Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a federal law prohibiting sex discrimination in
employment. In 1980, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) issued
regulations defining sexual harassment as a form of gender discrimination in 1980. The EEOC
policy states:
It is unlawful to harass a person (an applicant or employee) because of that person’s sex. Harassment can include
“sexual harassment” or unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical
harassment of a sexual nature.
Harassment does not have to be of a sexual nature, however, and can include offensive remarks about a person’s
sex. For example, it is illegal to harass a woman by making offensive comments about women in general.
Both victim and the harasser can be either a woman or a man, and the victim and harasser can be the same sex.
Although the law doesn’t prohibit simple teasing, offhand comments, or isolated incidents that are not very
serious, harassment is illegal when it is so frequent or severe that it creates a hostile or offensive work
environment or when it results in an adverse employment decision (such as the victim being fired or demoted).
The harasser can be the victim’s supervisor, a supervisor in another area, a co-worker, or someone who is not an
employee of the employer, such as a client or customer.
Yet, allegations of sexual harassment are front and center in the news today, causing a sea change
in the way organizations think about gender and power.
For this reflection essay, you will complete the Society for Human Resource Management
(SHRM) quiz: Is This Sexual Harassment? and read the assigned Required Readings which
includes textbook chapters and these articles:
#MeToo brings new expectations: Rising awareness of sexual harassment has led to increased
focus on preventing malfeasance and investigating claims in a zero-tolerance environment,
Traditional workplace education doesn’t work. Other methods do.)
In your 4-6-page essay, discuss common themes across the readings and reflect on why sexual
harassment is still an issue in the workplace. The paper should be double-spaced, with 12-size
fonts. Please submit the assignment only as a Word (.doc, .docx) or Rich Text Format (.rtf)
attachment. Please include your name, title of this assignment, sub-titles to organize the paper,
in-text citations, and a reference/’works cited’ section.

Powell Chapter 6

Hays-Thomas Chapters 9 and 12
Directed Reading
Managing Multiple
Generations in the Workplace
Kevin R Clark, EdD, R.T.(R)
Today’s workplace often
includes workers from 4
distinct generations, and
each generation brings a
unique set of core values
and characteristics to
an organization. These
generational differences can
produce benefits, such as
improved patient care, as
well as challenges, such as
conflict among employees.
This article reviews current
research on generational
differences in educational
settings and the workplace
and discusses the implications
of these findings for medical
imaging and radiation therapy
This article is a Directed
Reading. To earn
continuing education
credit for this article,
see the instructions on
Page 397.
After completing this article, the reader should be able to:
 Identify the various generational cohorts in today’s workplace.
 Discuss distinguishing characteristics of each generation and describe their respective
workplace behaviors.
 Describe the challenges and opportunities associated with a diverse workplace.
 Explain common stereotypes associated with each generation.
 Discuss the effects of generational differences on medical imaging and radiation therapy
oday’s multigenerational workforce presents opportunities
and challenges for medical
imaging and radiation therapy
departments. Because some employees
are working into their late 60s and 70s,
it is common to see several generational
cohorts working together, creating a
unique work environment.1 Although
multigenerational diversity among
health care staff can result in sound
decisions and improved patient care,
varied attitudes, values, beliefs, work
ethics, and expectations can present
challenges, too. As multiple generations
continue working side by side, managers and organizations can promote a
unified work environment by embracing generational differences and
encouraging mutual understanding and
Generations Defined
A generation is defined as a group
of individuals born and living contemporaneously who share common
RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, March/April 2017, Volume 88, Number 4
knowledge and experiences that affect
their thoughts, attitudes, values, beliefs,
and behaviors. 4 Although no consensus
exists regarding when 1 generation ends
and another begins, experts agree that
individuals who grew up in the same
era experienced social and historical
events that shaped similar characteristics and core values.2-7 Table 1 displays
some of the historical and social events
that influenced each generational
cohort: veterans, baby boomers, generation X, and generation Y. It is important
to note that individuals from a specific
generation might not exhibit all or even
any of the characteristics ascribed to
the group as a whole.7 In fact, individuals might start to display characteristics
of the next older generation as they
advance in their careers.7
Veterans, also referred to as traditionalists and the silent generation, were
born before 1946 and are the oldest generation in American culture.7-9 About
Directed Reading
Managing Multiple Generations in the Workplace
Table 1
Influential Historical and Social Events2-7
Baby Boomers
Generation X
Generation Y
Great Depression
World War II
Pearl Harbor
Korean War
Golden Age of Radio
Rise of labor unions
Civil Rights Movement
Political assassinations
Vietnam War
Cold War
Neil Armstrong’s moon landing
Television becomes dominant
Women’s Liberation Movement
First personal computers
Challenger disaster
Fall of Berlin Wall
Rodney King beating
Operation Desert Storm
Oklahoma City bombing
O.J. Simpson trial
Death of Princess Diana
School violence (Columbine
Digital Age (Internet, instant
messaging, wireless technology)
September 11 events
55 million veterans reside in the United States today.8
People from this generation grew up during the Great
Depression, and many fought or were children during
World War II.8,9 The hardships of the war and the economy deeply affected this generation’s values and opinions
regarding family, religion, work, and government. For
example, veterans are characterized as being patriotic
and civic-minded because they witnessed business and
government working together during the New Deal to
conquer the Great Depression.7,8 They also learned to
be resourceful to stretch limited funds and make small
amounts of food and clothing last. Having overcome
economic hardships, they developed a sense of pride and
determination and, as a result, tend to work hard and
prefer consistency and uniformity.8 Described as loyal
and disciplined, veterans also value integrity, character,
and sacrifice; respect authority and value boundaries
between work and family life; and strive for financial
Although some veterans train slowly, they make
work a priority and are considered team players.3,10 They
are loyal to their employers; expect the same in return;
and believe promotions, raises, and recognition should
be based on job tenure and seniority.7,8 They also measure work ethic on punctuality and productivity.8,9 As
expected, veterans often are unsure of and even resist
using new technology.3,10
Most veterans have retired, and they constitute only
2% (3.7 million) of the U.S. workforce today.11 As a
result, only limited research regarding their presence
in the workforce is available. However, more and more
veterans are continuing to work later in life.1,2,5 In addition, health care organizations have a vested interest in
understanding this generation because most Medicare
beneficiaries—a signficiant portion of the health care
consumer and patient populations—are veterans.3,12
Baby Boomers
Baby boomers were born between 1946 and 1964 and
are one of the largest generational cohorts in the United
States, comprising about 76 million people.7-9 Those born
between 1946 and 1955 are referred to as early boomers,
and those born after 1955 are referred to as late boomers.8
Members of this generation grew up in a relatively steady
state of free expression, economic prosperity, and an
absence of world wars, although they lived through the
Cold War era and the Vietnam War.8,9 As young adults,
baby boomers experienced opportunities that were not
available to their predecessors. Typically, they were the
first in their families to earn college degrees, and their
education translated into upward mobility.8 In school,
baby boomers needed to collaborate and cooperate with
their peers because there were so many of them. As a
result, this generation possesses both teamwork and
relationship-building skills.7
Generally well established in their careers and in
positions of power and authority, baby boomers are
extremely hard workers and are committed to their
professional goals.8 In fact, this driven and dedicated
generation’s motto is “living to work,”9 and they are
credited with creating the term workaholic. 4 In addition, baby boomers are described as optimistic, friendly,
RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, March/April 2017, Volume 88, Number 4
Directed Reading
and proud of their strong work ethic.7 They also work
longer work weeks than prior generations did, and they
believe continual learning and growth lead to success.8,9
Motivated by perks, prestige, and position, baby boomers want to be recognized for their contributions, and
they view work as an exciting adventure. 3,9,12
Baby boomers represent approximately 29%
(44.6 million) of today’s U.S. workforce.11 The oldest members of this generation are considering
their retirement options and are seeking ways and
opportunities to make their elder years personally
meaningful. 8
Generation X
Members of generation X, also referred to as gen Xers,
busters, and the lost generation, were born between 1965
and 1980. 3,7,8 Approximately 53 million members of the
generation X cohort live in the United States.8,11,13 The
term buster describes this generation because their birth
rates were vastly lower than those of the baby boomers.8
The lost generation also describes this cohort because
it was the first generation of latchkey children—those
left at home with negligible parental supervision—and
children exposed to daycare and divorce.8 Many parents
of generation X were baby boomers with workaholic
tendencies driven by personal gratification, authority,
and status. In some cases, their work habits resulted in
poor home lives, broken families, and absent parents.8 A
lack of meaningful family relationships led generation X
members to create nontraditional families by bonding
with friends and colleagues.13
Given their upbringing, it is no surprise that generation
X members expect to maintain a balance between work
and family life and do not work exceptionally long hours
for money or titles.8,9 Generally, they are less loyal to their
employers and are more comfortable demanding flexible work arrangements.7-9 They also expect freedom and
balance in their personal and professional lives, acknowledging that work contributes only a portion of the quality
of life they seek to achieve.8 At times, generation X can be
cynical, questioning authority and disliking direct supervision.3,7,8 Often, they resist micromanaging bosses and
find them to be distasteful and undesirable.8
Considered independent, self-reliant, and informal,
generation X individuals multitask easily and excel
RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, March/April 2017, Volume 88, Number 4
while working on independent projects.8 In fact, they
do not align themselves with the philosophy of being
a team member, but they will work with colleagues to
achieve a common goal.9 They prefer to manage their
own time, set their own limits, and complete their work
without supervision.9 This generation also finds informal policies regarding dress codes and workplace habits
to be fun and motivating.8 They expect and embrace
change and are technologically savvy. 3
Generation X members represent approximately 34%
(52.7 million) of the U.S. workforce today.11 Most thrive
in a casual, friendly work environment; however, they
desire to build portable careers by exploring employment opportunities and changing jobs periodically to
increase their marketability. 3,8
Generation Y
Members of generation Y, commonly referred to as
gen Yers, millennials, and nexters, were born between
1981 and 2000.7,8 This generation comprises about
80 million people and constitutes the largest generational cohort in the United States today.13 Having
grown up using computers, mobile phones, tablets,
and other electronic devices, generation Y individuals
are extremely technologically savvy and highly connected to the Internet. 3,7,8,13
Unlike the latchkey children of generation X, generation Y grew up being escorted and supervised by
protective parents who were extremely cautious of dangers such as kidnapping, school violence, and drugs.13
The close interaction between parents and child gave
rise to the term helicopter parents, meaning parents who
are involved in every aspect of their children’s lives.7,8
In general, generation Y members are less independent,
more community-oriented, and seek a sense of meaning
in greater contexts.8 This generation also is motivated by
money and described as being ambitious, having a short
attention span, and wanting instant gratification.7-9
Compared with their predecessors, members of
generation Y tend to be more social and confident as
they seek a balance between their personal life and
work.7-9 Although easily bored and impatient, they
are motivated by their need for a sense of purpose
and belonging to meaningful communities, and they
typically enjoy experimenting and discovering new
Directed Reading
Managing Multiple Generations in the Workplace
approaches and solutions to problems. 8 Often, this
generation desires praise and support from employers
to feel a sense of validation and belonging. 8 In general,
they expect more supervision and feedback, clear
goals, and structure, and they learn best through mentoring programs. 3,8
In the U.S. workforce, generation Y just surpasses
generation X at 34% (53.5 million).11 They are attracted
to companies and businesses that embrace technological advancements that change the way of doing business
globally.8 Being entrepreneurial, this generation engages
in many jobs with diverse career paths. Because they seek
happiness in their work and personal life, those of generation Y do not limit themselves to 1 job and 1 career.8
real-world application scenarios over creative or
reflective writing exercises.15 In addition, the students
appreciated personable professors who tailored their
lessons to the group of individuals in a specific class.15
Therrell and Dunneback acknowledged that their
findings were consistent with the general characteristics
of millennials, including short attention spans and the
need for instant gratification.15 They also recognized
the need for future studies involving larger samples to
further investigate millennial students’ perspectives on
teaching and learning in a variety of courses. Although
this study assessed students’ preferences in the classroom setting only, it is possible that millennial students
bring those preferences into the workplace.
Training and Education
The Digital Divide
Salajan et al examined the perceptions of dental
students and instructors regarding the use of digital
learning technologies in the online classroom.16 Most
of the instructors were either veterans or baby boomers, and most of the students were from generation
Y.16 The researchers wanted to explore the assumption
that younger generations are more technologically
savvy and skilled than older generations. Specifically,
the participants rated their use of email, web browsers, e-texts, personal computers, laptops, and MP3
players, as well as the course management system at
the beginning of the semester and then at the end of
the semester after using the digital technologies in the
online classroom.16
The results indicated a slight but not statistically
significant intergenerational difference in faculty
members’ perceived use of digital technologies,
although the researchers did not investigate whether
the difference was associated with generational differences between the veteran and baby boomer cohorts.16
However, students’ perceptions of the technologies
improved over the academic year and were statistically
significant.16 Students appeared to be more adept at
using digital technologies than were their professors.16
However, the researchers warned that this conclusion
was drawn from perceptual data at a rather general
level of confidence (ie, not expert use). In addition,
both students and faculty members were less satisfied
with the course management system at the end of the
As with the workforce, multigenerational differences often appear in educational and training settings.
As higher education institutions continue to promote
lifelong learning, classrooms are becoming more agediverse.14 These classrooms expose future professionals
to individuals from various generations and promote
awareness of generational differences. As a result, education institutions and faculty must adapt to a changing
classroom environment. To meet the needs of students
and instructors, researchers are investigating various
aspects of generational differences in the classroom,
including learning preferences and technology use. This
research can be used to design curricula, implement
teaching strategies, and allocate resources.
Millennials’ Perspectives
Using a mixed-methods approach, Therrell and
Dunneback conducted a study of 291 millennial college
students regarding their perspectives on teaching and
learning preferences.15 Their findings revealed that millennial college students preferred is15:
¡ A caring, passionate, and enthusiastic instructor.
¡ Clearly communicated course expectations.
¡ Course examinations that test only the content
¡ Real work and practical applications of the content.
¡ Active learning strategies, such as role playing.
Millennial students also preferred hands-on
activities with interactive lab assignments and enjoyed
RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, March/April 2017, Volume 88, Number 4
Directed Reading
academic year than at the beginning.16 The researchers
attributed the decreased satisfaction to the burden of
learning a new course management system along with
the digital technologies at the time of the research
Although this study was limited by perceptual data,
the sample size, and the inability to generalize the findings to a larger population, the researchers emphasized
the trend in age-linked dynamics that affect technology
use.16 Although some say it is common knowledge that
younger generations are better at using technology than
are older generations, Salajan et al believed that drawing
a division between students and instructors might be
more damaging than helpful in promoting a constructive
learning environment that is conducive to student-teacher
Face-to-Face vs Online Classrooms
Although researchers argue that younger generations
are competent technology users and can transfer their
digital skills to the online classroom, some studies suggest that digital skills in the academic setting are not
so automatic.16-19 Gros et al hypothesized that positive
perceptions of technology-supported learning are not
related to whether a student belongs to a technologically savvy generation; rather, perceptions are influenced
mainly by the teaching model (face-to-face vs online
education).17 To analyze students’ perceptions of information and communication technologies for learning,
the researchers distributed questionnaires to a random
sample of 1042 younger-generation students (generations X and Y) and older-generation students (baby
boomers) at 5 universities that provided either face-toface education or online courses.
The results showed that baby boomer students in
the online environment responded well to the course
requirements and demonstrated competent digital
skills, suggesting that the educational approach, whether face-to-face or online, is a stronger influence than
generation type on students’ perceptions of the usefulness of technology-supported learning.17 Given their
findings, the researchers suggested the need to consider
how technology-rich learning environments can help
develop students’ digital competencies, and not the
other way around.17
RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, March/April 2017, Volume 88, Number 4
Facebook Use
Although Facebook predominantly is known as a
site where family and friends can connect, it also is considered a valuable educational tool because it enables
peer feedback, interaction, and learning in a social
environment.20 Manca and Ranieri identified 5 main
educational uses of Facebook 21:
¡ Supporting class discussions and helping students
engage in collaborative learning.
¡ Developing content.
¡ Sharing educational resources.
¡ Delivering content to expose students to extracurricular resources.
¡ Supporting self-managed learning.
Using Facebook as an educational tool is relatively
new, and little research exists regarding its benefits and
challenges.20 To obtain descriptive statistics about the
use of Facebook among college students, researchers
conducted an exploratory study among 200 undergraduate psychology students, the majority of whom were
members of generation Y. Of these, half were secondyear students, and half were third-year students.20
Chi-square tests were performed to determine whether
any differences existed between the 2 cohorts.20
The results suggested that most of the student participants were satisfied with Facebook and mainly used
it to overcome boredom.20 All third-year students had
a Facebook account, but only 65% of the second-year
students acknowledged having a Facebook account.
Students cited a lack of interest and an unwillingness
to post personal information online as reasons for not
having an account.20 Incidentally, the researchers concluded that the number of Facebook users and time
spent online increase with younger-generation college
students, making this social media site a potential educational tool.20
Given the limited sample size of this study, which
involved only 1 higher education institution, future
studies with more participants and that collects qualitative data are warranted. Qualitative data would provide
student and instructor perspectives on education and
social media use and would help identify any advantages or disadvantages associated with using social media.
Researchers also recommended analyzing other social
media sites such as Twitter and Instagram.
Directed Reading
Managing Multiple Generations in the Workplace
Workplace Behavior
Generational differences in the workplace can present potential benefits and challenges for organizations,
particularly for managers and supervisors. Rather than
relying on anecdotal evidence and broad assumptions,
social scientists are accumulating empirical data regarding specific workplace behaviors of each generation.
These studies not only have implications for recruitment, hiring, and retention, but also provide managers a
basis for developing teamwork strategies.
Hiring and Turnover
Based on the work-related behaviors of baby boomers, generation X, and generation Y, Becton et al tested 3
hypotheses in their research study22:
¡ Baby boomers will display fewer job mobility
behaviors than will generations X or Y.
¡ Baby boomers will exhibit more occurrences of
compliance and experience fewer instances of termination than will generations X or Y.
¡ Generation X will report less enthusiasm to work
overtime than will baby boomers or generation Y.
To test these predictions, the researchers assessed
the feedback of 8040 applicants at 2 organizations.
Job mobility was measured by asking the applicants
to specify the longest amount of time they spent at 1
job and how many jobs they held in the past 5 years.22
Compliance behaviors were measured by asking the
applicants how their most recent supervisor would
rate their attendance and their adherence to dress
code policies.22 Terminations were assessed by asking
the applicants how many times they had been fired.22
Finally, enthusiasm to work overtime was measured by
asking the applicants how often their most recent supervisor would say they were willing to work overtime.22
The results provided full support for the first and
third hypotheses and partial support for the second
hypothesis.22 Regarding the first hypothesis, baby
boomers spent an average of 73 months as the longest
time spent at 1 job, with an average of 2 jobs held in
the past 5 years; generation X averaged 49 months as
the longest time spent at 1 job, with 3 jobs in the past
5 years; and generation Y averaged 23 months as the
longest time spent at 1 job, with 3 jobs held in the past 5
years.22 Certainly, it could be argued that baby boomers
have been working for a longer period of time than have
generations X or Y.
All 3 generations gave themselves high ratings for
attendance and dress code compliance, but the baby
boomers scored themselves the highest.22 Baby boomers
also had the highest termination percentages, which could
be attributed to having more years of work experience
than generations X or Y.22 When asked to work overtime,
44% of baby boomers reported a willingness, 38% of the
generation X cohort reported a willingness, and 41% of
the generation Y cohort reported a willingness.22
Although the results of the study indicated some
generational differences do exist in the workplace, the
size of the differences for each generation in this study
was small.22 In addition, the popular assumptions concerning each generation were not always consistent
with respect to workplace behavior. The researchers
acknowledged the study was limited because the data
were self-reported.
Work Ethic
Observing an increase in turnover rates among baby
boomer, generation X, and generation Y nurses at an
inpatient acute care facility, Jobe examined the increase
to see whether it was directly related to the work ethic
attributed to each generation.23 Specifically, Jobe measured 7 dimensions of work ethic23:
¡ Self-reliance: striving for independence in one’s
daily work.
¡ Morality/ethics: believing in a just and moral
¡ Leisure: emphasizing nonwork activities.
¡ Hard work: believing in the virtues of hard work.
¡ Centrality of work: believing in work for work’s
sake and the importance of work.
¡ Wasted time: having attitudes and beliefs that
reflect active and productive use of time.
¡ Delay in gratification: being oriented toward the
future and the postponement of rewards.
Of the 285 completed surveys, the data suggested
work-ethic similarities among the 3 generational
cohorts with statistically significant intergenerational
differences related to leisure, hard work, and delay
of gratification.23 Generations X and Y, for example,
placed more emphasis on leisure activities and hard
RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, March/April 2017, Volume 88, Number 4
Directed Reading
work than did baby boomers.23 This finding varied from
the traditional view that younger generations are lazy.
Generations X and Y also focused more on future career
plans and delaying rewards than did baby boomers,23
possibly because baby boomers are nearing retirement
and deferring rewards is no longer necessary to achieve
their goals. Jobe recognized that changes in work ethic
dimensions could lead to strategies for improving generational conflict and decreasing job turnover rates.
A study assessing generational differences in workplace ethics and turnover intention found significant
differences between generation Y and baby boomers
regarding emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and
turnover intention.24 As expected, individuals from
generation Y indicated significantly lower job satisfaction and higher turnover intentions when they were
exhausted than did baby boomers.24 These findings
might be the result of differing interpretations of the
state of emotional exhaustion and different perceptions
of work centrality among the generations.
Known to place more importance on work-life balance
and leisure, generation Y might attribute their emotional
exhaustion to the job itself because they do not value
work more than their personal life and leisure time.24
Conversely, baby boomers might be willing to endure
emotional exhaustion because they highly value their job
and workplace ethics.24 In addition, baby boomers place
their current position and job as top priorities, whereas
generation Y members might be willing to try other positions before deciding on an ideal career.
The researchers were surprised not to find significant differences between generation X and the other
generations regarding job satisfaction and turnover
intention.24 This result might be because generation X
individuals share distinct similarities with members of
both generation Y and baby boomers. Generations X
and Y highly value work-life balance and are not very
loyal; on the other hand, generation X’s approach to
their careers is similar to that of baby boomers.
Because this study was based on data from 1 branded
hotel management company, its limited sample size
cannot be generalized to other populations, including
health care professionals. In addition, the researchers acknowledged having more female than male
respondents, and they did not consider the possibility
RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, March/April 2017, Volume 88, Number 4
of gender partiality in responses. However, given
that younger employees have lower job satisfaction
and higher turnover intentions compared with older
employees, the researchers stressed that managers need
to consider implementing strategies (eg, flexible hours
and adequate supervision) to address work-life balance
for those younger employees.24
Newly licensed registered nurses from 3 generational
cohorts (baby boomers, generation X, and generation Y) were surveyed regarding their work-related
experiences, including their general characteristics
and attitudes.25 Of the 2369 nurses in the sample, 251
(10.5%) were baby boomers, 1643 (68.8%) were generation X, and 465 (19.4%) were generation Y.25 The
researchers examined their work attitudes, attributes,
and demographics, as well as their job satisfaction,
organizational commitment, job search, and intention
to stay in a job.25 No statistically significant intergenerational differences existed concerning intention to stay
and job-search behavior.25 Incidentally, approximately
two-thirds of the nurses in each generational cohort
were employed in the same position as the previous
year.25 However, findings revealed significant differences among generations in several other areas25:
¡ Baby boomers reported higher work motivation
than did generations X and Y.
¡ Generation X demonstrated the highest levels
of work-to-family conflict (the degree to which
employment hinders family life) and family-towork conflict (the degree to which family life
interferes with work).
¡ Generation Y had greater levels of commitment
to the organization, higher perceptions of promotional opportunities, and mentor and supervisor
support than did baby boomers or generation X
Unlike generations X and Y nurses, baby boomer
nurses reported that they did not complete an employee
orientation program,25 possibly because they were
older and might have been perceived as less in need of a
formal orientation program. Orientation is a vital part
of new nurses’ adjustment to their organizations and
their recognition in the profession. Compared with the
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Managing Multiple Generations in the Workplace
other generations, a higher percentage of baby boomers worked in jobs other than as staff nurses.25 A much
lower percentage of baby boomers worked in intensive
care units, but reported higher work motivation than
did generations X and Y.25 It could be inferred that the
baby boomer nurses in this study were better prepared
to move into management positions although they were
new graduates.
Nurses from generation X rated higher in work-tofamily conflict and family-to-work conflict than did
the other groups.25 As expected, those from generation
X struggled with finding a balance between home and
work life. Those from generation Y reported greater
organizational commitment and were more likely to
work 12-hour shifts and the night shift than were the
other generations.25 Nurses from generation Y also
expressed the importance of training with an experienced mentor and receiving support from direct
As organizations continue to provide and improve
orientations for newly licensed nurses, it is important
to mold these programs to support nurses at the start
of their careers and encourage their ongoing commitment to the profession. Although this study focused
on nursing graduates, these findings are applicable to
new radiologic technologists and radiation therapists.
Managers of medical imaging and radiation therapy
departments should invest time and effort into providing new graduates and new hires with adequate training
and orientation that clearly state work expectations and
encourages a commitment to the organization and profession.
To evaluate the importance that different generational cohorts place on specific workplace factors,
Mencl and Lester distributed a survey to 636 employees aged 18 and older across government, health care,
manufacturing, technology, real estate, and nonprofit
organizations.1 The researchers analyzed data from
a final sample size of 505 respondents who represented
3 generations (baby boomers, n  273; generation X,
n 5 144; and generation Y, n 5 88).1 The survey focused
on 10 workplace factors1:
¡ Teamwork and collaboration.
¡ Flexible work arrangements.
¡ A challenging job.
¡ Involvement in decision making.
¡ A financially rewarding job.
¡ Work-life balance.
¡ A climate of diversity.
¡ Continuous learning.
¡ Career advancement.
¡ Immediate feedback and recognition.
All 3 generations placed importance on 7 of 10 workplace factors, demonstrating that the generations were
more alike than different.1 The findings suggested the
most significant generational differences concerned
career advancement opportunities, which generation Y
valued more than did generation X and baby boomers.1
The training and development value and the decisionmaking value also were statistically significant for
generation X and baby boomers.1
Although this study suggested that more similarities
than differences exist among the generational cohorts,
a limitation of the research was the unequal group sizes.
The researchers recommended using the same group
size for each generational cohort in future research. One
key implication of these findings is that managers need
to be educated and informed about generational differences and similarities rather than making assumptions.1
Effective teamwork can be fostered in an environment that acknowledges the values, talents, and work
ethics of each generational cohort. 3,26 Several research
studies documented generation X preferences for working alone.27-29 One study examined the attitudes of
baby boomers and generation X on team formation.27
Using a survey design, the researchers discovered
that members of generation X were more competitive,
independent, and had a greater preference for working
alone compared with baby boomers.27 In another study
with similar results, baby boomers were more comfortable working with others and favored teamwork more
than did generation X.28 Medical imaging and radiation
therapy managers should inquire whether generation
X employees prefer working alone or with others when
assigning workload and other tasks.
When team members do not respect and value one
another’s generational differences, conflict, distress,
and incivility are unavoidable. 3 Leiter et al collected
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survey responses from more than 500 nurses to analyze the effects of generational differences and the
implications for establishing a healthy work environment that promotes teamwork and good retention
rates.29 The cohort sample represented baby boomers
and generation X. Survey responses revealed that generation X experienced more incivility from coworkers
and supervisors and overall higher levels of distress
compared with baby boomers.29 The researchers
concluded that negative social encounters at work
contributed to nurses’ distress and suggested conflicts
in values occur between baby boomer and generation
X team members.29 Future research is warranted to
include generation Y perspectives and contributions to
Patient Care
Each generational cohort brings benefits to patient
care within a health care organization.3 Growing up
in an era when technology was not available, most veterans and baby boomers are aware of subtle cues and
changes in a patient’s status long before a monitor or
test shows patient deterioration.30 This type of experience bolsters veteran and baby boomer health care
providers as experts in their respective departments.3
Conversely, generations X and Y grew up using technology and therefore can act as resources and assist
older generations with better understanding and using
technology in patient care.30 Overcoming generational
differences among health care teams is important
because generational issues can result in poor patient
care, poorer outcomes, unsafe patient conditions, and
decreased patient satisfaction.2,3,30
Generational differences also can affect how patients
perceive their care.2,31 Veteran or baby boomer patients
might expect face-to-face communication from physicians, nurses, and other health care professionals,
whereas generation X and Y patients might prefer to
have electronic communications rather than face-toface interactions.2,3,31
One research study questioned whether 1 generation
was more caring than another based on an emotional
intelligence proficiency. 31 The results did not indicate
substantive differences in emotional intelligence among
the baby boomer, generation X, and generation Y
RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, March/April 2017, Volume 88, Number 4
nurses.31 However, the researchers noted that individuals from younger generations often required additional
training on how best to communicate face-to-face.31
Finding ways to help younger generations become more
comfortable with this type of communication is key to
ensuring adequate patient care.
Perceptions of Other Generations
In a study by Gursoy et al that explored how each
generation perceives the other generations, managers
from the baby boomer generation expressed a very low
opinion of generations X and Y.32 They believed the
younger employees had no work ethic and considered
them to be slackers.32 Baby boomer employees did not
have very high opinions of their generation X managers. They indicated the generation X managers did not
have the experience to lead, did not respect the baby
boomers’ life experiences, and relied too heavily on
Generation X managers did not think highly of
generation Y employees. They considered them to
be slackers, but admitted that they were very quick
learners. 32 Generation X, however, had very high opinions of baby boomer employees. They found them to
be very responsible and customer oriented, but the
generation X managers acknowledged difficulty in
earning respect from their baby boomer employees. 32
Generation X managers also stated that baby boomers
were slow learners and not efficient with technology.32
Incidentally, generation X employees found their baby
boomer managers to be poor team players and somewhat out of touch with innovative ideas because of their
fear of change.32
This study relied on focus group sessions among
a small group of hotel employees for data collection.
Although 10 focus group sessions were conducted, findings cannot be generalized beyond the scope of this
study. Descriptive statistics and data collected from a
sample of health professionals might be beneficial for
future studies involving generational differences.
Some scholars have acknowledged the difficulty with
defining generations.33-35 As stated previously, no official
years mark the beginning or end of a generation.2-7 As
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Managing Multiple Generations in the Workplace
with any social construct (eg, race, gender, ethnicity),
boundaries are debated, and differentiations change
with time and circumstances. Costanza and Finkelstein
stated that generational cohorts are influenced by pivotal U.S. events and the assumption is that these events
affected individuals in the same way no matter where
they were geographically.33 For example, the events
of September 11 occurred in the northeastern United
States. While these events affected individuals throughout the country, the way the event was internalized
and processed might have been more intense for those
located near the tragedies.33,34 Costanza and Finkelstein
believed defining generations to be the greatest challenge.
A lack of theory to support generational differences also presents a challenge. However, Cadiz et al
argued that methodological limitations, such as small
sample sizes, guide research, not a lack of theory.34 They
mentioned several theories to support the concept of
generational differences: social forces theory, social
identity theories, and lifespan development theories.
However, Cadiz et al believed the way generational
cohorts were examined in the literature is flawed. They
suggested that a study involving generational differences is only helpful if the following conditions are met34:
¡ The idea of being part of a specific generation
becomes a part of people’s social identity.
¡ A generation is identified with specific events that
truly have a formative effect on people.
¡ Reciprocal influences and exchanges within and
between generations are studied along with the
An Alternative Approach
Wang and Peng proposed an alternative approach
to understanding generational differences specific to
conducting organizational research.36 They suggested
allowing the participants to decide which generation
they identify with. Using a survey, checklist, or openended questions, the participants could rate the extent
to which they identify with each category or statement.
An analysis of their responses would allow researchers
to classify the participants accordingly and proceed
with their original research. Rather than being associated with a generation based on a birth date, Wang and
Peng believed this might provide better research on
generational differences and might explain conflicting
results in previous studies.36
This subjective, continuous approach could help
researchers better understand generational differences in
the workplace. By treating generational differences as a
series of variables rather than just 1 categorical construct,
this alternative approach provides a more theoretical
definition of generational differences and presents a more
reliable measurement.36 This approach potentially could
result in stronger predictions of the effect of generational
differences on work attitudes and behaviors.36
Another challenge related to generational differences
in the workplace is the idea of publicizing generationbased stereotypes at work.33-35,37,38 Internalization of
generational stereotypes could cause problems for
individuals and organizations. 34 Research has shown
that stereotyping in the workplace results in negative
job attitudes, poor mental health, and greater intentions
to resign.34,39 Negative metastereotypes—what a particular group believes those in other groups think about
them—also can be exacerbated. 34 Metastereotypes
related to generational differences could cause individuals to overcompensate to challenge the stereotype they
believe others hold about them. To counteract these
negative stereotypes, the focus should build on the
positive aspects of diversity and on developing a more
inclusive work envirionment. 34
Costanza and Finkelstein acknowledged that stereotypes exist because people from one particular
generation do not share the same qualities, personalities, and values as members of other generational
cohorts. 33 For example, the veteran generation is stereotyped as being conservative and disciplined.7-9,33 These
individuals grew up during the Great Depression, which
is thought to have instilled in them values of frugality
and hard work.33 Most would agree that this is a logical
outcome; however, not all people who emerged from
tough financial times embraced frugality.33 As an example, Costanza and Finkelstein discussed veterans who
achieved success later in their adult lives, spent money
impulsively, eventually declared bankruptcy, and ended
up living in poverty again.33
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To address stereotypes associated with generation Y,
Rentz conducted a mixed-methods study using surveys
and focus group sessions. He discovered that this generation defied some of the general stereotypes associated
with their generation but exhibited some stereotypical features as well.37 Contrary to common complaints
about their poor work ethic, managers rated generation
Y employees as having high standards, working hard,
following through, and being realistic about rewards and
raises.37 They also accepted criticism, did not require
extra praise, took initiative, and were self-directed and
Rentz also documented support for certain stereotypes associated with generation Y. These included
leveraging technology, having a strong interest in what
it takes to succeed in the company, being less interested
in employee news and other facets of the big picture,
and having an inflated sense of some of their abilities.37
Because generational stereotypes exist, Rentz suggested
it was important to teach employees about generational
differences and promote a work atmosphere of respect
where all generations can contribute and feel valued. 37
Despite the negative connotation, some scholars
consider the use of such stereotypes as necessary and
acceptable. 35,38,40 When comparing human groups,
whether it is men, women, ethnic groups, leaders, service workers, nurses, or generations, stereotyping can
be helpful and is expected.35 In almost every case, variances in traits exist within a group, and in most cases,
the differences within the group are larger than the
variances between groups. 35,40 In addition, although
stereotypes are key to understanding perceptions and
identity in organizations, some researchers substitute
the word stereotype with the more neutral term prototype to minimize the negative connotation.38
are offered some protection by the Age Discrimination
in Employment Act; however, generation Y individuals
are too young to qualify for legal protection. Thus, it is
not clear what would happen if an employer terminated
a younger employee based on his or her perceptions
of generation Y. 41 As expected, proving a termination
decision was based solely on generational membership
would be challenging.
Legislation that prohibits generation-based discrimination is unlikely, although considerable evidence
shows that people refrain from making employment
decisions based on stereotypes they believe are neither
permitted nor appropriate. 41 Cox and Coulton stated
it was possible an enlightened supervisor might resist
the temptation to ascribe behavior to age given the current legislation protecting older workers; however, the
supervisor might feel that attributing behavior to generational differences is acceptable because legislation
does not address the issue. 41
Generational challenges and stereotypes within an
organization might abound, but positive opportunities
also exist.3 A multigenerational team can be an asset to
an organization.2,3 Each member brings unique strengths,
viewpoints, and skills relative to his or her generational
cohort.3 Health care leaders who have an understanding
of generational differences and strengths can improve
staff satisfaction and facilitate constructive working relationships to increase morale and productivity.42
Generation-based Discrimination
The general perception that differences among
individuals relate to specific generational cohorts can
pose some risk. 41 Although it is tempting to consider
these generational stereotypes as innocent misperceptions, they might, in fact, be quite harmful. 41 Although
age discrimination is prohibited by law, discrimination
based on generational differences is not explicitly prohibited.41 Cox and Coulton noted that older individuals
Strategies to Increase Morale and Productivity
Nelsey and Brownie stressed the importance of creating a work environment where employees, regardless
of their generational background, feel supported and
valued. 42 They believed this work atmosphere could
result in increased morale and productivity. Assessing a
nursing workforce, they suggested providing generation
Y nurses with opportunities for continual improvement
and personal growth because these individuals tend
to be ambitious and career focused. 42 Nurse managers
can provide generation Y staff nurses with opportunities to lead teams and attend professional development
workshops that focus on career advancement and promotion. 42 These opportunities would allow generation
RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, March/April 2017, Volume 88, Number 4
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Managing Multiple Generations in the Workplace
Y nurses to feel important to the organization, and they
potentially will work harder after receiving such recognition.
The researchers also suggested providing generation
X nurses with opportunities to work independently
on projects because nurses from this generation tend
to be self-reliant and resist being micromanaged. 42
Generation X nurses are less likely to view their supervisors in a negative manner when tackling self-directed
tasks, and ultimately it can increase morale and productivity within the organization. Other general strategies
managers can use to supervise generation X employees
¡ Providing staff incentives.
¡ Being supportive, trustworthy, professional, and
¡ Demonstrating good communication skills.
¡ Meeting regularly with staff members to provide
¡ Leading by example.
Nelsey and Brownie noted that an awareness of
generational differences allows nursing managers to
try various strategies to bridge those gaps, and they are
likely to use the expertise of each group to optimize
patient care and meet the needs of the organization.42
Mentoring and continual support are essential to a
new employee’s successful transition and professional
growth, especially in the health care setting. Mentoring
often is used to increase retention and decrease turnover rates. 42 Nelsey and Brownie defined a skilled
nurse mentor as one who assists new employees and
less experienced staff by sharing clinical expertise and
familiarizing them with the work setting. 42 Of course,
mentoring requires a commitment from both the mentor and mentee and is based on mutual trust, teaching,
coaching, counseling, and friendship. 42 Understanding
generational differences and the common characteristics associated with each cohort can result in effective
New nursing graduates from generation Y are professionally confident and outspoken yet require lengthy
orientation and continual feedback as they make the
transition to the clinical work environment. 42 Baby
boomers, with their superior clinical knowledge and
extensive clinical experience, are well positioned to
act as mentors and preceptors, in particular to younger
generation Y nursing graduates. 42 Mentoring is effective
only when both the mentors and mentees earn mutual
respect and benefit from the coaching process. In addition, because other research studies indicated younger
generations train best with veterans, the possibility of
veterans serving as mentors should be considered.2
In organizations without formal mentoring systems, Nelsey and Brownie suggested encouraging new
employees to seek mentors from other venues.42 In the
health care setting, mentoring can help older employees
feel valued by sharing their knowledge and expertise,
and as mentees, younger generations can develop a sense
of belonging and importance. Managers also can offer
mentoring through one-on-one sessions, group programs, discussion panels, and roundtable discussions.3
ACORN Precepts
ACORN (accommodate, create, operate, respect,
and nourish) is an acronym for the 5 precepts or operational ideas used by successful companies to develop
solid organizations. 5 The use of these 5 precepts supports a generationally comfortable work environment
where employees focus their energies on accomplishing
the mission instead of on conflict.5 Table 2 explains
each precept and provides an example of how managers
can use these principles when dealing with a multigenerational department.
Impact Within Radiology
Because research pertaining to medical imaging
and radiation therapy is extremely limited—most of
the research pertains to radiologists—it is difficult to
examine the effects of generational differences within
the profession.12,43
Perceptions Among Radiologists
The American College of Radiology (ACR)
hosted a forum to discuss the effect of generational
differences among practicing radiologists.12 Younger
radiologists (generations X and Y) were perceived as
being less committed to their profession than were
prior generations.12 They more commonly viewed
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Table 2
ACORN Precepts
employee differences
Meeting the needs of employees
by accommodating their unique
Allowing generation X employees
to decide whether they want to
work alone or on a team.
Creating workplace
Allowing the workplace to shape
the work performed to serve
customers and employees.
Operating from a refined
management style
Providing specific goals and
measures to achieve and allowing
employees freedom to complete
the tasks in their chosen manner.
Respecting competence
and creativity
Assuming the best from all
employees (from new staff
members to the most seasoned).
Nourishing retention
Retaining employees by providing
frequent feedback, rewards, and
recognition; encouraging lateral
nonworking hours as an opportunity to pursue vocational and family activities rather than an opportunity
to advance their medical knowledge, clinical practice,
or the profession.12 Older radiologists (veterans and
baby boomers) believed this attitude potentially could
compromise the strength and vitality of the radiology
profession and professional organizations such as the
Veteran radiologists were described as hard working
and sacrificial; baby boomer radiologists were identified
as being workaholics and efficient; generation X radiologists were characterized as needing balance between
home and work life and preferring flexible work hours;
and generation Y radiologists were labeled as being goal
oriented, collaborative, and multitaskers.12 In addition,
veteran radiologists viewed work as an obligation, baby
boomer radiologists viewed it as an exciting adventure,
generation X radiologists viewed it as a contract, and
generation Y radiologists viewed it as a means to an
Ultimately, the ACR thought it was critical to
appreciate the varied needs, desires, and motivators of
RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, March/April 2017, Volume 88, Number 4
different generations to
help foster a harmonious
and productive radiology
Job Satisfaction
Among Radiologists
Using multiple modes of
Moriarity et al
communication per employees’
assessed generational
differences related to
Verbalizing work expectations and
workplace satisfaction
providing new hires with adequate
and workplace characorientation.
teristics among 1577
practicing radiologists
Providing ample time for veterans
from the baby boomer
and baby boomers to accept
and generation X
change and use new technology.
cohorts. 43 Despite widely
Offering new hires mentoring
reported differences
programs and giving specific praise
among generations, the
to generation Y employees.
findings indicated baby
boomer and generation X
radiologists shared similar characteristics.
Workplace satisfaction among baby boomer and generation X radiologists was 78% and 80%, respectively. 43
Both generations indicated higher job satisfaction
when they felt optimistic about the future of radiology, when they perceived a narrow difference between
their desired and expected age of retirement, when they
emphasized social interactions, and when they valued
professionalism among their peers. 43
Baby boomer radiologists displayed greater job
satisfaction when they worked in an environment that
valued diversity, whereas generation X radiologists
were more satisfied if they were paid well and worked
in an environment that promoted job security. 43 No
significant association was seen between satisfaction
and generation, sex, practice setting, or additional
administrative work. 43 The researchers concluded that
workplace satisfaction among radiologists was high,
and the 2 dominant generations of practicing radiologists had similar workplace satisfaction rates and
preferred workplace characteristics. 43 A research study
involving radiologic technologists and radiation therapists is warranted to see if the results would be similar.
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Managing Multiple Generations in the Workplace
Leadership Tactics
As leaders of the department, managers need to
understand each generation, recognize the generation
they belong to, and use each group’s unique characteristics to their advantage. 3 Facilitating employees’
growth and development is an important part of leadership; however, the presence of a multigenerational
department makes this difficult to achieve. 44 Medical
imaging and radiation therapy managers are encouraged to lead multigenerational departments using the
following tactics44:
¡ Seek ways to understand each cohort and accommodate differences in attitudes, values, and
¡ Cultivate generational strengths to motivate all
employees in the department.
¡ Develop the ability to be more sensitive to the
strengths and weaknesses of each cohort, especially in the area of technology advancement.
¡ Promote tolerance to avoid generational conflict
and to enrich teamwork skills.
¡ Capitalize on generational differences to improve
the overall quality of work and to enhance patient
care outcomes.
Managing Veterans
In today’s struggling economy, many veterans have
remained in the workforce.1 As previously mentioned,
veterans like to be recognized for their years of service
and experience. Pairing them with a newly hired young
technologist can boost their morale and promote longterm benefits for the department as well.2 Veterans
know a plethora of shortcuts and tips to achieve the
perfect image during difficult procedures, and younger
technologists can gain a wealth of information by learning from experienced technologists.
Considering the continual advancements in medical imaging and radiation therapy technology, veterans
might need additional training when learning new
equipment or software. Veterans are hard workers and
will take the time to learn the equipment, software,
and procedures even if they involve new technology.
Individual support when learning how to operate new
radiographic or therapeutic equipment also might
be beneficial to a veteran radiologic technologist or
radiation therapist. If applicable, radiology managers
should modify a veteran’s job duties to accommodate
his or her abilities.
In summary, Johnson and Johnson suggested the following tips for managing veteran employees4:
¡ Make them mentors to younger employees.
¡ Provide training for new systems and procedures.
¡ Accommodate their needs.
¡ Recognize and applaud their contributions.
¡ Give one-on-one support.
Managing Baby Boomers
Although baby boomers are nearing retirement, they
should not be shunted to the side and ignored until
they leave. 4 They have wisdom and experience that
can provide valuable information for managers as they
make important decisions about daily operations in the
department. Like veterans, baby boomers feel valued
and appreciated when they are given the opportunity to
mentor a younger technologist.2,42 Of course, with any
mentoring relationship, mutual respect and trust are
Managers from younger generations are encouraged
to lead baby boomers by respecting their experiences
and service to the department, motivating them on their
own terms, and arranging for recognition and credit.4
Younger managers can prove themselves to baby boomer
technologists and therapists by being a working manager
and assisting with examinations and treatments during
busy times or when short staffed. In summary, suggested
tips for managing baby boomers include4:
¡ Make them mentors.
¡ Do not ignore or give up on them.
¡ Ask for continuing contributions.
¡ Offer opportunities to volunteer.
Managing Generation X
Although generation X employees tend to seek individual recognition, this does not imply that they cannot
or will not work well on teams. 4 Johnson and Johnson
argued that creating collegial teams where generation
X employees work with colleagues to accomplish a
common goal can benefit an organization. 4 Providing a
flexible work schedule can be a difficult task for medical
imaging and radiation therapy departments; however,
RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, March/April 2017, Volume 88, Number 4
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staggering start times, rotating shifts, and allowing time
off for various family functions are a few ways managers
can offer flexibility to generation X employees.
Generation X individuals have a slightly different
take on work than baby boomers and veterans. Johnson
and Johnson suggested more tips for leading generation X employees because they believed attracting and
retaining generation X individuals allows managers
to become more aware of employee needs, more open
to different ways of doing things, and more agile and
adaptable.4 Their tips include the following4:
¡ Give them individual recognition.
¡ Create collegial teams.
¡ Support their lifestyle (work-home life).
¡ Provide flexible work schedules.
¡ Vary their experiences.
¡ Challenge them.
¡ Reward action.
¡ Provide feedback.
¡ Allow them to be themselves.
¡ Have fun.
Managing Generation Y
Generation Y employees have different work requirements and expectations than do their baby boomer and
generation X managers. Understanding these differences helps managers to be effective and their generation
Y employees to flourish. By creating opportunities to
bond, radiology managers can provide generation Y
technologists with the rapport they are accustomed to
with their teachers and parents. Johnson and Johnson
stressed that managers should insist generation Y
employees follow the rules, complete their tasks, meet
their deadlines, and produce quality work. 4 If they meet
goals, managers should applaud them for their service.
If not, managers should help, coach, encourage, and
even counsel them to establish that bond so generation
Y employees know what is expected of them.
Medical imaging and radiation therapy managers
should check in with generation Y technologists and
therapists daily, offering praise when deserved and providing corrective feedback when needed. Managers also
should communicate specific work expectations; generation Y employees need to be aware of what is expected
of them and what their responsibilities are. If possible,
RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, March/April 2017, Volume 88, Number 4
managers should offer generation Y technologists and
therapists flexibility in terms of work hours and schedule. In conclusion, suggestions for managing generation
Y include the following4:
¡ Create opportunities to bond.
¡ Offer mentoring, coaching, and guidance.
¡ Give praise that is specific, significant, and sincere.
¡ Provide constructive, specific criticism in private.
Preparing for Generation Z
Generation Z, also known as gen Z, iGeneration, and
linksters, were born after 2000.7,8 An estimated 23 million people in the United States compose this generation,
and the group is growing.7 Most of the characteristics
that define this generation have yet to emerge; however,
because they have been exposed to digital communication and technology throughout their lifetime, they are
described as being highly connected.7,8 They tend to interact electronically more than personally, and they might
choose to text message someone even if they are standing
next to him or her.7 The Box lists some of the historical
and social events experienced by generation Z individuals.
Although young, it appears that generation Z will
mobilize around causes and be more socially and environmentally aware than previous generations.8 Many
older individuals from generation Z are beginning to
enter the workforce, and they are the most technologically savvy of any generation. They are connected
to their peers through social media, are intelligent
and have higher IQ scores than members of previous
generations, and generally are accepting of diverse populations.8 This is the largest home-schooled generation,
and they require less direction and supervision because
Influential Historical and Social Events
Experienced by Generation Z4,8
War on Terror
Active shooter incidents
Swine flu
Hurricane Katrina
iPods and iPads
Facebook and other social media sites
2011 tsunami in Japan
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Managing Multiple Generations in the Workplace
they already have access to digital tools that enable
them to do almost anything.8
Members of other generations must be able to work
with and adjust to generation Z’s changing social skills
that are driven by advancing technologies. 4,8 This generation can present themselves as an open book with
very little concern about sharing private and personal
matters. Like generation Y, individuals from generation
Z are close to their parents and consider them to be
their best friends. 4
As more generation Z members enter the workforce,
they easily can handle job requirements that involve
technology but will have a tougher time with face-toface communication with customers and coworkers. 4 In
addition, as higher education becomes more cost prohibitive, generation Z will seek alternative ways to enter
their preferred, chosen professions.8
15000 Central Ave SE, Albuquerque, NM 87123-3909, or
emailed to publications@asrt.org.
© 2017 American Society of Radiologic Technologists
Multiple generational cohorts coexist in the workplace today. Each group brings different viewpoints,
expectations, desires, dreams, values, and ideas about
work and life. For health care organizations, these
generational differences can enhance teamwork and
improve patient care; they also can present challenges
such as conflict and stereotyping. By understanding
generational differences, managers and organizations
can foster a work environment that embraces diversity and promotes productivity. Because very little
research on generational differences in the radiology
workplace has been conducted, research specific to the
medical imaging and radiation therapy professions is
Kevin R Clark, EdD, R.T.(R), is assistant professor and
graduate coordinator with the department of radiologic
sciences at Midwestern State University in Wichita Falls,
Texas. He has a bachelor’s degree in radiologic technology,
a master’s degree in instructional technology, a master’s in
teaching with an emphasis in secondary mathematics, and
a doctorate in educational leadership and management. He
can be contacted at kevin.clark@mwsu.edu.
Reprint requests may be mailed to the American Society
of Radiologic Technologists, Publications Department, at
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20. Čičević S, Samčović A, Nešić M. Exploring college students’
generational differences in Facebook usage. Comput Hum
Behav. 2016;56:83-92.
21. Manca S, Ranieri M. Is it a tool suitable for learning? A
critical review of the literature on Facebook as a technologyenhanced learning environment. J Comput Assist Learn.
2013;29(6):487-504. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jcal.12007.
22. Becton JB, Walker HJ, Jones-Farmer A. Generational
differences in workplace behavior. J Appl Soc Psychol.
2014;44(3):175-189. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jasp.12208.
23. Jobe LL. Generational differences in work ethic
among 3 generations of registered nurses. J Nurs Adm.
2014;44(5):303-308. http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/NNA
24. Lu ACC, Gursoy D. Impact of job burnout on satisfaction
and turnover intention: do generational differences matter?
[published online ahead of print July 15, 2013]. J Hosp Tour
Res (Wash DC). 2013;40(2):1-26. http://dx.doi.org/10.11
25. Keepnews DM, Brewer CS, Kovner CT, Shin JH.
Generational differences among newly licensed registered
nurses. Nurs Outlook. 2010;58(3):155-163. http://dx.doi.org
26. Lyons S, Kuron L. Generational differences in the workplace: a review of the evidence and directions for future
research. J Organ Behav. 2014;35(S1):S139-S157. http://
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27. Sirias D, Karp HB, Brotherton T. Comparing the levels of
individualism/collectivism between baby boomers
and generation X: implications for teamwork. Manage Res
News. 2007;30(10):749-761. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108
28. Yrle AC, Hartman SJ, Payne DM. Generation X: acceptance
of others and teamwork implications. Team Perform Manage.
2005;11(5/6):188-199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/135275
29. Leiter MP, Price SL, Spence Laschinger HK. Generational
differences in distress, attitudes and incivility among nurses.
J Nurs Manag. 2010;18(8):970-980. http://dx.doi.org/10
30. Conning D, Cook D. Bridging the generational divide in the
PACU. The Dissector. 2012;40(1):27-30.
31. Codier E, Freel M, Kamikawa C, Morrison P. Emotional
intelligence, caring, and generational differences in nurses.
Int J Hum Caring. 2011;15(1):49-55.
32. Gursoy D, Maier TA, Chi CG. Generational differences: an
examination of work values and generational gaps in the hospitality workforce. Int J Hospit Manag. 2008;27(3):448-458.
33. Costanza DP, Finkelstein LM. Generationally based differences in the workplace: is there a there there? Ind Organ
Psychol. 2015;8(3):308-323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/iop
34. Cadiz DM, Truxillo DM, Fraccaroli F. What are the benefits
of focusing on generation-based differences and at what
cost? Ind Organ Psychol. 2015;8(3):356-362. http://dx.doi
35. Campbell WK, Campbell SM, Siedor LE, Twenge JM.
Generational differences are real and useful. Ind Organ
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36. Wang Y, Peng Y. An alternative approach to understanding
generational differences. Ind Organ Psychol. 2015;8(3):390395. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/iop.2015.56.
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38. Lyons S, Urick M, Kuron L, Schweitzer L. Generational differences in the workplace: there is complexity beyond the
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Directed Reading
Managing Multiple Generations in the Workplace
40. Zell E, Krizan Z, Teeter SR. Evaluating gender similarities and differences using metasynthesis. Am Psychol.
2015;70(1):10-20. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0038208.
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labeling legitimizes age discrimination. Ind Organ Psychol.
2015;8(3):372-376. http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/iop.2015.52.
42. Nelsey L, Brownie S. Effective leadership, teamwork and
mentoring–essential elements in promoting generational
cohesion in the nursing workforce and retaining nurses.
Collegian. 2012;19(4):197-202. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j
43. Moriarity AK, Brown ML, Schultz LR. We have much in
common: the similar inter-generational work preferences
and career satisfaction among practicing radiologists. J Am
Coll Radiol. 2014;11(4):362-368. http://dx.doi.org/10.10
44. Ahmad H, Ibrahim B. Leadership and the characteristic
of different generational cohort towards job satisfaction.
Procedia Soc Behav Sci. 2015;204:14-18. http://dx.doi.org/10
RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, March/April 2017, Volume 88, Number 4
Directed Reading Quiz
QUIZ ID: 17802-01
1.5 Category A credits
2.5 MDCB credits
Expires April 30, 2020*
Managing Multiple
Generations in the Workplace
To earn continuing education credit:
 Take this Directed Reading quiz online at asrt.org/drquiz.
 Or, transfer your responses to the answer sheet on Page 400 and mail to ASRT, PO Box 51870,
Albuquerque, NM 87181-1870.
* Your answer sheet for this Directed Reading must be received in the ASRT office on or before this date.
Read the preceding Directed Reading and choose the answer that is most correct based on the article.
1. Which of the following describes the environment
baby boomers grew up in?
1. steady state of free expression
2. economic prosperity
3. world wars
1 and 2
1 and 3
2 and 3
1, 2, and 3
2. Which generation dislikes direct supervision and
resists micromanaging bosses?
a. veterans
b. baby boomers
c. generation X
d. generation Y
3. Which generational cohort represents the largest
group of workers in the U.S. workforce today?
a. veterans
b. baby boomers
c. generation X
d. generation Y
4. In the study by Becton et al, which generational
cohort scored themselves the highest with respect
to attendance and dress code compliance?
a. veterans
b. baby boomers
c. generation X
d. generation Y
5. In the study by Mencl and Lester, which workplace
factor resulted in the most significant difference
among the generational cohorts?
a. career advancement opportunities
b. involvement in decision making
c. work-life balance
d. continuous learning
continued on next page
RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, March/April 2017, Volume 88, Number 4
Directed Reading Quiz
6. Which statement is true regarding the study by
Gursoy et al on perceptions of other generations?
a. Baby boomer managers believed younger
generation employees had a strong work ethic
and considered them to be hard workers.
b. Baby boomer employees did not have high
opinions of their generation X managers.
c. Generation X managers thought highly of
generation Y employees.
d. Generation X managers said baby boomer
employees were fast learners and good with
Proving a termination decision was based solely on
generational membership would be challenging.
a. true
b. false
8. Strategies to increase morale and productivity
among generation X employees include:
1. providing staff incentives.
2. being supportive, trustworthy,
professional, and dependable.
3. leading by example.
1 and 2
1 and 3
2 and 3
1, 2, and 3
10. Which generation of radiologists displayed greater
job satisfaction based on job security and good
a. veterans
b. baby boomers
c. generation X
d. generation Y
11. Which of the following are strategies for leading
veteran employees?
1. using electronic communications such as
2. providing training for new procedures
3. giving one-on-one support
1 and 2
1 and 3
2 and 3
1, 2, and 3
12. Which of the following describe generation Z?
1. beginning to enter the workforce
2. intelligent with high IQ scores
3. the most technologically savvy generation
1 and 2
1 and 3
2 and 3
1, 2, and 3
9. The American College of Radiology determined
which generation of radiologists considered work to
be a contract?
a. veterans
b. baby boomers
c. generation X
d. generation Y
RADIOLOGIC TECHNOLOGY, March/April 2017, Volume 88, Number 4
Copyright of Radiologic Technology is the property of American Society of Radiologic
Technologists and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a
listserv without the copyright holder’s express written permission. However, users may print,
download, or email articles for individual use.
Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 is a federal law prohibiting sex discrimination in
employment. In 1980, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) issued
regulations defining sexual harassment as a form of gender discrimination in 1980. The EEOC
policy states:
It is unlawful to harass a person (an applicant or employee) because of that person’s sex. Harassment can include
“sexual harassment” or unwelcome sexual advances, requests for sexual favors, and other verbal or physical
harassment of a sexual nature.
Harassment does not have to be of a sexual nature, however, and can include offensive remarks about a person’s
sex. For example, it is illegal to harass a woman by making offensive comments about women in general.
Both victim and the harasser can be either a woman or a man, and the victim and harasser can be the same sex.
Although the law doesn’t prohibit simple teasing, offhand comments, or isolated incidents that are not very
serious, harassment is illegal when it is so frequent or severe that it creates a hostile or offensive work
environment or when it results in an adverse employment decision (such as the victim being fired or demoted).
The harasser can be the victim’s supervisor, a supervisor in another area, a co-worker, or someone who is not an
employee of the employer, such as a client or customer.
Yet, allegations of sexual harassment are front and center in the news today, causing a sea change
in the way organizations think about gender and power.
For this reflection essay, you will complete the Society for Human Resource Management
(SHRM) quiz: Is This Sexual Harassment? and read the assigned Required Readings which
includes textbook chapters and these articles:
#MeToo brings new expectations: Rising awareness of sexual harassment has led to increased
focus on preventing malfeasance and investigating claims in a zero-tolerance environment,
Traditional workplace education doesn’t work. Other methods do.)
In your 4-6-page essay, discuss common themes across the readings and reflect on why sexual
harassment is still an issue in the workplace. The paper should be double-spaced, with 12-size
fonts. Please submit the assignment only as a Word (.doc, .docx) or Rich Text Format (.rtf)
attachment. Please include your name, title of this assignment, sub-titles to organize the paper,
in-text citations, and a reference/’works cited’ section.

Powell Chapter 6

Hays-Thomas Chapters 9 and 12
Proceedings of the Academy of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict
Volume 20, Number 1, 2015
Shirley Ann Suárez, Regent University
In today’s society it is difficult for employees to be themselves and reflect their
spirituality. This study begins the research on the effects spirituality has in the workplace and
with the employee and organization. This study poses the question whether spirituality can be
implemented in the workplace to improve harmony and unity amongst employees and leadership,
as well as develop positive employee morale. The literature review supports the hypotheses that
spirituality produces harmony and unity for the employee, as well as fulfillment with their
performance. The control variables of age, gender, culture and leadership could produce
different results, and thus more research is needed to frame the theory of spirituality as it relates
to the workplace.
Organizations are constantly wanting and demanding more and more of us all of the time. But they cannot
have it both ways. They can’t have more of us without getting and nourishing the whole person.
Organizations must give back and contribute as much to the whole person as they want in return (Mitroff
& Denton, 1999, p. 4).
A theory of spirituality and that of spiritual leaders has come to the forefront due to a
need for a more holistic organization, leaders, and employees (Fry, 2003). Human beings consist
of body, mind, heart and spirit (Mitroff & Denton, 1999; Fry, 2003), this then gives rise to the
notion that the human, spiritual, and natural sides of people cannot be separated and thus theories
are built and tested of spirituality in the workplace. This study proposes the theory of spirituality
and through a literature review shows the definition of spirituality, the effects on employee
enthusiasm, fulfillment and harmony, as well as the place of spiritual leadership. The purpose of
this study is to pose the question whether spirituality can be implemented in the workplace to
improve harmony and unity amongst employees and leadership, as well as develop positive
employee morale.
A theory of spirituality has only recently become part of the academic studies of theories
in management and leadership (Fry, 2003). Fry states how philosophy looks for wisdom and
truth through argument and disputation (p. 722). This has warranted more research and evidence
on the effects of spirituality in the workplace and of spiritual leadership. In order to more
effectively study and discuss spirituality in the workplace a thorough literature review provides
credence to any hypothesis developed around spirituality at work. Fry (2003) suggests that
workplace spirituality portrays how employees feel about themselves, their work, and their
Proceedings of the Academy of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict
Volume 20, Number 1, 2015
Mitroff & Denton (1999) posit that humans seek various instruments to foster their
spirituality, while Fry (2003) proposes that organizations who do not allow spirituality in the
workforce will not be successful. The phenomenon of spirituality in the workplace may be of
more concern in Western civilization than in other cultures where spirituality is a norm in all
parts of their lives (Rhodes, 2006). However, research into the concept of spirituality in the
workplace has continued over the past several decades and this review discusses the definition of
spirituality, how it affects employees in the workplace and the importance of spiritual leadership.
Definition of Spirituality
Workplace spirituality can be defined as “… the recognition that employees have an inner
life that nourishes and is nourished by meaningful work that takes place in the context of
community” (Ashmos & Duchon, 2000, p. 137). Any definition of workplace spirituality should
include the impact it has on operations, sustainability and effectiveness for leaders and the
organization (Sass, 2000). Spirituality is more than what is considered “organized religion” but
includes such things as prayer, yoga and meditations for the search for the meaning of life and
relationships with others (Zinnbauer, Pargament & Scott, 1999; Zellers & Perrewe, 2003).
Spirituality dynamically accentuates the development of an individual’s discovery of who they
are, their purpose and relationship with a higher being (Fry, 2003).
Spirituality Produces Energetic and Enthusiastic Employees
Additional research reveals how spirituality affects an employee’s energy and enthusiasm
at work (Mitroff & Denton, 1999; Anderson, 2000; Eisler & Montouori, 2003). Eisler &
Montourori’s research lends to support the theory of spirituality and that the employees are 1)
more courageous 2) stand behind their values and beliefs 3) have better perceptions about the
organization and 4) bring more of their energy and creativity to work (Mitroff & Denton, 1999,
p. xiv).
Mitroff & Denton (1999) state that not all organizations in America want spirituality in
the workplace but they want the energy and enthusiasm their worker’s spirituality brings to the
table. They conclude that “spirituality is its own fuel, it provides the abiding hope, boundless
energy, and enthusiasm needed to surmount all the obstacles that always lie in its path (p. 183).
Spirituality Provides Employee Fulfillment
When employees feel fulfilled they will produce more and be absent less. There is
evidence that spirituality allows a person to benefit from increased “joy, peace, serenity, job
satisfaction and commitment” (Giacalone & Jurkiewicz, 2003). Research in the social and
physical sciences has shown that employees have the drive and motivation to find meaning in
their work and wanting to be of value in social settings (Giacalone & Jurkiewicz, 2003).
Roberts (2011) shows how spirituality improves the rates of mental and physical health
and lowers the work stress (Roberts, 2011, p. 14). Russell (2007) discovered that when lay
people truly practiced their faith at work and not just at church that they became more fulfilled at
both (p. 75) but he also reported that “most lay people see little to no connection between their
faith and their place of employment” (p. 76
Proceedings of the Academy of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict
Volume 20, Number 1, 2015
Spirituality Brings Harmonious Unity
A person’s spirit provides the main life force and glue that holds a person together
(Anderson, 2000). It recognizes the inner character that makes up human values and morality
and combines humans together (Fairholm, 1997). Dent, Higgins, and Wharf’s (2005) research
shows that workplace spirituality associates with personal development and organizational
harmony. Fry (2003) proposes that this harmony comes from service to others, and that
“spiritual survival” consists of the need to humbly think more of others in order to see things as
they truly are, unifying the spirit (p. 708). Spirituality in the individual and in the organization
produces a concern for community and the organization as a whole (Gilbert et al, 2012, P. 37).
Duchon & Plowman (2005) recognize that employee’s spirituality or inner life grows
within harmonious relationship within community (p. 807). Spirituality connects people together
and provides for a betterment of society and for a better future, as can be seen in the new
leadership techniques in South Africa’s businesses using the concept of Ubuntu (Bekker, 2008).
Bekker points out that, “The spirituality of mutuality in Ubuntu, allows for the breaking down of
the superficial and artificial barriers between the individuals in the community and allows them
to see the other and discover their mutual humanity” (p. 19).
Spiritual Leadership
Mitroff & Denton (1999) posed the question as to how leaders integrate spirituality into
their organizations. Winston & Patterson (2006) give an integrative definition of leadership:
A leader is one or more people who selects, equips, trains, and influences one or more follower(s) who
have diverse gifts, abilities, and skills and focuses the follower(s) to the organization’s mission and
objectives causing the follower(s) to willingly and enthusiastically expend spiritual, emotional, and
physical energy in a concerted coordinated effort to achieve the organizational mission and objectives. (p.
Spiritual leaders recognize the common values and directions of their employees, as well
as their diversity (Winston & Patterson, 2006). Bekker (2010) uses Greenleaf’s work in servant
leadership and Kees Waaijman’s (2006) matrix for spirituality research to show the shift in
thinking from individualistic styles of leadership to those of spiritual and servant leadership.
Roberts (2013) produces the results of a servant leader workplace spiritual intelligence (SLWSI)
test where spiritual intelligence composes five main areas: 1) excellence, 2) meditative, 3)
everyday purity, 4) spiritually based decision making, and 5) ethical and virtuous behavior.
Leaders who scored high on the SLWSI reported lower job stress and higher workforce
engagement (p. 52).
The review of literature shows a positive relationship between spirituality and effects on
the employee. This helped to develop the hypotheses as to how spirituality affects the role of the
employee in the workplace. Does spirituality play a role in the unity of an organization and does
it assist in the morale of the employees? The two hypotheses on spirituality theory being
researched are:
Proceedings of the Academy of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict
Volume 20, Number 1, 2015
H1 – Spirituality produces unified harmony within the workplace.
H2 – Spirituality in the workplace brings fulfillment and value to employees.
The independent variable in both hypotheses is spirituality of the employee. The
dependent variables reveal what is produced as a result of their spirituality. The control variable
is the employee but consideration should be noticed as to their age, gender, or culture as these
could be factors that could result in changes to the results.
Hypothesis 1: Spirituality Produces Unified Harmony Within The Workplace.
Gibbons (2008) states that human beings’ spirits define who they are. People need
someone to believe in and foster their spirituality. Fry (2003) believes that leaders need to
understand the sense of spirituality in their employees. Leaders need to “put aside their personal
agendas to foster the kind of spirit at work that creates a genuine sense of community…and can
empower people to be what they feel called to be through the empowerment of membership in a
secure community” (Hartsfield, nd) . This hypothesis posits that employees’ spirituality produces
a unified harmony with the workplace. This takes work from the employee, as well as from
leadership. “Credible leaders bring people together and unite them around a common cause”
(Hartsfield, nd, p. 3).
Hypothesis 2: Spirituality In The Workplace Brings Fulfillment And Value To Employees.
By being allowed to express their spirituality, scholars are beginning to see the core
values that are reflected across cultural grounds through the fruit of the spirit found in the book
of Galatians (Gibbons, 2008). Gibbons shows that “people are searching for true meaning at
work that transcends their own humanity by acknowledging, feeding, and integrating their spirits
in their work” (p. 3). Motivation for employees has been increased by trust, spirituality, and
prayer (Adams, 2008). Since spirituality adds a vital dimension to life that is not supplied by any
other human agency or activity it allows the hope and optimism of employees to flow out in an
organization (Mitroff & Denton, 1999).
Although both hypothesis proposed in this study appear to be supported by the literature
review, other factors must be taken into consideration. The control variables of age, gender,
culture or leadership could change the results of the research and hypotheses (Cozy & Bates,
2012). These and other variables could be the contributing factor to employee’s energy,
fulfillment or harmony.
The hypotheses although supported by literature and scholars, need more detailed
research to reflect the theory of spirituality in the workplace. The framework of spirituality
needs to be formed, studied and implemented for organizations to know how to be more
productive and influential in the lives of their employees.
Adams, T. (2008). Impact of prayer on the relationship between supervisory support and employee’s perception of
workplace equity. Emerging Leadership Journeys, 1 (2), 3-13. Regent University.
Anderson, P. (2000). This place hurts my spirit! Journal for Quality and Participation, 16–17.
Proceedings of the Academy of Organizational Culture, Communications and Conflict
Volume 20, Number 1, 2015
Ashmos, D.P. and Duchon, D. (2000), “Spirituality at work: a conceptualization and measure”,Journal of
Management Inquiry, 9 (2), 134-45.Bekker,C. (2008). Finding the other in Southern African business
Bekker, C. (2010). Prophet and servant: Locating Robert K. Greenleaf’s counter-spirituality of servant leadership.
The Journal of Virtues & Leadership, 1 (1), 3-14. Regent University.
Dent, E., Higgins, M. & Wharf, D. (2005). Spirituality and leadership: An empirical review of definitions,
distinctions, and embedded assumptions. The Leadership Quarterly, 16 (5), 625-653.
Duchmon, D. & Plowman, D. A. (2005). Nurturing the spirit at work: Impact on work unit performance. The
Leadership Quarterly, 16, 807-833.
Eisler, R., & Montouori, A. (2003). The human side of spirituality. In R. A. Giacalone, & C. L. Jurkiewicz (Eds.).
Handbook of workplace spirituality and organizational performance., 46–56. New York: M. E. Sharp.
Fairholm,G. W. (1997). Capturing the heart of leadership. Westport, CT: Praeger.
Freeman, GT. (2011). Spirituality and servant leadership: A conceptual model and research proposal. Emerging
Leadership Journeys, 4 (2), 120-140. Regent University.
Fry, L. (2003). Toward a theory of spiritual leadership. The Leadership Quarterly, 14, 693-727.
Gibbons, S. (2008). Spiritual formation: The basis for all leading. Inner Resources for Leaders. Regent University.
Gilbert, J., Carr-Ruffino, N., Ivancevich, J., & Konopaske, R. (2012). Toxic versus cooperative behaviors at work:
The role of organizational culture and leadership in creating community-centered organizations.
International Journal of Leadership Studies, 7 (1), 29-47. Regent University.
Hartsfield, M. (nd). Leading with the power of community. Leadership Advance Online, 8. Regent University.
Middlebrooks, A., & Noghiu, A. (2007). Reconceptualizing spiritual capital: A meso-model for organizational
leadership. In S. Singh-Sengupta & D. Fields (Eds). Integrating Spirituality and Organizational
Leadership, 675-681. New Delhi: MacMillan.
Middlebrooks, A., & Noghiu, A. (2010). Leadership and spiritual capital: Exploring the link between individual
service disposition and organizational value. International Journal of Leadership Studies, 6 (1). Regent
Mitroff, I. & Denton, E. (1999). A spiritual audit of corporate America. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishing.
Nash, L. & McLennan, S. (2001). Church on Sunday, work on Monday: The challenge of fusing Christian values
with business life. New York: Jossey-Bass Pu…
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