PLEASE POST EACH DISCUSSION SEPARATELY!!!!
Discussion 1 (1 PAGE
1) Explain, briefly, one of the major theories of development.
2) Describe how you will use the information learned in this LIFE SPAN DEVELOPMENT CLASS to further yourself professionally.
Discussion 2 (1 PAGE)
1) Discuss the way in which the various sensory systems develop and how sensory development impacts a child’s perception of the world.
2) Explain in your post how you might suggest a parent adjusts the home environment and social situations to allow for the infant and young child’s system to develop.
Discussion 3 (1 PAGE)
In your initial post:
1) Identify what you consider to be a sexual identity-related problem or issue that is of importance to you and to society and culture.
2) Identify and evaluate the key positions and theoretical arguments relating to your issue.
3) Include in your discussion comments on what you have learned about the reasons for differences in sexual orientation (e.g., from biological, cultural, or physiological causes).
4) Ground all positions and conclusions in theory and evidence.
Discussion 4 (1 PAGE)
Cognitive Maltreatment and Neural Development
Chapter 5 of the course textbook discusses the brain development of the child in early life as well as the impact of accidents and maltreatment. The required article by Perry (2009) (ATTACHED) illustrates and defends an approach to child maltreatment based on neurodevelopmental analysis that seeks to understand and treat abuse victims with reference to the areas of the brain affected.
Based on these readings, account for or respond to each of the following in your initial post:
· Analyze the findings of the Perry study, addressing the strengths and shortcomings of the neurodevelopmental approach. Are there limits to this sort of approach, and if so, what alternative approach might add something to a neurobiological analysis?
· Offer a real life experience, alternative study, or recent news report that in some way illustrates or casts light upon Perry’s findings.Examining Child Maltreatment Through
a Neurodevelopmental Lens: Clinical
Applications of the Neurosequential
Model of Therapeutics
BRUCE D. PERRY
ChildTrauma Academy, Houston, Texas, USA and Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral
Sciences, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USA
This article provides the theoretical rationale and overview of a
neurodevelopmentally-informed approach to therapeutic work
with maltreated and traumatized children and youth. Rather than
focusing on any specific therapeutic technique, the Neurosequen-
tial Model of Therapeutics (NMT) allows identification of the key
systems and areas in the brain which have been impacted by
adverse developmental experiences and helps target the selection
and sequence of therapeutic, enrichment, and educational activ-
ities. In the preliminary applications of this approach in a variety
of clinical settings, the outcomes have been positive. More in depth
evaluation of this approach is warranted, and is underway.
Over the last 30 years, key findings in developmental neurobiology
have informed and influenced practice in several clinical disciplines, includ-
ing pediatrics, psychology, social work, and psychiatry. Despite this influ-
ence, the capacity of these large clinical fields to incorporate and translate
key neurobiological principles into practice, program, and policy has been
inefficient and inconsistent. The purpose of this article is to present prelimin-
ary efforts to integrate core concepts of neurodevelopment into a practical
clinical approach with maltreated children. This neurosequential model of
therapeutics (NMT) has been utilized in a variety of clinical settings such
as therapeutic preschools, outpatient mental health clinics, and residential
treatment centers with promising results (Perry, 2006; Barfield et al., 2009).
Received 23 March 2009; accepted 28 April 2009.
Address correspondence to Bruce D. Perry, ChildTrauma Academy, 800 Gessner, Suite
230, Houston, TX 77024, USA. E-mail: [email protected]
Journal of Loss and Trauma, 14:240–255, 2009
Copyright # Taylor & Francis Group, LLC
ISSN: 1532-5024 print=1532-5032 online
CONTEXT AND CURRENT STATUS
Development is a complex and dynamic process involving billions of interac-
tions across multiple micro (e.g., the synapse) and macro domains (e.g.,
maternal-child interactions). These interactions result in a unique expression
of an individual’s genetic potential and create a miracle of dynamic organiza-
tion in the trillions of component parts (e.g., neurons, glia, synapses) compris-
ing the human brain. Maltreatment disrupts this hardy process; trauma,
neglect, and related experiences of maltreatment such as prenatal exposure
to drugs or alcohol and impaired early bonding all influence the developing
brain. These adverse experiences interfere with normal patterns of
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