ven ile offe n ders t o b e r e le a se d o n p ro b atio n . In it ia lly , h on ora ry p ro b atio n o ffic ers w ere a tta ch ed t o t h e c h ild re n ’s c o u rts, w it h t h e f u n ctio n o f pre p arin g back gro u n d re p orts an d co n ductin g su perv is io n . T he use of pro b atio n beca m e an im porta n t s e n te n cin g o p tio n fo r t h e c h ild re n ’s c o u rts. B y 1 908, t h ere w ere 2 11 h on ora ry o ffic ers ap poin te d t o t h e c h ild re n ’s c o u rts in V ic to ria , a n d b y 1 909 t h ere w ere 2 50 o ffic ers in N ew S o u th Wale s ( S ey m ou r 1 988:1 00– 1). O utc o m es f o r t h e S yd n ey C hild re n ’s C ou rt f o r a 1 2-m on th p erio d en din g in A pril 1 911 r e v ea le d t h at 8 73 c h ild re n h ad b een f o u n d g u ilt y o f a n o ffe n ce, o f w hom 4 6 per c en t w ere r e le a se d o n p ro b atio n ( S ey m ou r 1 988:1 04). JU DIC IA L T H ER APIS TS The c h ild re n ’s c o u rts e n co u ra g ed m in im um p ro ced ura l f o rm ali t y a n d g re a te r d ep en den cy o n n ew perso n nel su ch a s p ro b atio n o ffic ers. Ju d ges w ere e n co u ra g ed to lo ok a t th e c h ara cte r a n d so cia l back gro u n d o f t h e ‘d eli n qu en ts’. I n t h is s e n se , t h e m ovem en t h as b een d esc rib ed a s a n ti- le g al ( P la tt 1977:1 41). F urth erm ore , t h e c o u rt’s in te rv en tio n w as ju st if ie d w here n o o ffe n ce h ad a ctu ally b een co m mit te d b u t w here t h e y o u n g p erso n w as c a u sin g p ro b le m s f o r s o m eo n e in a u th orit y , b e t h at a pare n t, t e a ch er, o r s o cia l w ork er. I n A ust r a li a n ju ris d ic tio n s, s u ch m atte rs c o u ld c o m e b efo re t h e co u rts in th e fo rm o f a r a n ge o f w elf a re c o m pla in ts o r st a tu s o ffe n ces, su ch a s u n co n tr o lla b ili t y , ex p osu re t o m ora l d an ger, o r t r u an cy . One w ay o f c o n cep tu ali s in g t h e r e la tio n sh ip b etw een t h e c h ild re n ’s c o u rt, it s a n cilla ry s t a ff, a n d th e y o u n g p erso n h as b een th ro u gh n otio n s o f th e ‘t h era p eu tic ’ st a te . S o m e c o m men ta to rs h av e arg u ed th at th e ‘r o le m od el fo r ju ven ile co u rt ju d ges w as d octo r-c o u n se lo r ra th er th an la w yer. Ju d ic ia l th era p is t s w ere e x p ecte d to e st a b li s h a o n e-t o -o n e re la tio n sh ip w it h d eli n qu en ts’ (P la tt 1977:1 42). D on zelo t (1 979) h as a ls o a rg u ed th at th e a d ven t o f th e ju ven ile c o u rt c h an ged th e re la tio n sh ip o f t h e f a m ily t o o u tsid e a g en cie s. H e a rg u es t h at t h e f a m ily b eca m e s u bje ct t o a ‘ t u te la ry co m ple x ’, w here b y a n um ber o f a g en cie s, in clu d in g ju ven ile ju st ic e, r e d uced t h e f a m ily ’s a u to n om y an d i n st e a d e st a b li s h ed t h e f a m ily a s a s it e o f i n te rv en tio n . In D on zelo t’s te rm s, th e tr a n sit io n h as b een fr o m g o vern m en t of th e fa m ily to g o vern m en t th ro u gh t h e f a m ily . T he t e rm ‘g o vern m en t’ in t h is c o n te x t r e fe rs t o t h e p ro cess o f s o cia l a n d le g al re g u la tio n . W it h t h e d ev elo p m en t o f a s e p ara te s y st e m f o r d ea li n g w it h y o u n g p eo p le , f a m ili e s c a n be m ore c lo se ly p oli c ed ( in t h e b ro ad est s e n se o f t h e t e rm ), a n d r e ca lc it r a n t c h ild re n r e m oved . Durin g th e la te n in ete en th c en tu ry , th ere w ere sp ecif ic in te lle ctu al d ev elo p m en ts th at h ad a n im pact on th e co n st r u ctio n of ju ven ile deli n qu en cy an d th at fa cili t a te d sp ecif ic fo rm s of in te rv en tio n . T hese n ew fo rm s o f k n ow le d ge g av e t h e p ro m is e o f s c ie n tif ic n eu tr a li t y , w hic h a ls o pro vid ed le g it im acy to th e b en ev o le n t in te n tio n s o f th e co u rt. T he d is c o u rse o f re fo rm atio n in clu d ed a r a n ge o f n ew d is c ip li n es, s u ch a s c h ild p sy ch ia tr y , p sy ch olo gy, a n d p aed ia tr ic s. T he f o rm s of in te rv en tio n w ere a ls o c o n necte d t o t h e n ew c a te g o ris a tio n o f y o u n g p eo p le a s ‘a d ole sc en t’— a te rm t h ou gh t t o h av e b een c re a te d b y G . S ta n le y H all i n h is b ook Adole sc e n ce , p u bli s h ed i n t h e la te nin ete en th c en tu ry ( M orris & G ille r 1 987:4 ). D ev elo p in g s o cia l a n d p sy ch olo gic a l t h eo rie s b eg an t o id en tif y t h e d ev elo p m en ta l s t a g es o f c h ild re n a n d a d ole sc en ts. T hese i n te lle ctu al d ev elo p m en ts s a w ch ild re n a n d y o u th a s v u ln era b le , a n d w ere li n ked t o — an d ju st if ie d t h e i n tr o d uctio n o f— ‘a d elu ge 37 of p ro te ctiv e l e g is la tio n ’ i n a re a s s u ch a s c h ild w elf a re , e d uca tio n , a n d l a b ou r ( G illi s 1 981:1 33). There w as a ls o a sh if t in a ttit u d es to w ard s p en ali t y . T he ‘s c ie n tif ic ’ d is c o u rse s o n b eh av io u r su pporte d t h e m ove t o im pose lo n g-t e rm ‘t r a in in g’ t h ro u gh in dete rm in ate ( o p en -e n ded , w it h n o fix ed t e rm ) s e n te n ces f o r y o u n g p eo p le . T he g ro w th o f p osit iv is t c rim in olo gy i n t h e l a te r p art o f t h e nin ete en th c en tu ry a ls o p ro vid ed a n in te lle ctu al fr a m ew ork t h at fa cili t a te d s e p ara te t r e a tm en t fo r ju ven ile s, w it h th e em ph asis o n cla ssif ic a tio n b y ag e an d th e p sy ch olo gic a l attr ib u te s o f ea ch offe n der ( M orris & G ille r 1 987:1 8). Vie w s o n th e th era p eu tic n atu re o f in te rv en tio n a re a ls o re fle cte d in th e d ev elo p m en t o f th e notio n t h at ju st ic e i s t o b e p erso n ali s e d i n t e rm s o f i t s s t y le a s w ell a s i t s o u tc o m es. A t t h e t im e t h e new j u ven ile c o u rt b u ild in gs w ere o p en ed i n C hic a g o i n 1 907, i t w as c la im ed t h at ‘t h e h ea rin gs w ill be h eld i n a r o om f it te d u p a s a p arlo u r r a th er t h an a c o u rt, a ro u n d a t a b le i n st e a d o f a b en ch … T he hea rin gs w ill b e i n t h e n atu re o f a f a m ily c o n fe re n ce, i n w hic h t h e e n dea v o u r w ill b e t o i m pre ss t h e ch ild w it h t h e f a ct t h at h is o w n g o od i s s o u gh t a lo n e’ ( c it e d i n P la tt 1 977:1 43). Sim ila r a rg u m en ts w ere p u t fo rw ard in A ust r a li a fo r th e c o n st r u ctio n o f se p ara te fa cili t ie s fo r ch ild re n ’s co u rt hea rin gs. In re a li t y , th ou gh , m ost m atte rs w ere dete rm in ed in th e ph ysic a l su rro u n din gs o f t h e l o ca l m ag is t r a te ’s c o u rt. GEN DER ED A PPR OACH ES Beca u se in it s d ev elo p m en t ju ven ile ju st ic e w as c o n cern ed w it h q u est io n s o f y o u th b eh av io u r, it is not su rp ris in g th at th is in te re st h ad a sp ecia l m ea n in g fo r yo u n g w om en . F ro m th e ea rli e st dev elo p m en ts o f s e p ara te s y st e m s f o r d ea li n g w it h y o u th , t h ere a p pea r t o h av e b een s p ecif ic g en der- base d d if fe re n ces i n t h e t r e a tm en t o f y o u n g p eo p le ( se e Chap te r 8 ). S ch lo ssm an a n d W alla ce ( 1 978) note t h at in t h e U SA y o u n g w om en w ere fo cu se d u pon b eca u se o f t h eir s e x u ali t y . T he ‘i m mora l co n duct’ of gir ls w as bro ad ly defin ed , an d th ey w ere su bje cte d to ph ysic a l ex am in atio n s to dete rm in e w heth er t h ey h ad b een s e x u ally a ctiv e. S ch lo ssm an a n d W alla ce a ls o f o u n d t h at g ir ls w ere giv en lo n ger re fo rm ato ry se n te n ces. In C an ad a, it h as a ls o b een n ote d th at, h is t o ric a lly , fe m ale s re ceiv ed m ore s e v ere f o rm s o f i n te rv en tio n f r o m t h e j u ven ile c o u rts t h an m ale s ( S ch is se l 1 993:1 1). The s it u atio n f o r g ir ls i n A ust r a li a w as s im ila r, w it h l o n ger p erio d s o f i n ca rc era tio n b ein g g iv en t o yo u n g w om en . I n h er s t u d y in W est e rn A ust r a li a , K err n ote s t h at ‘b oys w ere g en era lly c o m mit te d fo r c rim es a g ain st p ro p erty . C on tr o lli n g t h e b eh av io u r o f g ir ls in clu d ed m ora l p oli c in g a s w ell a s dea li n g w it h c iv il a n d c rim in al m is d em ea n ou rs’ ( 1 998:1 ). J a g gs ( 1 986:6 2) n ote d t h at, in V ic to ria , ‘g ir ls ’ la rc en y an d oth er offe n ces gav e ca u se fo r co n cern , bu t gen era l “w ild n ess” an d se x u al mis b eh av io u r g av e m ore , sin ce th ey b re a ch ed st r o n gly h eld v ie w s o n fe m ale p u rit y ’. G ir ls w ho mis b eh av ed w ere t h ou gh t t o b e w orse t h an b oys a n d m ore d if fic u lt t o r e fo rm . Sim ila rly , a s t u d y o f P arra m atta I n dust r ia l S ch ool f o r G ir ls a rg u ed t h at t h e s c h ool’s f o cu s w as o n mora l r e co n st r u ctio n o f t h e y o u n g w om en s e n t t h ere . T ra in in g f o cu se d o n d om est ic s k ills a n d m ora l pu rit y , an d at le a st u n til th e ea rly tw en tie th cen tu ry th e re g im e w as h arsh , w it h n o p erso n al posse ssio n s a llo w ed , n o p riv acy , t w o o u tsid e v is it s p er y ea r, a n d n o o u tsid e a u th orit y t o w hom t h e gir ls c o u ld a p pea l. P un is h m en ts i n clu d ed c a n in g ( ‘t h ra sh in g’ o r ‘w hip pin g’) , h ea d s h av in g, ‘s t a n din g ou t’ ( st a n din g o u tsid e p erfe ctly s t ill f o r a n um ber o f h ou rs) , a n d i s o la tio n ( W illi s 1 980:1 84– 8). By t h e e a rly t w en tie th c en tu ry , le g is la tio n a ls o b eg an t o r e fe r s p ecif ic a lly t o y o u n g w om en a n d th eir b eh av io u r. T hus, th e Neg le cte d C hild ren a n d Ju ven ile O ffe n der s A ct 1 905 (N SW ) n eg le ct ca te g o ry h ad sp ecif ic p ro vis io n s th at r e la te d to g ir ls a n d y o u n g w om en . Gir ls a n d y o u n g w om en co u ld b e c h arg ed w it h b ein g n eg le cte d i f t h ey w ere f o u n d s o li c it in g m en o r o th erw is e b eh av in g i n a n 38 in decen t m an ner ( W illi s 1 980:1 85). T here w ere n o e q u iv ale n t p ro vis io n s r e la tin g t o m ale s. You n g w om en w ere a ls o p u n is h ed w hen t h ey w ere t h e v ic tim s o f s e rio u s c rim e. A s V an K rie k en (1 991:9 3) h as n ote d , t h e e n tr y b ooks t o P arra m atta I n dust r ia l S ch ool fo r G ir ls s h ow ed t h at g ir ls who w ere r a p ed o r t h e v ic tim s o f i n cest o ft e n f o u n d t h em se lv es c o m mit te d t o t h e i n st it u tio n , w hile th e p erp etr a to rs re m ain ed fr e e. P arra m atta w as to re m ain th e m ain in st it u tio n fo r g ir ls in N ew So u th W ale s u n til t h e la te 1 970s ( se e F ra n kli n 2 014). A s e n ate in qu ir y in to in st it u tio n al c a re in Aust r a li a n ote d t h at: Parra m atta G ir ls ’ I n dust r ia l S ch ool … b eca m e r e n ow ned fo r e x tr e m e c ru elt y , w as th e su bje ct o f m an y in qu ir ie s w hic h w ere s c a th in g o f i t s a ctiv it ie s a n d a ch ie v ed n oto rie ty i n t h e 1 960s w hen m an y o f t h e g ir ls rio te d a g ain st i t s c o n dit io n s. ( S en ate C om mun it y A ffa ir s R efe re n ces C om mit te e 2 004a:5 5) The in qu ir y re ceiv ed m an y su bm is sio n s fr o m w om en w ho had been in th e Parra m atta in st it u tio n , s u ch a s t h e f o llo w in g. When I g o t t o P arra m atta I w as t o ld t h at t h ey w ou ld b re a k m y s p ir it a t t h at t im e I d id n ’t k n ow w hat t h ey mea n t. A M r G ord on p u n ch ed m e i n t h e f a ce s e v era l t im es, m y n ose b le d . ( S u b 3 9) I d id n ot k n ow w hat c ru elt y w as li k e u n til I w en t in to P arra m atta G ir ls H om e … n o ch ild s h ou ld h av e e n dure d t h e n eg le ct, t h e c ru elt y , t h e b ru ta li t y , m ali c e a n d im mora li t y th at w ere s h ow n b y m an y o f t h e s t a ff t o m an y o f t h e g ir ls i n t h e h om e. ( S u b 1 10) I w as in vo lv ed in t h e P arra m atta r io ts. M yse lf a n d o th er g ir ls w ere t h e f ir st t o g et o n th e r o of a t P arra m atta w hic h w as t o e sc a p e t h e b ru ta l b ash in g w e k n ew w e w ou ld g et f o r le a v in g t h e l a u n dry . M r J o h n so n w as t h en i n c h arg e, h e w as a b ru ta l m an a n d w it h in t h at week I h ad s e en h im b ash a n d k ic k a g ir l t h at h e h ad b een m ole st in g t o t r y a n d i n duce a mis c a rria g e. ( S u b 2 50) ( S en ate C om mun it y A ffa ir s R efe re n ces C om mit te e 2 004a:5 6; s e e fu rth er F ra n kli n 2 014, a n d Box 1 .1 ) BOX 1 .1   FU RTH ER R ESO U RCES O N G IR LS ’ I N DU STR IA L SC H OOLS In r e ce n t y e ars , in cre ase d m ed ia a tte n tio n h as b een p aid t o t h e s h ock in g t r e atm en t of g ir ls in re fo rm ato rie s in A ustr a lia . T w o p la ys — Parra m atta G ir ls a n d Eye s to th e Flo or by Ala n a Vale n tin e— have been w rit te n an d perfo rm ed to sh ow ca se th e exp erie n ce s o f ‘P arra m atta G ir ls ’. F or m ore in fo rm atio n o n th e P arra m atta G ir ls ’ Hom e, s e e t h e f o llo w in g A B C S ta te lin e f iv e -p art s e rie s: Reliv in g th e Horro r , AB C Sta te lin e, 30/5 /0 3 < http :/ /w ww.a b c.n et.a u /s ta te lin e/n sw /c o n te n t/ 2 003/s 8 69514.h tm >. More Vic tim s of Parra m atta Gir ls Hom e , AB C Sta te lin e, 6/6 /0 3 < http :/ /w ww.a b c.n et.a u /s ta te lin e/n sw /c o n te n t/ 2 003/s 8 75163.h tm >. Th e Reu nio n , AB C Sta te lin e, 27/0 6/0 3 < http :/ /w ww.a b c.n et.a u /s ta te lin e/n sw /c o n te n t/ 2 003/s 8 90893.h tm >. Th e ‘G ir ls ’ Get Tog eth er , AB C Sta te lin e, 24/1 0/0 3 < http :/ /w ww.a b c.n et.a u /s ta te lin e/n sw /c o n te n t/ 2 003/s 9 75547.h tm >. Th e ‘G ir ls ’ Re-u nit e , AB C Sta te lin e 7/1 1/0 3 39 < http :/ /w ww.a b c.n et.a u /s ta te lin e/n sw /c o n te n t/ 2 003/s 9 85548.h tm >. See a ls o : Exp ose d to Mora l Dan ger , AB C Rad io Natio n al, Hin dsig h t, < http :/ /w ww.a b c.n et.a u /r a d io n atio n al/ p ro g ra m s/h in dsig h t/ e xp ose d -to -m ora l- dan ger/3 069882 >. (A r a d io p ro g ra m a b ou t P arra m atta G ir ls ’ H om e, w hic h w as h ig h ly c o m men ded in th e ‘ r a d io ’ c a te g ory o f t h e 2 008 H um an R ig h ts C om mis sio n A w ard s.) For f u rth er i n fo rm atio n a n d r e so u rc e s, s e e < www.p arra g ir ls .o rg .a u >. PO LIC E, L A W , A N D J U VE N IL E D ELIN QU EN CY The dev elo p m en t of n ew m eth od s of dea li n g w it h yo u n g peo p le w en t h an d in h an d w it h dev elo p m en ts in t h e r e co rd ed in cid en ce o f e sse n tia lly n ew c a te g o rie s o f m in or ju ven ile c rim e. A n an aly sis b y G illi s (1 975) o f O xfo rd P oli c e C ou rt re co rd s b etw een 1 895 an d 1 914 sh ow s th at ju ven ile c rim e w as a p pare n tly i n cre a sin g a t a f a st e r r a te t h an a d ult c rim e i n t h is p erio d . T hese f ig u re s wou ld s e em t o s u pport f e a rs a t t h at t im e a b ou t r is in g j u ven ile c rim e, b u t a c lo se r e x am in atio n o f t h e patte rn o f o ffe n din g s h ow s u n ev en d is t r ib u tio n a cro ss v ario u s o ffe n ces. T he m ajo r i n cre a se s w ere i n min or su m mary an d p u bli c -o rd er o ffe n ces su ch as d ru n ken ness, gam bli n g, m ali c io u s m is c h ie f, lo it e rin g, w ilf u l d am ag e, b eg gin g, d an gero u s p la y , a n d d is c h arg e o f f ir e w ork s. T he a n aly sis o f a m ore se rio u s o ffe n ce, t h eft , s h ow s t h at t h is w as a sso cia te d w it h m in or i t e m s ( fr u it , v eg eta b le s, t o ys, s w eets, cig are tte s, a n d s o o n ). It w ou ld ap pea r th at tw o b ro ad ca te g o rie s o f o ffe n ces w ere im porta n t. Y ou n g p eo p le w ere bro u gh t b efo re th e c o u rts fo r p u bli c -o rd er o ffe n ces r e la te d to le is u re a ctiv it ie s in p u bli c , a n d fo r pro p erty o ffe n ces a sso cia te d w it h e co n om ic n eed . H um ph rie s ( 1 981) h as a rg u ed , o n t h e b asis o f o ra l his t o rie s, t h at m an y o ffe n ces c a n b e v ie w ed a s e x p re ssio n s o f ‘s o cia l c rim e’. T he c o n cep t o f s o cia l crim e e n co m passe s ‘t h e in num era b le m in or c rim es a g ain st p ro p erty c o m mit te d b y w ork in g-c la ss ch ild re n a n d y o u th t h at w ere c o n don ed b y la rg e s e ctio n s o f b oth t h e y o u th a n d p are n t c u lt u re s a s le g it im ate d esp it e t h eir ille g ali t y ’ ( H um ph rie s 1 981:1 51). M an y p ro p erty c rim es w ere n ecessit a te d an d ju st if ie d b y e x tr e m e p overty a n d t h e s t r u ggle f o r s u rv iv al. T he m ost c o m mon f o rm o f p ro p erty th eft , whic h was se en as a cu st o m ary rig h t am on g work in g-c la ss co m mun it ie s, in vo lv ed su pple m en tin g t h e f a m ily ’s f o od a n d f u el s u ppli e s. I n E ngla n d, t h e s in gle m ost im porta n t c a te g o ry of ju ven ile crim e d urin g th e ea rly tw en tie th cen tu ry w as ‘s im ple an d m in or la rc en y’, w hic h ‘c o m pris e d ta k in g c o al fr o m p it h ea d s, c h um ps o f w ood fr o m tim ber y ard s a n d v eg eta b le s fr o m fa rm er’s fie ld s, p oach in g ra b bit s a n d so o n ’ (H um ph rie s 1 981:1 51). T he a ctu al n atu re o f so cia l crim e w as c o m ple x , a n d v arie d sig n if ic a n tly a m on g d if fe re n t a re a s, d ep en din g o n o p portu n it ie s offe re d b y t h e l o ca l e co n om y a n d t h e n atu re o f l o ca l t r a d it io n s. Vario u s g o vern m en t st u d ie s a t th e tim e su ggest e d th at p etty c rim e w as m ost c o m mon a m on g un sk ille d , u n em plo yed , a n d s o le -p are n t fa m ili e s, a n d t h at o ld er c h ild re n in t h e fa m ily w ere m ore li k ely t o b e d eli n qu en t. T he d om in an t c rim in olo gic a l c la ssif ic a tio n s o f ju ven ile d eli n qu en cy d urin g th e la te n in ete en th a n d e a rly t w en tie th c en tu rie s s a w ju ven ile c rim e a s a sso cia te d w it h w ea k n ess o f ch ara cte r, ig n ora n ce, ir ra tio n ali t y , o r so m e o th er fo rm o f p ath olo gy. T he a sso cia te d e x p la n atio n s re li e d on bio lo gic a l an d psy ch olo gic a l in te rp re ta tio n s su ch as ‘p rim it iv e im pu ls e s’. H ow ev er, Hum ph rie s h as a rg u ed t h at s u ch e x p la n atio n s ig n ore d t h e s ig n if ic a n ce o f p overty , in eq u ali t y , a n d cla ss c o n fli c t a s s ig n if ic a n t f a cto rs i n c rim e. T he d om est ic e co n om y o f t h e w ork in g-c la ss h ou se h old 40 pro vid ed a r a tio n al s e t o f m otiv es, w here b y t h e e ld est c h ild re n c o m mit te d o ffe n ces t o h elp s u pport th e f a m ily . I n o th er w ord s, t h ere w as a m ora l e co n om y o p era tin g t h at v alu ed f a m ily s u pport m ore th an c o m pli a n ce w it h t h e l a w . Offe n ces r e la te d t o p u bli c o rd er t e n ded t o in vo lv e a rre st s o f y o u n g p eo p le in g ro u ps o f t w o o r more , a n d so m etim es in g ro u ps o f a s m an y a s 1 0 o r 1 5. C harg es re la tin g to p ro p erty d am ag e, mis c h ie f, a n d d an gero u s p la y c o u ld in vo lv e m an y y o u n g p eo p le a n d d eriv e f r o m p artic u la r p oli c in g activ it ie s. G illi s s t a te s: ‘S li d in g o n b rid ges, t h ro w in g r o ck s a n d p la y in g s t r e et fo otb all w ere t y p ic a l activ it ie s w hic h le d to th e a rre st o f la rg e g ro u ps. T his w ou ld se em to su ggest th at th ere w as a te n den cy o n t h e p art o f t h e p u bli c a n d t h e p oli c e t o a ttr ib u te a n tis o cia l i n te n ts t o b oys c o lle ctiv ely , th us r a is in g t h e r a te o f r e co rd ed o ffe n ces … ’ ( 1 975:1 03). The s u rv eilla n ce o f p u bli c s p ace a n d t h e a b ili t y o f p oli c e t o a rre st y o u n g p eo p le r a is e t h e i s su e o f dev elo p m en ts in p oli c in g— partic u la rly w it h a fo cu s o n th e eco n om ic an d le is u re activ it ie s o f work in g-c la ss y o u n g p eo p le . G illi s ( 1 975) a rg u es t h at, ir o n ic a lly , t h e c o lle ctiv e b eh av io u r o f y o u th had a ctu ally i m pro ved b y t h e la te r p art o f t h e n in ete en th c en tu ry . T hus, i n cre a se d a rre st r a te s w ere li k ely to h av e b een a fu n ctio n o f a n um ber o f fa cto rs, in clu d in g la w -e n fo rc em en t p ra ctic es, n ew le g is la tio n , a n d t h e g ro w th o f a r a n ge o f o rg an is a tio n s ( su ch a s t h e B oy S co u ts) w hose i n te n t w as t o mod if y y o u n g p eo p le ’s b eh av io u r. Poli c e fu n ctio n s an d pra ctic es w ere alt e rin g. T he la te nin ete en th cen tu ry sa w ex p an ded , re o rg an is e d , a n d in cre a sin gly p ro fe ssio n al p oli c e fo rc es. P oli c e h ad re sp on sib ili t ie s in re la tio n to yo u n g p eo p le t h at e x te n ded b ey o n d t h e n otio n o f c rim in ali t y t o o n e o f m on it o rin g y o u n g p eo p le ’s so cia l li f e . P oli c e w ere in vo lv ed a s w elf a re a g en ts, tr u an t o ffic ers, a n d m ora l g u ard ia n s (F in nan e 1994:7 ). In N ew S o u th W ale s in th e 1 890s, th e p oli c e to ok o n th e ro le o f re g u la tin g tr u an ts. Offic ia l a rre st f ig u re s f r o m t h e n in ete en th c en tu ry in A ust r a li a s h ow a p rim ary c o n cern w it h p etty crim e a n d p u bli c o rd er; h ow ev er, w elf a re c o m pla in ts s u ch a s n eg le ct o r u n co n tr o lla b ili t y w ere a ls o im porta n t. G ir ls w ere in cre a sin gly re p re se n te d in w elf a re co m pla in ts su ch as co m pla in ts of un co n tr o lla b ili t y ( F in nan e 1 994). The d if fe re n t se n te n cin g re g im es fo r ju ven ile s c o n vic te d o f la rc en y, a n d th e e x te n sio n o f th e mag is t r a te s’ ju ris d ic tio n , r e su lt e d in m ore ju ven ile s b ein g p ro se cu te d b y p oli c e. I n o th er w ord s, t h e net w as m ad e w id er b eca u se m ore ju ven ile s w ere b ro u gh t b efo re th e co u rts as a re su lt o f th e se em in gly b en efic ia l r e fo rm s ( S ey m ou r 1 988:3 3). S p ecia l l a w s w ere d ev elo p ed d urin g t h e 1 870s a n d 1880s t h at w ere a im ed s p ecif ic a lly a t y o u n g p eo p le ’s b eh av io u r. I n le g is la tio n s u ch a s t h e Ju ven ile Offe n der s A ct 1 875 ( T as) , sp ecif ic ju ven ile b eh av io u r, su ch as in decen t e x p osu re , a ssa u lt , o b sc en e la n gu ag e, th ro w in g st o n es, ob st r u ctin g a ra ilw ay , an d van dali s m , co u ld be d ea lt w it h in th e mag is t r a te ’s c o u rt. There w as a ls o a m ove a w ay f r o m t h e o ld p oli c e p ra ctic e o f d ea li n g w it h j u ven ile o ffe n ders o n t h e sp ot. C orp ora l p u n is h m en t b y p oli c e w as v ie w ed a s i n ap pro p ria te , p artic u la rly b y o rg an is a tio n s s u ch as t h e N atio n al S o cie ty f o r t h e P re v en tio n o f C ru elt y t o C hild re n . O ne e ffe ct o f r e d ucin g t h e u se o f arb it r a ry p u n is h m en t w as t h at t h e p oli c e m ad e m ore u se o f t h e c o u rts ( G illi s 1 975). I n deed , i n N ew So u th W ale s t h e e st a b li s h m en t o f t h e c h ild re n ’s c o u rt a n d l e g is la tio n r e la tin g t o n eg le cte d c h ild re n was r e co gn is e d b y it s a rc h it e cts a s f a cili t a tin g p oli c e in te rv en tio n ( F in nan e 1 994:1 7). I n fo rm atio n av aila b le f r o m t h e S yd n ey C hild re n ’s C ou rt w as s e en t o s u pport g re a te r i n te rv en tio n , p artic u la rly i n re la tio n t o p u bli c b eh av io u r. I n 1 911, a b ou t o n e-t h ir d o f a ll t h e o ffe n ces d ete rm in ed i n t h e S yd n ey Child re n ’s C ou rt r e la te d t o r io to u s b eh av io u r, t h ro w in g s t o n es, p la y in g g am es, ‘ b oard in g o r q u it tin g tr a m in m otio n ’, an d ‘b ath in g in vie w ’ (S ey m ou r 1 988:1 04). S im ila r ev id en ce fr o m W est e rn Aust r a li a a ls o s u ggest s p ro se cu tio n s fo r v ery m in or o ffe n ces, s u ch a s b re a k in g b ra n ch es fr o m t r e es 41 an d k ic k in g f o otb alls in a p ark . S ey m ou r a rg u es t h at m in or in cid en ts s u ch a s t h ese w ou ld p ro b ab ly not h av e b een b ro u gh t b efo re m ag is t r a te s p rio r t o t h e a d ven t o f t h e c h ild re n ’s c o u rt, a n d it s e em s li k ely t h at t h e n et w as w id en ed , w it h a g re a te r le v el o f p ro se cu tio n s fo r m in or o ffe n ces ( S ey m ou r 1988:1 09). R ese a rc h in th e U SA su ggest s th at th e e x erc is e o f d is c re tio n ary a u th orit y b y p oli c e sh ap ed th e o p era tio n s o f ju ven ile ju st ic e d urin g th is p erio d o f th e la te n in ete en th an d ea rly tw en tie th c en tu rie s ( W olc o tt 2 001). Sch ools a n d y o u th o rg an is a tio n s a ls o h ad th e in dir e ct e ffe ct o f c a u sin g m ore y o u n g p eo p le to ap pea r b efo re th e co u rts a s th ey d efin ed a n d a tte m pte d to co n tr o l th e p u bli c b eh av io u r, w ork activ it ie s, a n d le is u re o f y o u n g p eo p le . S u ch o rg an is a tio n s’ in flu en ce w as e x te n ded t h ro u gh s o cia l ch an ges, su ch as th e p ro vis io n o f co m pu ls o ry ed uca tio n ; an d le g is la tio n , su ch as th e E ngli s h Prev en tio n o f C ru elt y a n d P ro te ctio n o f C hild ren A ct 1 889 . T here w as a ls o a r a n ge o f r e fo rm ativ e org an is a tio n s, su ch a s th e S alv atio n A rm y, B oy S co u ts, B oys’ B rig ad es, Y ou n g M en ’s C hris t ia n Asso cia tio n s ( Y M CA), a n d Y ou n g W om en ’s C hris t ia n A sso cia tio n s ( Y W CA). T hese o rg an is a tio n s were e n gag ed in a ctiv it ie s a im ed a t a lt e rin g y o u n g p eo p le ’s p u bli c a n d p riv ate b eh av io u r. ‘K eep in g th em o ff t h e s t r e ets’ b eca m e a s h orth an d w ay o f d esc rib in g t h is fu n ctio n ( M au n ders 1 984; G illi s 1975). S ch ools a ls o b eca m e s it e s o f d is c ip li n e a n d t h e l a w . O ne s c h ool’s p u n is h m en t b ook f o r 1 905 sh ow ed th at alm ost on e-t h ir d of th e pu n is h m en ts re la te d to ex tr a cu rric u la r activ it ie s (G illi s 1975:1 18). One o u tc o m e o f t h e c h an ges i n l e g is la tio n a n d o f t h e s p re a d o f s c h ooli n g a n d y o u th o rg an is a tio n s was t h at c le a re r d is t in ctio n s b etw een ‘r o u gh ’ a n d ‘r e sp ecta b le ’ w ork in g-c la ss y o u th w ere e st a b li s h ed . Certa in ly , p oli c e p erc ep tio n s o f m ale y o u th w ere d efin ed i n t e rm s o f c la ss a n d s e x . ‘ S u ch p erc ep tio n s did n ot n ecessa rily m ea n t h at p oli c e w ou ld d efe re n tia lly s id e w it h t h e w is h es o f s o cia l e li t e s a g ain st th e a lle g ed d ep re d atio n s o f w ork in g-c la ss y o u th . B ut t h ey d id w ork w it h s o cia l d is t in ctio n s w hic h pit te d t h e r e sp ecta b le a g ain st t h e r o u gh .’ ( F in nan e 1 994:1 3). The n ew an d ex p an din g ju ris d ic tio n d ea li n g sp ecif ic a lly w it h yo u n g p eo p le allo w ed gre a te r re g u la tio n . N ew o ffe n ces w ere c re a te d a n d w elf a re p ro vis io n s w ere d ev elo p ed . There w ere n ew meth od s o f su rv eilla n ce a n d n ew b u re a u cra tic st r u ctu re s fo r e n fo rc in g so cia l r e g u la tio n . T here is wid esp re a d e m pir ic a l e v id en ce t o s u ggest t h at in cre a se d n um bers o f y o u n g p eo p le w ere d ea lt w it h fo rm ally b y t h e j u ven ile j u st ic e s y st e m . EXP LA IN IN G C H AN GE His t o ria n s a n d c rim in olo gis t s h av e d eb ate d h ow t o c o n cep tu ali s e t h e e ffe cts o f t h e e st a b li s h m en t o f a se p ara te le g al r e g im e fo r d ea li n g w it h y o u n g p eo p le . T hese d eb ate s a re n ot o f p u re ly a ca d em ic in te re st b eca u se t h ey a ls o i llu m in ate c u rre n t i s su es r e le v an t t o ju ven ile ju st ic e. D if fe re n t c o n cep tu al ap pro ach es a re s h ow n i n Box 1 .2 . As c a n b e s e en i n Box 1 .2 , o n e w ay o f c o n cep tu ali s in g t h e p erio d o f c h an gin g p oli c y i s t o v ie w i t i n te rm s of pro gre ss. A se p ara te ch ild re n ’s co u rt an d se p ara te pen al sy st e m ca n be se en as a hum an it a ria n a d van ce o ver fo rm er m eth od s o f d ea li n g w it h y o u n g p eo p le . T hey c a n b e se en a s necessa rily go od . Lib era l (o r ‘W hig ’) his t o rie s are oft e n crit ic is e d fo r th eir te le o lo gic a l or ev o lu tio n ary v ie w o f t h e p ast : t h at i s , f o r s e ein g t h e p ast a s i n ev it a b ly a n d p ro gre ssiv ely l e a d in g t o t h e pre se n t. A n im pli c it a ssu m ptio n is t h at b eca u se t h e p re se n t is t h e o u tc o m e o f p ro gre ssiv e s t e p s in th e p ast , t h en t h e p re se n t s y st e m i s t h e b est a n d m ost a d van ced . T his v ie w o f h is t o ry s e es t h e m ain so u rc e o f c h an ge in ju ven ile ju st ic e a s d eriv in g f r o m e n li g h te n ed a n d h um an e in div id uals w ho c a re ab ou t th e p li g h t a n d w elf a re o f w ork in g-c la ss c h ild re n . T he st a te is se en a s a n eu tr a l in st it u tio n 42 to w ard s w hic h r e fo rm a ctiv it y c a n b e d ir e cte d . In th e 1 960s a n d e a rly 1 970s, th ese v ie w s o f th e p ast w ere su bje cte d to in te n se c rit ic is m . T he in st it u tio n s o f ju ven ile ju st ic e w ere s e en a s a m ech an is m o f s o cia l c o n tr o l, a n d c rit ic is e d f o r b ein g in effic ie n t, b ru ta l, m is m an ag ed , a n d c o rru pt. A k ey c o m pon en t o f th e c rit iq u e w as th at th e n ew sy st e m s o f re g u la tio n in cre a se d le v els o f su rv eilla n ce a n d ‘s u bje cte d m ore a n d m ore ju ven ile s to arb it r a ry a n d d eg ra d in g p u n is h m en ts’ ( P la tt 1 977:x vii) . I n s o m e o f t h ese ‘s o cia l c o n tr o l’ a p pro ach es, th e i s su e o f c la ss i s s e en a s i m porta n t. S o cia l c o n tr o l m ech an is m s a re s e en a s e x te n din g c o n tr o l o ver th e w ork in g c la ss, p artic u la rly y o u n g p eo p le . Im pli c it in th ese a p pro ach es is th e v ie w th at st a te in st it u tio n s a re a f o rm o f r e g u la tio n b y o n e c la ss o ver a n oth er. So m e w rit e rs h av e s t r e sse d t h e i m porta n ce o f i n co rp ora tin g a p oli t ic a l e co n om y a p pro ach , w hic h arg u es th at th e n in ete en th – an d ea rly tw en tie th -c en tu ry d ev elo p m en ts in ju ven ile ju st ic e w ere neit h er is o la te d n or a u to n om ou s, s in ce b ro ad er e co n om ic a n d s o cia l r e fo rm s w ere o ccu rrin g t h at were o p pose d to la is se z -fa ir e c a p it a li s m , a n d th ere w as a n in cre a se d ro le fo r st a te in st it u tio n s in eco n om ic re g u la tio n . T he n ew p oli t ic a l eco n om y at th is tim e w as ch ara cte ris e d b y lo n g-r a n ge pla n nin g an d bu re a u cra tic ro u tin e (P la tt 1977:x ix ). C on cep tu al ch an ges re la te d to sc ie n tif ic man ag em en t in in dust r y , in te lli g en ce te st in g in ed uca tio n , an d cla ssif ic a tio n s an d tr e a tm en t in crim in al j u st ic e. D ev elo p m en ts w it h in i n dust r ia l c a p it a li s m d em an ded a g re a te r r o le f o r t h e s t a te i n pre p arin g p ote n tia l w ork ers f o r t h e la b ou r m ark et w hile e n su rin g t h e m ain te n an ce o f p u bli c o rd er an d p ro te ctio n o f p ro p erty . BOX 1 .2   HIS TO R IC A L I N TE R PR ETA TIO N S LIB ER AL A N ALYS IS ( P R OGR ESS A N D H UM AN IT A R IA N IS M ) Focu s: I n div id u al m ora l r e fo rm atio n a n d t r a in in g f o r r e sp ecta b le w ork a n d l if e Cen tr a l i d eas Key p la ye rs Sou rc e o f c h an ge Pro g re ss Mid dle -c la ss re fo rm ers Hum an e in div id u als Hum an it a ria n is m Chil d -s a ve rs ’ move m en t Neu tr a l s ta te Ben evo le n t i n te n tio n s a cco rd in g t o b ou rg eois id eals Charit ie s Enlig h te n m en t id eals Salv a tio n o f c h il d re n CR IT IC AL A N ALYS IS ( S O CIA L C O N TR OL A N D P O LIT IC AL E C O N OM Y) Focu s: T h e p olic in g a n d r e g u la tio n o f t h e l iv e s o f w ork in g-c la ss f a m il ie s a n d c h il d re n to e n su re s o cia l o rd er a n d c a p it a lis t e co n om ic r e la tio n s Cen tr a l i d eas Key p la ye rs Sou rc e o f c h an ge Socia l d iv is io n s Sta te Str u ctu ra l c h an ges a sso cia te d w it h ca p it a lis t d eve lo p m en t Main te n an ce o f b ou rg eois s o cia l ord er Rulin g c la ss Reso cia lis a tio n o f w ork in g c la ss 43 Str u ctu ra l n eed f o r d is cip lin ed an d h ard -w ork in g l a b ou r New p ro fe ssio n s In cre ase d s ta te i n te rv e n tio n Effe cts o f p olic ie s o n w ork in g- cla ss c h il d re n Polic e Ju ve n il e c o u rts an d i n stit u tio n s SIT U ATIO N AL A N ALYS IS ( S O CIA L A C TO R S A N D D IV E R SE I N TE R ESTS ) Focu s: T h e c o m ple xit y o f c h an ge r e fle cts a ctiv e r e sp on se s fr o m d iv e rs e a cto rs w it h dif fe re n t i n te re sts Cen tr a l i d eas Key p la ye rs Sou rc e o f ch an ge Pow er i s d is p ers e d t h ro u gh ou t s o cia l in te ra ctio n s Mid dle -c la ss r e fo rm ers Self – c o n scio u s actio n s a n d attit u des o f peop le Em ph asis o n h ow r e fo rm s t r a n sla te d in to p ra ctic a l s it u atio n s Work in g-c la ss p are n ts a n d org an is a tio n s w ho u se d t h e sys te m t o t h eir a d va n ta g e Unin te n ded effe cts Actu al p ro ce sse s o f i m ple m en ta tio n i n re la tio n t o c h il d ’s c ir c u m sta n ce s v e rs u s se rio u sn ess o f o ffe n ce s Polic e a n d i n stit u tio n al s ta ff In stit u tio n al dyn am ic s s h ap e activ it y /p olic y Agen cy o r r o le o f w ork in g c la ss, a s w ell as m id dle c la ss, i n r e fo rm p erio d Aust r a li a n h is t o ria n s o f c h ild w elf a re a n d ju ven ile ju st ic e, su ch a s V an K rie k en (1 991), h av e arg u ed t h at it is im porta n t t o u n derst a n d h ow t h e w ork in g c la ss u se d t h e n ew in st it u tio n s t o t h eir ow n a d van ta g e. D ep en din g o n t h eir s it u atio n , d if fe re n t s o cia l a cto rs h ad d if fe re n t in te re st s in h ow th e ju ven ile ju st ic e s y st e m d ev elo p ed a n d w as u se d . C la ss w as im porta n t, b u t t h e n ew in st it u tio n s were n ot m ere ly r e p re ssiv e o f w ork in g-c la ss y o u th . C om pla in ts a b ou t y o u n g p eo p le m ig h t a ris e f r o m fa m ily m em bers, n eig h bou rs, o r t h e p u bli c , a n d d id n ot s im ply d eriv e f r o m p oli c e o r in st it u tio n al su rv eilla n ce ( se e a ls o F in nan e 1 994). P la tt ( 2 008:1 25) n ote s i n h is r e co n sid era tio n o f s o cia l c o n tr o l arg u m en ts th at it is im porta n t n ot to o vere m ph asis e th e ro le o f th e st a te at th e ex p en se o f un derst a n din g i s su es o f a g en cy , r e sis t a n ce, a n d e n gag em en t. Van K rie k en (1 991) arg u es th at th ere w as a d iv is io n b etw een th e ‘r e sp ecta b le ’ an d ‘n on – re sp ecta b le ’ s e ctio n s o f t h e w ork in g c la ss. T he r e sp ecta b le w ork in g c la ss a n d s e ctio n s o f t h e la b ou r movem en t su pporte d so m e a sp ects o f th e n ew in st it u tio n s, su ch a s c o m pu ls o ry e d uca tio n . T hey mig h t w ell h av e s u pporte d n ew s t a n dard s o f p u bli c p ro p rie ty a n d m ora li t y a g ain st w hat t h ey s a w t o be th e b eh av io u r o f th e n on -r e sp ecta b le u rb an p oor. In deed , F in nan e (1 994:1 0– 15) n ote s th at poli c e u se d d is t in ctio n s b etw een th e re sp ecta b le an d th e ‘r o u gh ’ w ork in g cla ss w hen d ecid in g wheth er t o e n fo rc e p artic u la r p u bli c -o rd er la w s. A cco rd in g t o V an K rie k en , w e n eed to c o n sid er how w ork in g-c la ss p eo p le a ccep te d c erta in st a n dard s in th eir o w n in te re st s a n d w ere n ot sim ply passiv e v ic tim s o f n ew l e v els o f s t a te i n te rv en tio n . 44 CO N CLU SIO N The c h an ges t h at o ccu rre d i n t h e l a st h alf o f t h e n in ete en th a n d e a rly p art o f t h e t w en tie th c en tu rie s wit h t h e i n tr o d uctio n o f s p ecif ic m ea su re s t o d ea l w it h y o u n g p eo p le b ro u gh t b efo re t h e c o u rts c a n be u n derst o od w it h in th e c o n te x t o f b ro ad c h an ges o ccu rrin g in th e fo rm s o f st a te in te rv en tio n . Educa tio n A cts c o m pelle d c h ild re n b etw een c erta in a g es to a tte n d sc h ool. L eg is la tio n re g u la tin g la b ou r p ro h ib it e d c h ild re n o f c erta in a g es f r o m w ork in g. T he p erio d o f d ep en den cy o f c h ild re n w as ex te n ded . I n r e la tio n t o w elf a re , r e li a n ce o n p riv ate p h ila n th ro p ic o rg an is a tio n s w as t r a n sfo rm ed s o th at t h e s t a te a ssu m ed r e sp on sib ili t y f o r w elf a re p ro vis io n . Sta te in te rv en tio n c h an ged th e o vera ll p osit io n o f y o u n g p eo p le in A ust r a li a d urin g th is tim e. New f o rm s o f r e g u la tio n r e la te d t o e d uca tio n , w ork , a n d le is u re . I n cre a se d p oli c e s u rv eilla n ce, t h e dev elo p m en t o f th e c h ild re n ’s c o u rt, a lt e ra tio n s to th e p en al re g im e fo r y o u n g p eo p le , a n d th e gro w th o f n ew p ro fe ssio n s w ere a ll p art o f t h is b ro ad er c h an ge. T here w as a ls o g re a te r r e g u la tio n o f fa m ily r e la tio n s, in clu d in g g u ard ia n sh ip la w s. I t is c le a r t h at t h e la w w as u se d t o e n fo rc e s t a n dard s an d o b li g atio n s o n p are n ts. C om pu ls o ry e d uca tio n is o n e e x am ple . I n E ngla n d, t h ere w ere 8 6 1 49 pro se cu tio n s o f p are n ts u n der t h e 1 870 E duca tio n A ct i n o n e y ea r a lo n e ( M orris & G ille r 1 987:2 2). How ev er w e c o n cep tu ali s e t h e c h an ges, it is c le a r t h ere w ere f u n dam en ta l s h if t s d urin g t h e la te nin ete en th a n d e a rly tw en tie th c en tu rie s in th e re la tio n sh ip b etw een y o u n g p eo p le a n d th e la w . There w as a s e p ara te m eth od o f p u n is h m en t f o r y o u n g p eo p le , i n clu d in g n ew p en al i n st it u tio n s a n d gre a te r s u rv eilla n ce a t h om e a n d i n t h e c o m mun it y t h ro u gh p ro b atio n o ffic ers. S ep ara te s e n te n cin g re g im es w ere e st a b li s h ed , in clu d in g t h e u se o f in dete rm in ate s e n te n cin g. S ep ara te c h ild re n ’s c o u rts were e st a b li s h ed , n ot o n ly to d ete rm in e c rim in al m atte rs b u t a ls o to a sse ss n eg le ct a n d w elf a re matte rs. P artic u la r p ra ctic es w ere a ls o s e en a s a p pro p ria te in d ea li n g w it h y o u n g p eo p le w ho c a m e befo re t h e c o u rts, p artic u la rly t h e u se o f s o cia l- b ack gro u n d r e p orts. P artly a s a r e sp on se t o c h an ges in le g is la tio n an d d ev elo p m en ts in p oli c in g, an d p artly as a re su lt o f th e ex is t e n ce o f se p ara te ch ild re n ’s c o u rts, th ere w as a n in cre a se in th e n um ber o f y o u n g p eo p le p ro se cu te d a n d b ro u gh t fo rm ally in to t h e ju st ic e s y st e m . F in ally , t h ere w ere g en dere d a p pro ach es t o t h e a p pli c a tio n o f t h e new f o rm s o f c o n tr o lli n g y o u n g p eo p le . U nderst a n din g t h e f o u n datio n a n d h is t o ric a l d ev elo p m en t of ju ven ile ju st ic e is p artic u la rly im porta n t a t a tim e w hen m uch o f th e c o n te m pora ry li t e ra tu re fo cu se s o n n arro w e m pir ic a l s t u d ie s o f c rim e c a u sa tio n a n d p artic u la r p ro gra m s ( P la tt 2 008:1 26). The d ev elo p m en ts i n ju ven ile ju st ic e c a n b e f u rth er u n derst o od b y t h e t h eo re tic a l d ev elo p m en ts in c rim in olo gy. W e h av e re fe rre d o n a n um ber o f o cca sio n s in th is c h ap te r to d ev elo p m en ts in cla ssif ic a tio n , n ew d is c ip li n es, an d ch an ges in th in kin g ab ou t yo u n g p eo p le . In th e fo llo w in g ch ap te r, w e e x p lo re t h e d ev elo p m en ts o f c rim in olo gic a l t h eo ry a n d v ario u s e x p la n atio n s f o r j u ven ile offe n din g. 45 2 TH EO R IE S O F J U VE N IL E O FFE N DIN G 46 C H AP TE R H IG H LIG H TS In tr o d u ctio n Cla ssic a l t h eory a n d i n div id u al c h oic e Posit iv is m a n d i n div id u al c rim in al b eh avio u r Socio lo g ic a l t h eorie s Lab ellin g p ers p ectiv e s Socia l i n eq u alit y a n d s tr u ctu ra l p ow er Mult if a cto ria l e xp la n atio n s Con clu sio n I N TR OD U CTIO N T he a im o f t h is c h ap te r i s t o e x p lo re t h eo rie s a n d e x p la n atio n s f o r w hy y o u n g p eo p le c o m mit c rim e. T he c h ap te r o u tli n es t h e m ain t h eo rie s o f ju ven ile o ffe n din g, a n d p ro vid es a b rie f o verv ie w o f k ey c o n cep ts an d id ea s p erta in in g sp ecif ic a lly to yo u n g o ffe n ders. A s w ill b e se en , th ere are m an y d if fe re n t e x p la n atio n s p u t f o rw ard t o e x p la in j u ven ile o ffe n din g. T hese r a n ge f r o m p ersp ectiv es t h at e m ph asis e in div id ual o ffe n der c h oic e in w heth er t o o ffe n d, t h ro u gh t o t h ose t h at e m ph asis e s o cia l f a cto rs su ch a s p overty , li m it e d e m plo ym en t o p portu n it ie s, a n d sc h ool p erfo rm an ce in sh ap in g j u ven ile c rim in al c a re ers. T he c h ap te r c o n clu d es w it h a d is c u ssio n o f t h e d if fe re n t le v els o f a n aly sis e v id en t i n g en era l a cco u n ts o f y o u th o ffe n din g. The f o cu s o f e a ch o f t h e m an y d if fe re n t t h eo rie s o f ju ven ile o ffe n din g v arie s c o n sid era b ly . S o m e c o n cen tr a te o n e x am in in g t h e c rim in al a ct; s o m e, t h e o ffe n der. O th ers s e e c rim e a s a s o cia l p ro cess; s t ill o th ers lo ok a t it in t e rm s o f p ow er r e la tio n s. T he m an ner in w hic h c a u se s a re r e p re se n te d h as m ajo r i m pli c a tio n s f o r s t r a te g ie s o f c rim e p re v en tio n a n d c rim e c o n tr o l. A gain , d ep en din g u pon t h e t h eo ry a d op te d , t h e ‘s o lu tio n ’ m ay b e s e en in t e rm s o f p u n is h m en t, t r e a tm en t, o r r e h ab ili t a tio n o f o ffe n ders; re st it u tio n in vo lv in g vic tim s an d offe n ders; or m ajo r st r u ctu ra l ch an ge re q u ir in g t r a n sfo rm atio n s in th e n atu re o f b asic so cia l in st it u tio n s. S p ecif ic th eo rie s th ere fo re a ris e fr o m s p ecif ic w ay s o f v ie w in g c rim e, t h e r o le o f c rim in al j u st ic e i n st it u tio n s, a n d t h e a p pro p ria te s t r a te g ie s f o r g ra p pli n g w it h c rim in al a n d d ev ia n t b eh av io u r. Dif fe re n ces in t h e b ro ad le v el o f a n aly sis , a n d in s p ecif ic d is c ip li n e-r e la te d p ersp ectiv es, c a n b e l i n ked t o s o m e e x te n t t o d if fe re n ces i n t h e p oli t ic a l f r a m ew ork o f t h e w rit e r. I t i s a t r u is m t h at a n y p artic u la r c rim in olo gic a l t h eo ry d oes n ot e x is t in a p oli t ic a l v acu um : e a ch is t ie d t o a w id er s o cia l a n d p h ilo so p h ic a l v ie w o f s o cie ty . T he m otiv atio n , c o n cep tu al d ev elo p m en t, m eth od olo gic a l t o ols , a n d s o cia l v alu es a sso cia te d w it h a s p ecif ic a p pro ach a re u su ally in te rtw in ed w it h o n e o f t h e t h re e b ro ad p oli t ic a l p ersp ectiv es: c o n se rv ativ e, l i b era l, o r r a d ic a l ( se e W hit e , H ain es & A sq u it h 2 012). I f w e a ck n ow le d ge t h e c en tr a li t y o f ‘p oli t ic s’ i n c rim in olo gic a l a n aly sis , t h en w e m ust a ccep t t h at t h ere i s n o su ch th in g a s v alu e-f r e e c rim in olo gy. V alu es o f th e R ig h t (c o n se rv ativ e), L eft (ra d ic a l) a n d C en tr e (li b era l) a re e m bed ded in th e c rim in olo gic a l e n te rp ris e . C rim in olo gic a l th eo ry is a lw ay s r e la te d t o s p ecif ic h is t o ric a l c o n te x ts, m ate ria l c o n dit io n s, a n d p oli t ic a l s t r u ggle s. The o b je ctiv es a n d m eth od s o f a n aly sis u se d in c rim in olo gy r e fle ct c erta in u n derly in g id ea s a n d c o n cern s o f th e w rit e r. In re a d in g c rim in olo gic a l m ate ria l, th en , it is im porta n t to e x am in e th e a ssu m ptio n s o f th e w rit e rs, th e k ey co n cep ts th ey u se , an d th e m eth od s o r arg u m en ts u se d to s u pport t h eir t h eo rie s, in o rd er t o id en tif y t h eir c o n cep tio n s o f s o cie ty a n d o f h um an n atu re , a n d 47 th e k in ds o f re fo rm s o r in st it u tio n s th ey u lt im ate ly su pport. It is a ls o im porta n t to id en tif y th e sile n ces in a p artic u la r t h eo ry o r t r a d it io n : t h at is , w hic h q u est io n s a re n ot b ein g a sk ed , a n d w hy not? F in ally , it is c ru cia l t o c o n sid er t h e s o cia l r e le v an ce o f t h e t h eo ry o r p ersp ectiv e. W hat d oes it te ll u s a b ou t o u r s o cie ty a n d t h e d ir e ctio n o u r s o cie ty i s o r o u gh t t o b e t a k in g? F un dam en ta lly , t h e st u d y o f c rim e in vo lv es th e v alu es a n d o p in io n s o f th e c rim in olo gis t , a n d th is is n o le ss tr u e o f ju ven ile j u st ic e t h an o f a n y o th er a re a o f c rim in olo gy. CLA SSIC A L T H EO R Y A N D I N DIV ID U AL C H OIC E In th e c la ssic a l tr a d it io n , th e p u rp ose o f p u n is h m en t w it h in th e la w is to d ete r in div id uals fr o m im pin gin g u pon a n d v io la tin g o th ers’ r ig h ts a n d i n te re st s. A ll o f u s a s i n div id uals a re s e en t o h av e a n eq u al c a p acit y t o r e a so n , a n d h en ce a re d eem ed r e sp on sib le f o r o u r o w n a ctio n s. T he c la ssic a l v ie w i s th at t h ere is a c o n se n su s a m on g m em bers o f a s o cie ty r e g ard in g t h e d esir a b ili t y o f a s o cia l c o n tr a ct th at d en ote s t h e r e la tio n sh ip b etw een t h e s t a te a n d t h e in div id ual. S in ce in div id uals a re v ie w ed a s hav in g e q u al p ow er t o r e a so n a n d t o s u pport a r a tio n al s y st e m b ase d u pon r e a so n , t h en a n y l a w s a n d ru le s d ev elo p ed u n der s u ch a s y st e m a re s e en t o b e r e a so n ab le a n d b in din g f o r a ll ( th is is k n ow n a s th e s o cia l c o n tr a ct) . T hus, r u le i s b y c o n se n su s, w hic h i n t u rn i s r a tio n ally e st a b li s h ed . A n i n div id ual who e n gag es i n c rim e e it h er a cts i r ra tio n ally o r m ak es a b ad c h oic e. Cla ssic is m l o ca te s t h e s o u rc e o f c rim in ali t y w it h in t h e r a tio n al, r e a so n in g i n div id ual, a n d s e es i t a s a m atte r o f c h oic e a n d in te n t o n t h e p art o f t h e o ffe n der. R ela te d t o t h is is t h e n otio n t h at e a ch in div id ual sh ou ld b e m ad e fa m ili a r w it h th e la w , a n d w it h it s p u n is h m en ts, in o rd er to m ak e a co rre ct c h oic e in t e rm s o f b eh av io u r. P un is h m en t is in te n ded t o d ete r in div id uals fr o m c h oosin g wro n gly in t h eir im med ia te a n d f u tu re a ctiv it ie s, t h ro u gh t h e t h re a t o f p ossib le p ain ( p en alt y ) ( se e dis c u ssio n o f s p ecif ic d ete rre n ce i n Chap te r 1 0 ). I n div id uals a re h eld r e sp on sib le f o r t h eir a ctio n s. Cla ssic a l c rim in al p oli c y f o cu se s p rim arily o n t h e c rim in al a ct a n d s u ggest s e q u al p u n is h m en ts f o r eq u al crim es. A gain , th e em ph asis is o n eq u al tr e a tm en t b eca u se o f th e p re su m ptio n o f eq u al ra tio n ali t y a n d t h e n ecessit y f o r e q u ali t y in le g al p ro ceed in gs. T he p u n is h m en t is m ea n t t o f it t h e crim e. I t is a ssu m ed t h at, t h ro u gh p u n is h m en t, t h e o ffe n din g in div id ual w ill c o m e t o s e e o b ey in g th e l a w a s t h e m ost r a tio n al o f c h oic es. F or t h e s a k e o f e q u ali t y , i t i s t h ou gh t t h at p en alt ie s s h ou ld b e fix ed p rio r t o s e n te n cin g, a n d b e a d m in is t e re d in a cco rd an ce w it h t h e a ctu al o ffe n ce t h at h as b een co m mit te d , r a th er t h an w it h a n y p rio r o ffe n ces, o r a s a r e su lt o f s p ecu la tio n r e g ard in g t h e o ffe n der’s possib le f u tu re o ffe n ces. The cla ssic a l sc h ool o f crim in olo gy em ph asis e s ch oic e, re sp on sib ili t y , an d in te n t. T his is a volu n ta ris t ic c o n cep tio n o f c rim e, w hic h lo ca te s t h e r e a so n s fo r c rim e w it h in t h e in div id ual s o cia l acto r. It st r e sse s eq u ali t y b efo re th e la w , an d eq u ali t y in p eo p le ’s ca p acit y to re a so n an d m ak e ch oic es. C rim e is s e en a s a v io la tio n o f t h e le g al c o n se n su s, w hic h it se lf is s e en t o r e fle ct t h e s o cia l co n tr a ct. T he l a w i s s e en a s n eed in g t o b e c o d if ie d , n eu tr a l, a n d i m partia l, a n d p u n is h m en t i s s e en a s in te n ded to d ete r in div id uals acco rd in g to p le a su re – pain p rin cip le s. T he m ain st r e ss is o n th e crim in al a ct, a n d t h e e q u al a n d s y st e m atic a p pli c a tio n o f l a w s i n r e la tio n t o t h is a ct. The rig h t- w in g li b er ta ria n p ersp ectiv e is a m od ern v ersio n o f t h e c la ssic a l a p pro ach . I t is b ase d upon a m ora l p h ilo so p h y o f e g o is m ( se lf is h n ess) , in w hic h t h e o n ly c o n st r a in t o n b eh av io u r is t h e duty n ot t o in it ia te f o rc e o ver o th ers. T he n otio n o f a c o m petit iv e e th os p erv ad es t h is p ersp ectiv e. This is u su ally t ie d t o t h e id ea o f r ig h ts t o p riv ate p ro p erty a s b ein g t h e f ir st v ir tu e o f t h e le g al a n d crim in al ju st ic e sy st e m . A cco rd in gly , crim e is d efin ed in te rm s o f th e in fr in gem en t o f p riv ate pro p erty , in clu d in g in fr in gem en ts o f o n e’s p h ysic a l s e lf . S in ce t h is p ersp ectiv e c o n ceiv es o f h um an 48 natu re a s b ein g p osse ssiv e a n d in div id uali s t ic — an d c o n ceiv es o f c rim e m ain ly in t e rm s o f p riv ate pro p erty — th e ro le o f th e st a te is se en a s b ein g re st r ic te d to th ose in st a n ces w here o th er p eo p le actu ally c o m e t o h arm t h ro u gh o n e’s s o cia l a ctio n s ( se e T am e 1 991). S o -c a lle d ‘ v ic tim le ss c rim es’ a re th ere fo re s e en a s n eed in g t o b e d ecrim in ali s e d in so fa r a s t h ey d o n ot d ir e ctly a ffe ct t h ose b ey o n d on ese lf . I n o th er w ord s, ‘a n yth in g g o es’ in t h is p ersp ectiv e: p eo p le s h ou ld h av e c o m ple te li b erty t o do a s t h ey w ill, a s l o n g a s t h ey d o n ot i n fr in ge u pon t h e p ro p erty o f o th ers i n a n i lle g al w ay . Fro m th e p oin t o f v ie w o f ra tio n al ch oic e th eo ry , w e n eed to a ssu m e th at m ost ‘c rim in als ’ a re ra tio n al ag en ts w ho ca n b e d ete rre d fr o m co m mit tin g ad dit io n al crim es b y an in cre a se in th e pu n is h m en t t h ey m ig h t e x p ect t o r e ceiv e ( B uch an an & H artle y 1 992). A cco rd in g t o t h e a d vo ca te s of t h is a p pro ach , t h e m ost e co n om ic a lly e ffic ie n t w ay t o m an ag e t h e c rim e p ro b le m is t o p riv atis e in st it u tio n s s u ch a s p ris o n s, a n d t o i n cre a se t h e p ro b ab ili t y o f d ete ctio n a n d c o n vic tio n o f o ffe n ders. The b ro ad p h ilo so p h ic a l o rie n ta tio n o f r a tio n al c h oic e t h eo ry i s a ls o c lo se ly r e la te d t o t h e a d op tio n of p re v en tio n t e ch n iq u es d ir e cte d p rim arily a t r e d ucin g o p portu n it ie s f o r c rim e ( se e F els o n 1 994), ra th er t h an a t t h e s t r u ctu ra l r e a so n s f o r o ffe n din g b eh av io u r o r t h e c rim in ali s a tio n p ro cess i t se lf . The tr a d it io n al c o n se r v a tiv e p ersp ectiv e t a k es a b ro ad er v ie w t h an t h e r ig h t-w in g li b erta ria n o f what c o n st it u te s a c rim e. T he c o n se rv ativ e v ie w o f c rim e in clu d es n ot o n ly th at a ctiv it y w hic h en dan gers p ro p erty o r t h e p erso n , b u t a ls o m ora li t y . H en ce, a tta ck s o n c erta in tr a d it io n al v alu es a n d peo p le ’s r e sp ect f o r a u th orit y g en era lly m ay b e l i n ked t o c rim in ali t y . F ro m t h is p oin t o f v ie w , c rim e is n ot o n ly a m atte r o f fr e e c h oic e: it is a ls o li n ked to c erta in in tr in sic a sp ects o f h um an it y . In partic u la r, p eo p le a re s e en a s p osse ssin g c erta in ‘n atu ra l u rg es’ t h at g o a g ain st t h e m ore c iv ili s e d o r div in e p u rp ose s o f s o cie ty . I n o rd er t o c o n st r a in t h ese u rg es, i t i s f e lt n ecessa ry t o e st a b li s h a s t r o n g ord er b ase d u pon p erso n al sa crif ic e, se lf -d is c ip li n e, an d su bm is sio n to au th orit y (T am e 1 991). Ord er m ust ta k e p re ced en ce o ver all els e , in clu d in g ju st ic e. C rim e is sa id to b e ca u se d b y th e un w illi n gn ess o f p eo p le to a ccep t d is c ip li n e, b y th e u n derm in in g o f tr a d it io n al lo yalt ie s su ch a s lo yalt y t o t h e ( p atr ia rc h al) f a m ily , a n d b y t h e p u rsu it o f i m med ia te i n div id ual g ra tif ic a tio n w it h ou t ap pro p ria te h ard w ork . Acco rd in g to th is a p pro ach , p u n is h m en t is a n e sse n tia l p art o f d ete rre n ce n ot o n ly b eca u se it est a b li s h es p erso n al r e sp on sib ili t y f o r o n e’s a ctio n s, b u t a ls o b eca u se p u n is h m en t h as a n im porta n t sy m boli c i m pact o n s o cie ty a s a w hole ( se e d is c u ssio n o f g en era l d ete rre n ce i n Chap te r 1 0 ). T hat i s , pu n is h m en t is se en in te rm s of it s effe ct on th e est a b li s h m en t of m ora l so li d arit y th ro u gh st ig m atis a tio n . S tr o n g e m ph asis is p la ced u pon t h e im porta n ce o f m ora li t y in t h e m ain te n an ce o f so cia l a u th orit y ; th us, so m eo n e w ho d oes so m eth in g d eem ed to b e w ro n g o r h arm fu l m ust b e pu n is h ed sw if t ly an d ap pro p ria te ly in o rd er to se t th e m ora l st a n dard . U nli k e th e li b erta ria n persp ectiv e, th e c o n se rv ativ e p oin t o f v ie w o ft e n fa v o u rs in cre a se d st a te in te rv en tio n in e v ery d ay so cia l l i f e b eca u se i t i s f e lt t h at o n ly s t r o n g c o erc iv e m ea su re s w ill u lt im ate ly k eep p eo p le i n l i n e a n d te a ch t h em t h e d is c ip li n e t h ey r e q u ir e t o l i v e a s m em bers o f a c iv ili s e d c o m mun it y . The o verrid in g m essa g e o f t h ese t h eo rie s i s t h at t h ere i s a n eed t o ‘ g et t o u gh o n c rim in als ’, t o h old th em r e sp on sib le fo r t h eir a ctio n s, a n d t o p u n is h w ro n gd oers in a c o n sis t e n t m an ner s o t h ey g et th eir ‘j u st d ese rts’. P eo p le m ak e c h oic es, a n d a cco rd in g to th ese th eo rie s th ey m ust p ay fo r th ese ch oic es. I n a n utsh ell, t h e a rg u m en t is t h at if y o u ‘d o t h e c rim e’, t h en y o u m ust ‘d o t h e t im e’. B ut sh ou ld t h ese p rin cip le s a ls o a p ply t o j u ven ile o ffe n ders? The m ain p ro b le m o f cla ssic a l th eo ry a n d it s v aria n ts is th at th ey te n d to ig n ore in div id ual dif fe re n ces am on g crim in al acto rs. T hey assu m e th at ev ery o n e is a ra tio n al acto r ca p ab le of ex erc is in g f r e e c h oic e. P ra ctic a lly s p ea k in g, h ow ev er, i t h as l o n g b een r e co gn is e d t h at s o m e c a te g o rie s of p eo p le — th e a g ed , t h e y o u n g, p eo p le w it h a m en ta l i lln ess o r i n te lle ctu al d is a b ili t y — do n ot h av e 49 th e sa m e c a p acit ie s a s o th ers. T hus, a cco rd in g to th e ‘t h eo re tic a l c o m pro m is e ’ (H op kin s B urk e 2008:8 9) o f n eo cla ssic is m , th ey a re sin gle d o u t a s p osse ssin g d im in is h ed re sp on sib ili t y fo r th eir actio n s. W it h in th e ju ven ile ju st ic e a re a , th ese c o n sid era tio n s a re e v id en t; fo r e x am ple , in le g al doctr in e p erta in in g t o t h e a g e o f c rim in al r e sp on sib ili t y , a n d doli i n ca pa x , b oth o f w hic h r e la te t o co m pete n cy a n d re sp on sib ili t y (se e Chap te r 1 0 ). A k ey te n sio n w it h in th e c la ssic a l tr a d it io n is wheth er to em ph asis e fu ll crim in al re sp on sib ili t y on th e part of ju ven ile s, or w heth er to ack n ow le d ge d if fe re n t c a p acit ie s d ep en din g u pon a g e. More g en era lly , c la ssic is m h as b een c rit ic is e d f o r a ssu m in g e q u ali t y f o r a ll w hen t h is i s c le a rly n ot th e c a se in a s o cie ty r iv en b y d eep s o cia l d iv is io n s a n d in eq u ali t ie s ( Y ou n g 1 981). L oca tin g c rim e ca u sa tio n w it h in t h e in div id ual ( b y w ay o f t h eir s u ppose d e x erc is e o f fr e e w ill o r c h oic e) h as a ls o been c rit ic is e d b y a n oth er s c h ool o f c rim in olo gy, n am ely , t h e p osit iv is t s. PO SIT IV IS M A N D I N DIV ID U AL C R IM IN AL B EH AVIO U R In c o n tr a st t o c la ssic a l t h in kin g, t h e h allm ark o f p osit iv is m is t h at b eh av io u r is dete r m in ed , in t h e se n se th at in div id ual beh av io u r is sh ap ed by fa cto rs su ch as ph ysio lo gy, perso n ali t y , so cia l upbrin gin g, a n d s o o n . P osit iv is m f u rth er a sse rts t h at o ffe n ders v ary , t h at i n div id ual d if fe re n ces e x is t am on g o ffe n ders, a n d t h at t h ese in t u rn m ust b e a ck n ow le d ged a n d c la ssif ie d o r m ea su re d in s o m e way . T he f o cu s is o n in div id uals , w ho a re s e en t o r e q u ir e t r e a tm en t, s in ce t h ey a re n ot n ecessa rily re sp on sib le fo r t h eir c rim in ali t y . T hus, p osit iv is t s c o n cen tr a te o n t h e o ffe n der a n d t h e o ffe n der’s ch ara cte ris t ic s. The p ra ctit io n er’s ro le is se en to b e to id en tif y sp ecif ic d ete rm in in g fa cto rs w it h re g ard to a partic u la r o ffe n der, a n d t h en t o t r e a t t h e o ffe n der o r c o rre ct t h e p ro b le m i n s o m e w ay . T his t y p e o f re a so n in g p la ces a lo t o f p ow er in t h e h an ds o f t h e ‘e x p ert’ w hose jo b it is t o d ia g n ose , c la ssif y , a n d ult im ate ly p re sc rib e t r e a tm en t f o r t h e i n div id ual. A c en tr a l i d ea o f p osit iv is m i s t h at w hen a p erso n is s e n te n ced , t h ey a re s e n te n ced t o r e ceiv e h elp . T he i d ea i s t o t r e a t t h e c rim in al, n ot t h e c rim e. When i t c o m es t o t h e o p era tio n o f t h e c rim in al j u st ic e s y st e m , t h e p osit iv is t c o n cep t o f t r e a tm en t dif fe rs fr o m th e cla ssic a l em ph asis o n p u n is h m en t. F or ex am ple , p osit iv is m tr a n sla te s in to an arg u m en t in fa v o u r o f in dete rm in ate se n te n ces; th e crim in al act is d ow npla y ed in fa v o u r o f co n cen tr a tio n o n th e o ffe n der. S in ce e a ch o ffe n der is a n in div id ual, a n d d if fe re n t fr o m a ll o th er offe n ders, t r e a tm en t m ust b e in div id uali s e d . T he le n gth o f s e n te n ce in c u st o d y t h ere fo re d ep en ds upon t h e d ia g n osis a n d c la ssif ic a tio n ( se v ere o r m in or p ro b le m ; d an gero u s o r n ot d an gero u s) r a th er th an s im ply t h e c o n te n t o f t h e c rim in al a ct t h at w as c o m mit te d . A s w e s a w i n Chap te r 1 , t h ese i d ea s hav e h ad p artic u la r a p pli c a tio n t o y o u n g p eo p le . Posit iv is m is an o vera rc h in g p ersp ectiv e, an d th us w it h in th is gen era l o rie n ta tio n th ere are num ero u s d if fe re n t s t u d ie s a n d e x p la n atio n s ( se e W hit e , H ain es & A sq u it h 2 012; M cL au gh li n & New bu rn 2 010). T he t h re e m ain s t r a n ds o f p osit iv is m i n clu d e t h e b io lo gic a l, t h e p sy ch olo gic a l, a n d th e s o cio lo gic a l. A lt h ou gh p osit iv is m e m bra ces a d iv erse r a n ge o f id ea s, t e ch n iq u es, a n d c o n cep ts sp ecif ic t o p artic u la r d is c ip li n es, a c en tr a l p ro p osit io n is t h at a m ora l c o n se n su s e x is t s in s o cie ty in re la tio n t o w hat c o n st it u te s ‘ d ev ia n t’ a n d ‘ n orm al’ b eh av io u r. Our in it ia l c o n cern is w it h p osit iv is t a p pro ach es th at se e b eh av io u ra l p ro b le m s in te rm s o f a n in div id ual p ath olo gy o r d efic ie n cy . T hese a p pro ach es c a n b e su m maris e d in te rm s o f th re e m ain te n den cie s i n r e se a rc h , t h ose t h at fo cu s o n b io lo gic a l f a cto rs 50 co n cen tr a te o n p sy ch olo gic a l f a cto rs pre se n t b io so cia l e x p la n atio n s f o r c rim e. There a re t w o b ro ad s t r a n ds w it h in t h e bio lo gic a l e x p la n ato ry fr a m ew ork . O ne a rg u es th at, in esse n ce, th e crim in al is ‘b orn ’. C rim in ali t y an d crim in al b eh av io u r are th us se en as p rim arily attr ib u ta b le to in herit e d p re d is p osit io n s. S o m e w rit e rs arg u e th at o u r g en etic mak e-u p d ir e ctly affe cts t h in gs s u ch a s o u r in te lle ct a n d o u r t e m pera m en ta l t r a it s, p u ttin g u s a t r is k o f e n gag in g in crim in al b eh av io u r ( se e F is h bein 1 990). D if fe re n t g en etic fa cto rs a re t h us s e en a s b ein g li n ked t o partic u la r b eh av io u ra l p atte rn s. The o th er s t r a n d i n t h e b io lo gic a l e x p la n ato ry f r a m ew ork a rg u es t h at b io lo gic a l f a cto rs a re c ru cia l in d ete rm in in g b eh av io u r, b u t th at th ey m ay st e m fr o m th e e n vir o n m en t ra th er th an sim ply b e in herit e d . I n t h is f r a m ew ork , c rim in als a re mad e a s a r e su lt o f e n vir o n m en ta l f a cto rs t h at a ffe ct t h eir bio lo gic a l fu n ctio n in g. F or e x am ple , m uch w ork h as b een d on e o n h ow p sy ch op h arm aco lo gic a l in ducem en ts su ch as co ca in e, alc o h ol, PC P, an d am ph eta m in es in flu en ce beh av io u r, w it h su ggest io n s t h at t h ese k in ds o f e x te rn al fa cto rs p ro p el o r fa cili t a te t h ose u n der t h eir in flu en ce t o co m mit c rim es ( se e F is h bein 1 990). R ecen t r e se a rc h a ls o i n dic a te s t h at a cq u ir e d b ra in i n ju rie s ( su ch as o n e m ig h t a cq u ir e f r o m a c a r a ccid en t) c a n le a d t o c rim in al b eh av io u r, b y, f o r e x am ple , li m it in g in div id uals ’ c a p acit y t o r e g u la te im pu ls iv it y . O ne s t u d y f o u n d t h at t h e p re se n ce o f t r a u m atic b ra in in ju rie s a m on g p ris o n ers i s m ore t h an t w ic e t h at o f t h e g en era l p op u la tio n i n t h e U SA ( R ay , S ap p & Kin ca id 2 014). I n s u ch c a se s, i t i s s e en a s b ro ad ly p ossib le f o r s o m e k in d o f b io lo gic a l ‘c o rre ctiv e’ t o be d ev elo p ed t o p re v en t c rim in al b eh av io u r o ccu rrin g, t h is c o rre ctiv e t a k in g t h e f o rm o f r e m ovin g th e s o u rc e o f t h e p ro b le m ( su ch a s r e m ovin g le a d f r o m o n e’s li v in g e n vir o n m en t, b an nin g a lc o h ol sa le s) o r r e g u la tin g t h e b io ch em ic a l a n d p h ysio lo gic a l o p era tio n s o f t h e b od y t h ro u gh a p pro p ria te tr e a tm en t ( su ch a s d ru gs t h at r e st o re h orm on al e q u ili b riu m o r e n su re a r e g u la r h ea rt r a te ). Psy ch olo gic a l e x p la n atio n s o f c rim e a re b ase d u pon a n aly se s o f v ario u s p erso n ali t y o r b eh av io u ra l tr a it s t h at p ro p el s o m e p eo p le in to c o m mit tin g c rim e. T his a p pro ach s e es s u ch p eo p le a s p erh ap s la ck in g so m e k in d o f in te rn al r e g u la to ry se lf -c o n tr o l, o r p osit s t h at p atte rn s o f e a rly so cia li s a tio n may h av e n eg ativ ely a ffe cte d s o cia l d ev elo p m en t. P sy ch olo gic a l a p pro ach es i n clu d e t h ose t h at f o cu s on ‘p erso n ali t y ty p es’ (se e F arrin gto n 1 996) a n d th at p re se n t ty p olo gie s o f a b n orm ali t ie s in th e psy ch olo gic a l st r u ctu re of in div id uals (fo r ex am ple ‘o ver-a g gre ssiv e’, ‘h ig h ly st r u n g’) . Su ch ap pro ach es o ft e n se e th e fo rm atio n o f p artic u la r p erso n ali t y ty p es a s li n ked to c erta in b io lo gic a l pre d is p osit io n s a s w ell a s d ev elo p m en ta l e x p erie n ces. A noth er k in d o f a p pro ach , t h e psy ch oa n aly tic , tu rn s a tte n tio n t o t h e u n co n sc io u s m in d a n d t h e w ay in w hic h e x p erie n ce s h ap es a n d is s h ap ed b y pro cesse s b ey o n d t h ose c o n sc io u sly a p pare n t t o t h e s u bje ct ( se e G ib bon s 1 977). The psy ch ia tr ic th eo ry o f d ev ia n t b eh avio u r is b ase d o n th e a ssu m ptio n th at c erta in c h ild h ood ex p erie n ces h av e a n e ffe ct t h at t r a n sc en ds a ll o th er s o cia l a n d c u lt u ra l e x p erie n ces ( C li n ard 1 974). Su ch e x p la n atio n s a d op t a m ed ic a l m od el in w hic h d ev ia n cy o r c rim in ali t y is s e en t o r e sid e w it h in th e m ala d ju st e d in div id ual. A ll h um an b ein gs a re s e en a s h av in g in herit e d u n iv ersa l n eed s, s u ch a s th e n eed f o r e m otio n al s e cu rit y . I t is t h ou gh t t h at if s u ch n eed s a re u n m et d urin g c h ild h ood , t h en partic u la r p erso n ali t y p atte rn s fo rm in la te r li f e , re su lt in g esp ecia lly in th ose p erso n ali t y ty p es asso cia te d w it h d ev ia n t o r c rim in al b eh av io u r. F am ily e x p erie n ces a re t h us s e en a s d ete rm in in g l a te r beh av io u r, w it h th e d ev elo p m en t o f c erta in b eh av io u rs b ein g v ie w ed a s a n in div id ual’s m ea n s o f dea li n g w it h p artic u la r p erso n al tr a it s su ch a s a g gre ssiv en ess, e m otio n al in se cu rit y , o r fe eli n gs o f in ad eq u acy ( th ese h av in g b een g en era te d b y u n m et n eed s i n c h ild h ood ). More s o p h is t ic a te d b io lo gic a l a n d p sy ch olo gic a l a cco u n ts o f c rim in ali t y a ccep t t h at b eh av io u r is 51 su bje ct t o b io lo gic a l an d e n vir o n m en ta l i n flu en ces. T hese a re r e fe rre d t o a s bio so cia l a p pro ach es, a n d th ey c h ara cte ris t ic a lly v ie w b eh av io u r a s t h e p ro d uct o f n atu re p lu s n urtu re , r a th er t h an o n e o r t h e oth er. P ro p on en ts o f t h is p ersp ectiv e a rg u e t h at h um an b ein gs h av e a ‘c o n dit io n al f r e e w ill’; t h at i s , in div id ual c h oic e w it h in a s e t, y et t o s o m e d eg re e c h an gea b le , r a n ge o f p ossib ili t ie s ( F is h bein 1 990). For e x am ple , E yse n ck ( 1 984) p u t f o rw ard t h e a rg u m en t t h at b eh av io u r c a n b e e x p la in ed a s r e su lt in g fr o m a c o m bin atio n o f b io lo gic a l a n d e n vir o n m en ta l in flu en ces. H is s t u d y a n aly se d c rim e in t e rm s of t w o b ro ad p ro cesse s o f d ev elo p m en t: The diffe r en tia l a b ili t y t o b e c o n dit io n ed , w here in g en etic i n herit a n ce a ffe cts o n e’s a b ili t y t o b e co n dit io n ed — th at is , th e se n sit iv it y o f th e au to n om ic n erv o u s sy st e m in div id uals in herit dete rm in es w heth er e a ch in div id ual is a n e x tr o vert o r a n in tr o vert, a n d t h us h ow w ell e a ch is ab le t o b e c o n dit io n ed i n s o cie ty . The diffe r en tia l q u ali t y o f c o n dit io n in g , w here b y fa m ily c o n dit io n in g m ak es u se o f a r a n ge o f te ch n iq u es, s o m e o f w hic h a re m ore e ffic a cio u s t h an o th ers. T he w ay i n w hic h a c h ild i s r e a re d th ere fo re h as a n i m pact o n t h e c h ild ’s s u bse q u en t b eh av io u r. The b io so cia l a rg u m en t i s t h at a c o m bin atio n o f b io lo gic a l p ote n tia ls s e t t h ro u gh i n herit a n ce a n d in te ra ctin g w it h en vir o n m en ta l p ote n tia ls sh ap ed b y p are n tin g p ra ctic es d ete rm in e th e o vera ll pro p en sit y t o c o m mit c rim e. H um an b eh av io u r t h us c o n ta in s a b io lo gic a l a n d a s o cia l e le m en t ( se e, fo r e x am ple , M offit t 1 996). L ussie r a n d c o lle a g u es ( 2 011) s t u d ie d t h e im pacts o f a n um ber o f p re – an d p erin ata l fa cto rs (su ch as m ate rn al su bst a n ce m is u se ) o n b eh av io u r am on g ch ild re n an d ad ole sc en ts. They fo u n d th at yo u n g peo p le ex p ose d to m ate rn al su bst a n ce m is u se an d co m pli c a tio n s in u te r o w ere m ore li k ely to d em on st r a te in cre a se d p h ysic a l a g gre ssio n a n d se x u al beh av io u r. T hey c o n clu d ed t h at t h e e ffe cts o f p re g n an cy -r e la te d c o m pli c a tio n s a re l i k ely t o i n te ra ct wit h e n vir o n m en ta l f a cto rs: ‘a s t h ey a g e, p h ysic a lly a g gre ssiv e c h ild re n a re e x p ose d t o a n in cre a sin g num ber o f ris k fa cto rs (fa m ily in co m e, p are n ts’ c rim in ali t y , lo w er e d uca tio n al b ack gro u n d) th at may f a cili t a te t h e p ersis t e n ce o f a g gre ssio n ’ ( L ussie r e t a l. 2 011:5 6). In s u m mary , t h e p osit iv is t p ersp ectiv e i n c rim in olo gy e m ph asis e s t h e r o le o f e x te rn al a n d i n te rn al dete rm in an ts o f c rim e a n d c rim in ali t y . P eo p le , it is a rg u ed , d o n ot c h oose t o e n gag e in d ev ia n t o r crim in al b eh av io u r; th ey are lo ck ed in to su ch b eh av io u r b y a w id e ra n ge o f b io lo gic a l an d/o r psy ch olo gic a l i n flu en ces b ey o n d t h eir i m med ia te c o n tr o l. T he p osit iv is t p osit io n s t r e sse s ‘i n div id ual dif fe re n ces’ a m on g p eo p le , a s w ell a s t h e n ecessit y t o p in poin t t h e m ain f a cto r o r f a cto rs t h at h av e giv en ris e to th e crim in ali t y . P in poin tin g of su ch fa cto rs is d on e th ro u gh te st in g, d ia g n osis , cla ssif ic a tio n , a n d t r e a tm en t, a ll o f w hic h c en tr e u pon i n div id ual t r a it s a n d n eed s a s p erc eiv ed b y t h e ‘e x p ert p ro fe ssio n al’. One p ro b le m w it h in div id ual- f o cu se d p osit iv is m is t h at it p u ts a n in ord in ate a m ou n t o f p ow er in to t h e h an ds o f a f e w ‘e x p erts’ w ho m ay a rg u e f o r e v er-g re a te r l e v els o f i n te rv en tio n i n t h e l i v es o f cit iz en s g en era lly . F or e x am ple , i n o rd er t o d ea l a d eq u ate ly w it h t h e ‘p re d is p osit io n ’ t o c rim e ( b ase d upon b io lo gic a l o r p sy ch olo gic a l i n dic a to rs) , id ea lly i n te rv en tio n s h ou ld t a k e p la ce b efo re t h e c rim e or d ev ia n t a ct is a ctu ally c o m mit te d . H ow e a rly a re w e t o in te rv en e t o ‘c h an ge’ s o m eo n e? W ho is go in g to d o th is ? S h ou ld w e ‘t r e a t’ p eo p le w hen in fa ct n o c rim e o r la w bre a k in g h as o ccu rre d ? Furth er q u est io n s c a n b e a sk ed re g ard in g w hose ‘n orm s’ a n d ‘v alu es’ w e a re to m ea su re p eo p le ’s beh av io u r a g ain st , t h e s o cia l i m pact o f a tte m ptin g t o m ou ld e a ch i n div id ual i n to p assiv e c o n fo rm it y , an d th e w ay in w hic h ra cis t a n d se x is t a ssu m ptio n s h av e b een b u ilt in to th e ‘s c ie n tif ic ’ st u d y o f bio lo gic a l d if fe re n ces, in te lli g en ce, an d so cia l b eh av io u r. A s se en in Chap te r 1 , m an y o f th ese co n cern s a n d q u est io n s h av e b een c en tr a l to th e h is t o ry o f ju ven ile ju st ic e in st it u tio n s a n d th e 52 dev elo p m en t o f t h e i d ea o f j u ven ile d eli n qu en cy . Both th e c la ssic a l a n d th e p osit iv is t a p pro ach es lo ca te c rim e in te rm s o f in div id ual a ttr ib u te s, wheth er w it h r e sp ect t o ‘r a tio n ali t y ’ o r ‘p ath olo gy’. T he ‘r e m ed y’ in e a ch c a se is t o d ea l w it h t h e in div id ual d ir e ctly — eit h er t o c o erc e t h e in div id ual b ack in to r a tio n al d ecis io n -m ak in g, o r t o c u re th e in div id ual o f a p re d is p osin g te n den cy to c o m mit d ev ia n t a cts. I n th e e n d, th e o b je ctiv e is to re in te g ra te t h e o ffe n der i n to t h e m ain st r e a m o f s o cie ty b y c h an gin g t h e o ffe n der t h em se lf . T his c a n be a ch ie v ed e it h er th ro u gh th e th re a t a n d e x p erie n ce o f p u n is h m en t, o r b y th e in te rv en tio n o f ex p ert a ssis t a n ce t o r e so cia li s e a n d r e h ab ili t a te t h e i n div id ual. SO CIO LO G IC A L T H EO R IE S Rath er th an re d uce d ev ia n t o r crim in al b eh av io u r so le ly to th e in div id ual le v el, a so cio lo gic a l per sp ectiv e a rg u es t h at, i n o rd er t o u n derst a n d t h e n atu re a n d o ccu rre n ce o f c rim e, w e n eed t o lo ok at t h e s t r u ctu re o f t h e s o cie ty t h at m ou ld s a n d s h ap es c u lt u re a n d b eh av io u r. I n div id ual a ctio n is th us a ttr ib u ta b le t o s o cia l c a u se s, a n d c rim e c a n b e s e en a s a m atte r o f s o cia l p ath olo gy. S o cio lo gis t s an d crim in olo gis t s are b oth co n cern ed w it h co n nectin g w id er sit u atio n al fa cto rs (fo r ex am ple im med ia te op portu n it ie s, sp ecif ic peer gro u ps) an d so cia l st r u ctu ra l fa cto rs (fo r ex am ple em plo ym en t a n d e d uca tio n al p atte rn s) w it h c rim in al a ctiv it y . C rim e is s e en a s e sse n tia lly a s o cia l ph en om en on th at c a n not b e r e d uced to p erso n al p sy ch olo gy o r in div id ual b io lo gy. I n o n e se n se , th en , th e im pu ls e to c o m mit c rim e is se en a s ‘n orm al’ a n d is so cia lly in duced . T he ‘c rim in al’ o r ‘d eli n qu en t’ i s t h us a p ro d uct o f a s p ecif ic k in d o f s o cia l o rd er. STR AIN T H EO R IE S The u n derly in g t h em e o f m an y s o cio lo gic a l t h eo rie s is t h at c rim e is d ue t o s o cia l d is ju n ctu re s o r so cia l s t r a in s w it h in a s o cie ty . T he s t r a in s o r s o u rc es o f t e n sio n a re t h ou gh t t o b e g en era te d b y t h e so cie ty i t se lf : t h ey d o n ot r e sid e w it h in t h e i n div id ual ( a s i n t h e c a se , f o r e x am ple , o f a p erso n f e eli n g st r a in ed o r p re ssu re d b y cir c u m st a n ce). T he ca u se o f crim e is se en as b ein g lo ca te d in so cia l st r u ctu re s a n d/o r so cia l v alu es th at in so m e w ay a re u n fa ir o r so cia lly p ath olo gic a l. T o d ea l w it h crim e, t h ere fo re , r e q u ir e s s t r a te g ie s a n d p oli c ie s t h at a re p it c h ed a t i n st it u tio n al r e fo rm r a th er t h an so le ly a t c h an gin g o r m od if y in g t h e i n div id ual i n s o m e w ay . By an d la rg e, st r a in th eo rie s se e crim e as so m eth in g li n ked to st r a in s betw een ‘s t r u ctu ra l op portu n it ie s’ a n d ‘c u lt u ra l p ro cesse s’. D ecis io n s a re m ad e b y p eo p le in t h e c o n te x t o f w heth er o r not t h ey h av e t h e m ea n s o r o p portu n it ie s t o a ch ie v e t h eir g o als r e la tiv e t o o th er p eo p le in s o cie ty , an d w heth er th ro u gh so cia l cir c u m st a n ce th ey asso cia te w it h o th ers w ho sh are th eir id ea s an d cu lt u ra l u n derst a n din gs r e g ard in g a ccep ta b le a n d u n accep ta b le b eh av io u r. T he k ey s o cia l c o n fli c t i n th is p ersp ectiv e is t h at a ris in g f r o m a d is ju n ctu re b etw een s o cia l m ea n s a n d c u lt u ra l e n ds. D ev ia n t beh av io u r is v ie w ed a s a m ea n in gfu l a tte m pt t o s o lv e p ro b le m s f a ce d b y g ro u ps o f in div id uals w ho are l o ca te d i n p artic u la r d is a d van ta g ed p osit io n s w it h in t h e s o cia l s t r u ctu re . SO CIA L D IS O R GAN IS A TIO N T H EO R IE S There are se v era l d if fe re n t st r a n ds o f th ou gh t w it h in st r a in th eo ry . So m e o f th ese fo cu s o n op portu n it y s t r u ctu re s r e la tin g t o e d uca tio n a n d p aid w ork ; o th ers c o n cen tr a te o n p eer n etw ork s an d t h e l e a rn in g o f p artic u la r n orm s a n d v alu es. O ne o f t h e e a rli e st f o rm ula tio n s o f s t r a in t h eo ry i s th at w hic h ex am in ed crim e in te rm s o f so cia l d is o rg a n is a tio n . A ls o k n ow n as a ‘s o cia l eco lo gy’ 53 persp ectiv e, th is k in d o f a p pro ach a tte m pts to li n k th e n atu re a n d e x te n t o f c rim e w it h sp ecif ic so cia l p ro cesse s a sso cia te d w it h u rb an l i f e . S h aw a n d M cK ay ( 1 942), f o r e x am ple , e x am in ed t h e w ay s in w hic h s u ccessiv e w av es o f i m mig ra n ts m oved i n to i n ner-c it y n eig h bou rh ood s o f t h e u rb an s p atia l grid , a n d t h en g ra d ually m oved t o t h e o u te r a re a s. T his p ro cess o f u rb an s e ttle m en t a n d t r a n sit io n was se en to pro d uce te n sio n s an d ch ao s; it w as ch ara cte ris e d by a hig h deg re e of so cia l dis o rg an is a tio n . A gain st th is b ack d ro p , S h aw a n d M cK ay e x am in ed th e li f e h is t o rie s o f ju ven ile offe n ders, c o m in g t o t h e c o n clu sio n t h at ju ven ile o ffe n din g is in tim ate ly li n ked t o t h e t r a n sit io n al pro cesse s o f s o cia l c h an ge. T hey a rg u ed t h at d eli n qu en cy c a n b e v ie w ed a s p art o f t h e n atu ra l s o cia l pro cess o f s e ttli n g in e x p erie n ced b y n ew im mig ra n ts. S p ecif ic a lly , t h ese c o m mun it ie s w ere s e en t o ex h ib it a h ig h d eg re e o f so cia l d is o rg an is a tio n . C ust o m ary so cia l n orm s th at u su ally p ro d uce co n fo rm in g b eh av io u r w ere o ft e n in ap pli c a b le o r in a p pare n t c o n fli c t w it h t h e n orm s o f t h e n ew so cie ty . T he n ew im mig ra n ts w ere r a re ly in te g ra te d in to t h e w id er s o cia l, e co n om ic , a n d p oli t ic a l sy st e m s. Q uest io n s o f la n gu ag e, e d uca tio n , w ork sk ills , a n d so cia l n etw ork s a ll c a m e in to p la y in sh ap in g t h e l i f e a ffa ir s o f i n div id uals a n d i m mig ra n t c o m mun it ie s. OPPO R TU N IT Y T H EO R IE S The im porta n ce o f a n aly sin g so cia l v alu es a n d so cia l st r u ctu re s is a p artic u la rly st r o n g fe a tu re o f op portu n it y t h eo rie s . A cco rd in g t o M erto n ( 1 957), f o r e x am ple , m ali n te g ra tio n o ccu rs w here t h ere i s a d is p ro p ortio n ate b ala n ce o r d is ju n ctu re b etw een t h e c u lt u ra lly d efin ed g o als o f a s o cie ty a n d t h e in st it u tio n ali s e d m ea n s w here b y t h ese g o als c a n b e a ch ie v ed . H e a rg u ed t h at a ll i n div id uals s h are t h e sa m e c u lt u ra l g o al ( in t h is c a se , t h e ‘A m eric a n D re a m ’ o f fin an cia l s u ccess, fa m e, a n d s t a tu s) , b u t th at t h ey h av e d if fe re n t o p portu n it ie s t o a ch ie v e s u ccess t h ro u gh t h e e st a b li s h ed in st it u tio n ali s e d mea n s ( su ch a s e d uca tio n ). T hat i s , i n a s o cie ty w here e m ph asis h as b een p la ced u pon c erta in v alu ed go als , b u t th e u n iv ersa l p ro vis io n o f a p pro p ria te m ea n s to a tta in th ese g o als h as b een n eg le cte d , mali n te g ra tio n i s i n ev it a b le . Dep en din g u pon o n e’s lo ca tio n in t h e s o cia l s t r u ctu re , o n e c h oose s w heth er t o a ccep t o r r e je ct cu lt u ra lly d efin ed g o als , a n d w heth er t o a ccep t o r r e je ct t h e i n st it u tio n al m ea n s t o a tta in t h ese g o als . The im porta n ce o f y o u th e m plo ym en t o p portu n it ie s is s t r e sse d t im e a n d a g ain a s b ein g a c ru cia l varia b le in th e c o n dit io n s th at g iv e r is e to v ary in g fo rm s o f y o u th c rim in ali t y ( A lla rd , O gilv ie & Ste w art 2 007; A ust r a li a n I n st it u te o f C rim in olo gy 2 012; Z ag ar, G ro ve & B usc h 2 013). T he i s su e o f th e l a ck o f i n div id ual o p portu n it y f o r e co n om ic a n d s o cia l a d van cem en t i s p artic u la rly p ertin en t i n a p erio d o f g en era li s e d h ig h u n em plo ym en t. F ro m th e p oin t o f v ie w o f p oli c y , th e o p portu n it y ap pro ach p la ces g re a t e m ph asis o n e n han cin g a n d d ev elo p in g m ore o p portu n it ie s f o r y o u n g p eo p le in t h e l a b ou r m ark et s o a s t o r e d uce i n cen tiv es t o c o m mit c rim e. T he k ey p oin t o f t h is p ersp ectiv e i s th at, u lt im ate ly , ‘s t r a in ’ o r co n fli c t is n ot se en to re sid e w it h in th e in div id ual, b u t w it h in th e st r u ctu re o f s o cie ty a n d it s in st it u tio n s. I t is t h us t h e t e n sio n s e x is t in g b etw een c u lt u ra l g o als a n d av aila b le m ea n s t h at p ro vid e t h e i m petu s f o r d if fe re n t t y p es o f i n div id ual a d ap ta tio n . SO CIA L C O N TR OL T H EO R IE S The n otio n o f o p portu n it y a ls o p artia lly u n derli e s co n tr o l t h eo ry . H ere , h ow ev er, t h e is su e is n ot s o much t h e p re se n ce o r a b se n ce o f o p portu n it y , b u t t h e a ctu al u se o f o p portu n it y b y y o u n g p eo p le . Con tr o l t h eo ry is p re m is e d u pon t h e id ea t h at it is a n in div id ual’s ‘b on d’ t o s o cie ty t h at m ak es t h e dif fe re n ce in te rm s o f w heth er o r n ot th ey a b id e b y so cie ty ’s g en era l r u le s a n d v alu es. F ro m th is persp ectiv e, a ll p eo p le a re in here n tly a n tis o cia l: t h us, a ll y o u n g p eo p le w ou ld c o m mit c rim e if t h ey 54 dare d . I t is t h e n atu re o f t h e b on d t h at c h ild re n h av e w it h t h eir s o cie ty t h at u lt im ate ly d ete rm in es th eir b eh av io u r ( E m pey 1 982; N ettle r 1 984). H ir sc h i ( 1 969) t h eo ris e d t h at t h e s o cia l b on d i s m ad e up o f t h e f o llo w in g f o u r m ajo r e le m en ts: atta ch m en t —th e tie s o f affe ctio n an d re sp ect to sig n if ic a n t o th ers in o n e’s li f e , an d m ore gen era lly a s e n sit iv it y t o t h e o p in io n o f o th ers co m mit m en t —th e in vest m en t o f tim e an d en erg y in activ it ie s su ch as sc h ool an d v ario u s co n ven tio n al a n d u n co n ven tio n al m ea n s a n d g o als in volv em en t —th e p atte rn s o f li v in g th at sh ap e im med ia te a n d lo n g-t e rm o p portu n it ie s, fo r ex am ple th e id ea th at k eep in g b u sy d oin g c o n ven tio n al th in gs w ill re d uce th e e x p osu re o f yo u n g p eo p le t o i lle g al o p portu n it ie s beli e f —th e d eg re e t o w hic h y o u n g p eo p le a g re e w it h t h e r ig h tn ess o f le g al r u le s, w hic h a re in tu rn s e en t o r e fle ct a g en era l m ora l c o n se n su s i n s o cie ty . Con tr o l t h eo ry p osit s t h at it is t h e c o m bin atio n o f a tta ch m en t, c o m mit m en t, in vo lv em en t, a n d beli e f t h at s h ap es t h e li f e w orld o f t h e y o u n g p erso n , a n d t h at e sse n tia lly d ic ta te s w heth er t h ey w ill ta k e a d van ta g e o f c o n ven tio n al m ea n s a n d g o als o f s o cia l a d van cem en t, o r w heth er t h ey w ill p u rsu e ille g al p ath w ay s t o s e lf -g ra tif ic a tio n . In r e la te d w ork , G ottfr e d so n a n d H ir sc h i ( 1 990) a rg u e t h at t h e c en tr a l i s su e i n e x p la in in g c rim e is t h at o f se lf- c o n tr o l ; t h at is , p eo p le d if fe r in t h e e x te n t t o w hic h t h ey a re r e st r a in ed f r o m c rim in al acts. T his in tu rn is li n ked to th e q u est io n o f so cia l b on din g, an d esp ecia lly th e p ro b le m o f in effe ctiv e c h ild -r e a rin g. C on tr o l t h eo ry i n co rp ora te s e le m en ts o f c la ssic a l t h eo ry ( in i t s a ccep ta n ce of t h e i d ea t h at p eo p le a re b asic a lly s e lf -s e ek in g), b io so cia l p osit iv is m ( in i t s f o cu s o n t h e i m porta n ce of p ro p er ‘c o n dit io n in g’ o r t r a in in g o f t h e y o u n g), a n d s o cio lo gic a l p ersp ectiv es ( w hic h lo ok t o t h e natu re o f th e fa m ily a s a k ey v aria b le in th e d ev elo p m en t o f se lf -c o n tr o l) . T he th eo ry d oes n ot an aly se s p ecif ic s o cia l d iv is io n s s u ch a s c la ss, g en der, a n d e th n ic it y , b u t r e st s u pon a c o n cep tio n o f hum an n atu re t h at s e es a ll p eo p le a s e sse n tia lly d riv en b y t h e s a m e u n iv ersa l t e n den cy t o e n han ce th eir o w n p le a su re . G iv en t h is , t h e c ru cia l i s su e b eco m es h ow b est t o s o cia li s e a ll p eo p le t o c o n fo rm to so cie ty ’s valu es an d to en gag e in co n ven tio n al la w -a b id in g b eh av io u r. In p oli c y te rm s, th e ap pro ach ’s a n sw er t o ju ven ile c rim e li e s i n r e d re ssin g t h e d efe ctiv e s o cia l t r a in in g t h at c h ara cte ris e s offe n ders w ho h av e in s o m e w ay ‘l o st c o n tr o l’. I n o th er w ord s, t h e e m ph asis f r o m a p ra ctit io n er’s persp ectiv e i s t o r e a tta ch t h e y o u n g p eo p le t o s o m e k in d o f f a m ily , t o r e co m mit t h em t o l o n g-r a n ge co n ven tio n al g o als , t o in vo lv e t h em in s c h ool a n d o th er c o n st r u ctiv e a ctiv it ie s, a n d t o h av e t h em acq u ir e b eli e f i n t h e m ora li t y o f l a w ( E m pey 1 982:2 69). Writ e rs h av e ex p lo re d th e im pact o f so cia l st r a in s as m an if e st e d in yo u th su bcu lt u re s an d in div id ual le a rn in g p ro cesse s. S u th erla n d an d C re ssy (1 974), fo r ex am ple , arg u e th at crim e is esse n tia lly c u lt u ra l i n n atu re , i n t h e s e n se t h at i t i s l e a rn t b eh av io u r. C rim e i s n ot s im ply d ete rm in ed by b io lo gic a l fa cto rs o r yo u th fu l ex p erie n ces o f la ck o f o p portu n it y . O ver a p erio d o f yea rs, Su th erla n d a n d C re ssy d ev elo p ed a th eo ry o f diffe r en tia l a sso cia tio n a s a m ea n s to e x p la in h ow crim in al b eh av io u r is le a rn t in in te ra ctio n s b etw een p eo p le . W hat is d if fe re n tia lly a sso cia te d is t h e beh av io u r, in t h at s o m e in div id uals w ill a sso cia te w it h t h e h old ers o f c rim in al n orm s, w hile o th ers will n ot. The t h eo ry a rg u es t h at p eo p le le a rn t o d efin e a s it u atio n a n d t o d efin e t h eir c o n duct in r e la tio n to t h e l a w , a n d t h at t h is l e a rn in g t a k es p la ce w it h in s p ecif ic g ro u p c o n te x ts. O ne l e a rn s t o a sso cia te certa in c la sse s o f c o n duct, e it h er l e g al o r i lle g al, w it h t h e g ro u p’s a p pro val o r d is a p pro val. I f w e a re t o in te rv en e in y o u n g p eo p le ’s li v es t o s t o p t h em fr o m o ffe n din g, t h en , a cco rd in g t o t h is t h eo ry , w e 55 must a tte m pt t o c h an ge t h e w ay i n w hic h c erta in g ro u ps d efin e t h eir i m med ia te s it u atio n s a n d t h eir re la tio n sh ip t o l a w -a b id in g o r l a w bre a k in g b eh av io u r. The id ea t h at d ecis io n s t o e n gag e in d ev ia n t o r c rim in al b eh av io u r a re c o lle ctiv e in n atu re h as been t h e s u bje ct o f t h ose w ho l o ok t o y o u th s u bcu lt u re s a s t h e s o u rc e o f t h e p ro b le m ( se e Box 2 .1 ). Vario u s w rit e rs, fo