I attached a summary of Chapter 3 STRUCTURE BELOWPlace a heading in the document at the top left. You should proofread and edit these assignments to ensure that you have written at an acceptable college level and have minimized errors. Familiarize yourself with the No Excuse List of Spelling and Grammar Errors and avoid those.Use your own words in answering these questions. They should be based on your reading and understanding of the course readings, but not just copied from them. Again, use your own words, minimize quotes, and do the work by yourself. .Do NOT use outside sources such as Wikipedia. Doing so will lead to failure. If you have encountered some of this material in other courses or readings, tell me about it and I’ll let you know what you can use.An adequate answer will run to about 200-300 words.So if you have three questions, your answers would come out to 600-900 wordReadings listed below:Chapter 3: The Development Project: International Framework (McMichael, Philip. 2017. Development and Social Change: A Global Perspective. 6
Edition. Los Angeles: Sage.) Be sure to get the 6
th edition of the book. Millstone, Erik and Tim Lang. 2008. The Atlas of Food: Who Eats What, Where, and Why.
nd Edition. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press.  11 Animal Feed (38-9) 12 Animal Diseases (40-1) 13 Agricultural R & D ((42-3) 24 Trade Flows (66-7) 26 Subsidized Trade (70-1) 27 Trade Disputes (72-3) 31 Changing Diets (82-3)Questions:What are some of the questions being raised about ‘development’ today? Why?How can we compare the value of fast food with that of the rain forest? Base this on the readings.What is the double movement and how is it expressed in the transitions between the development, globalization, and sustainability projects?What were some social and cultural impacts of colonialism, and how may they have informed the struggle for national independence in the colonial world?Choose one of the topics for Week 3, 4, or 5 in Millstone and Lang and explain what you see as the most important information conveyed in it.Chapter 3: The Development Project: International Framework Chapter Summary: The
development project was multilayered with national economic growth strategies and bilateral and
multilateral international aid. This chapter examines the construction of the Bretton Woods
system and how its multilateral arrangements shaped national development strategies. It
introduces the World Bank and International Monetary Fund, examines their First World
imprints, and outlines their influences on development practices.
The espoused universalism of the development project was undermined by the difference
in national application of development practices based on the legacy of colonial relations and on
U.S. Cold War containment policies. During the Cold War, foreign aid was used to stabilize
strategic states and undercut socialist experiments, revealing contradictions in the espoused
universalism of the development project. The chapter outlines the emergence of “Third World”
groupings that challenged U.S. and Soviet development models, including the Non-Aligned
Movement, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD), and the Group
of 77. These in turn pressured the World Bank to consider Third World perspectives and
incorporate “poverty alleviation” efforts in their projects.
The development project proposed national strategies but also remade the international
division of labor. By 1980, Third World exports included more manufactured goods than raw
materials and the First World exported 36% more primary commodities than the Third World.
The success of six Newly Industrializing Countries (NICs), countries with growth rates
higher than the Third World average, have been used to legitimate the development project, but
also show that development benefits were not equal among countries and that growth did not
lead to democracy.
The Food Aid system protected U.S. farms, subsidized Third World wages, and
stimulated Third World urban industrial sectors, but exported unsustainable agribusiness model
of “petrofarming,” making Third World nation’s food dependent, undermining peasant
agriculture and causing massive rural migration. The Global Livestock Complex reveals the
international linkages among diets, food policies and social structures. As cheap grain began to
be used for animal feed, more affluent Third World people also began to eat more animal
proteins; cheap hamburgers in the U.S. provoked deforestation for pasture in Latin America.
This chapter explores an example of how technology transfers shape the rise of new
social structures. As First World agriculture expanded, new industrial classes emerged in the
Third World. Green revolution technologies stimulated social differentiation, urban migration
and relocation of industrial jobs to the Third World. With the completion of the development
project, the international division of labor was reshaped.
Chapter Outline:
The Development Project as a simultaneous national and international strategy
a. The colonial division of labor’s legacy of “resource bondage” embedded in Third
World social structures and favored by local elites and First World
b. Newly independent states purchased First World technology with loans or foreign
exchange earned from primary exports
c. Nation-states integrated into universal political-economic relations within the
international financial, normative and legal framework of United Nations and Bretton Woods
d. Ingredients of the Development Project (an internationally organized strategy for
stimulating nationally managed economic growth)
i. Universal claims (e.g., development as rising living standards, rationality, and scientific
ii. National economic growth iii. International military and economic aid binding
developing world to developed world and securing access to natural and human resources iv. A
growth strategy favoring industrialization
v. An agrarian reform strategy encouraging agro-industrialization
vi. Political alliances for supporting industrial growth
vii. New inequalities, embedded in states and markets along regional, class, gender,
racial, and ethnic lines spread through markets
The International Framework
e. National economic growth depended on international relations, both material and
political-legal relations, based in colonial relationships, complemented by the Bretton Woods
institutions and the United States’ containment of the Soviet empire
f. U.S. Bilateralism: The Marshall Plan (Reconstructing the First World)
i. Cold War Context: After World War II, the United States focused on European
reconstruction as key to stabilizing the Western world and securing capitalism
ii. The U.S. hoped to use bilateral financial aid to stabilize discontented
populations, rekindle economic growth and production, restored trade and price stability, and
contain communism (U.S. bilateral aid sometimes complemented and contradicted United
Nations multilateral relief)
iii. The U.S. transferred of billions of dollars to Europe and Japan to facilitate
international trade and encourage U.S. direct investment. This served their geopolitical goals in
the Cold War and solidified political loyalty to the Western “free world.”
1. Dollar credits allowed purchase of U.S. goods
2. Massive rearmament effort
g. Multilateralism: The Bretton Woods System i. At July 1944 conference of 44 financial
ministers at Bretton Woods, NH, U.S. Treasury pushed to create an international banking system
(World Bank and International Monetary Fund) to restore trade by disbursing credit to
devastated regions
ii. The World Bank 1. Borrowed money in international capital markets to raise
money for development
2. Mandated to loan funds to states for national infrastructure projects
(dams, highways, power plants)
3. Also invested in cash crop agriculture, deepening legacy of colonial
division of labor
iii. IMF disbursed credit to stabilize national currency exchanges and revitalize
international trade iv. Results of Bretton Woods institutions:
1. “Lubricated” the world economy by expanding trade and stimulating
2. Encouraged Third World states to adopt capital-intensive technologies
3. Displaced substantial populations from customary habitats
v. First World Imprint
1. Control of the World Bank dominated by five biggest shareholders.
Such asymmetry, including overwhelming male representation, still exists
2. President of World Bank selected by U.S. administration; managing
director of IMF appointed by largest European nations
3. World Bank finances foreign exchange costs of projects, encouraging
import dependence (in capital-intensive technologies)
4. IMF adopted “conditionality” requiring applicants to adopt certain
economic policies, which other lenders adopted as their loan criterion too.
5. World Bank lending reflected First World priorities, investing in energy
and export agriculture, large-scale capital-intensive projects; sponsored Western technology
transfer and established institutional presence in Third World countries.
vi. Multilateralism, World Bank style, set the parameters for development 1.
World Bank had parastatal influence, framed priorities via onsite project agencies
2. The Bank stimulated fossil-fuel dependent industrialization, largescale
power generation, transport projects, and intensive agriculture
Politics of the Postwar World Order
h. Foreign Aid
i. Western aid concentrated on stabilizing strategic states and undercutting rival
(socialist) ideologies, which contradicted the espoused universalism of the development project
ii. Soviet Union expanded economic and political relations with Third World,
creating aid for strategic states, favoring those who pursued policies of central planning and
public ownership
iii. For United States and allies, aid was granted strategically to underdeveloped
areas at risk of joining the Communist bloc (Iran, Turkey, Israel, India, Pakistan, South Vietnam,
Taiwan, South Korea, Philippines, Thailand, Laos)
i. The Non-Aligned Movement (NAM): An emerging Third World perspective
i. Growing weight of Third World in international politics produced the 1955
meeting of “nonaligned” Asian and African states at Bandung, Indonesia.
ii. Key players: Indonesia (Sukharno), India (Nehru), Ghana (Nkrumah), Vietnam
(Ho Chi Minh), Egypt (Nasser), and China (Zhou Enlai)
iii. Articulated philosophy of noninterference in international relations; economic
self-reliance (President Nyerere, Tanzania)
iv. Questioned legitimacy of development model and demanded more loans and
concessions for Third World
v. First World response was to establish a new subsidiary of the World Bank, the
International Development Association (IDA), and regional banks (InterAmerican Development
Bank in 1959, the African Development Bank (AfDB) in 1964, and the Asian Development
Bank (ADB) in 1966. Made loans at discounted rates (“soft loans”)
j. The Group of 77
i. 1947 General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) enabled states to
negotiate reciprocal trade concessions, but without adjusting for the uneven effects of
colonialism in Third World countries.
1. During the 1950s, the Third World’s share of world trade fell from onethird to almost one-fifth, with declining rates of export growth associated with declining terms of
ii. Third World pressure founded the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development (UNCTAD) in 1964, in which Third World countries, caucusing as the Group of
77 (G-77), collectively demanded worldeconomic reforms
1. Stabilizing and improving primary commodity prices
2. Opening First World markets to Third World manufactures 3.
Expanding financial flows from the First World
iii. Impact of UNCTAD was to spread a “Third Worldist” perspective
1. World Bank president Robert McNamara (1968-81) refocused
development (for a time) on quality of life issues rather than simply income measures: “growth
with equity.”
Remaking the International Division of Labor
k. By 1980, exports from Third World included more manufactured goods than raw
materials and First World exported 36 percent more primary commodities than the Third World
l. The Newly Industrializing Countries (NICs)
i. In 1960s, there were six Third World countries with average growth rates of 710% (above Third World average of 4.6%): Hong Kong, Singapore, Taiwan, South Korea,
Brazil, Mexico
ii. Legitimized the development project with rising living standards and upward
iii. Demonstrated selectivity of the development project
1. Cornered bulk of private foreign investment, and considerable (Cold
War driven) military aid sustaining authoritarian regimes
2. Concentrated on developing export production facilities in textiles and
electronics and industrial growth
3. Between 1966 and 1975, 50% of increased value in Third World
manufacturing occurred in 4 countries; 2/3 of increase in 8 countries
4. The idea of a universal blueprint was clearly fading
m. Commercial agriculture concentrated in the First World; manufacturing in the Third
i. ISI protected Third World “infant” industries 1. Between 1961 and 1975 Third
World agricultural self-sufficiency declined everywhere except in centrally planned Asian
ii. Farm subsidies protected First World agriculture under the terms of the GATT
iii. Policies complemented one another via American food surplus aid
mechanisms, substantially reshaping the international division of labor.
n. Case Study: South Korea, the most successful middle-income NIC
i. Pursued ISI and shifted from agricultural production to manufacturing, heavy,
and chemical industries from 1950s to 1980s 1. complemented with export-oriented
ii. Development state with repressive military ruler, no industrial labor rights,
Confucianism to promote consensus, and the authority of education and the bureaucracy
iii. “Miracle” took place with cheap U.S. food imports and access to U.S. markets
for exports
iv. Was its development a domestic or international process?
The Food-Aid Regime
o. Definition: U.S. agro-industrial model used public-supported technological support,
specialized in one or two commodities, protected them with tariffs and subsidies, set prices for
farm goods above world market prices, and over-produced. Surpluses were sent to Third World
as food aid. These subsidized Third World wages with cheap food, stimulating Third World
urban industrial sectors.
p. The Public Law 480 Program (PL-480) – established 1954 to dispose of farm surpluses
i. Three components: 1. Title I – Commercial sales at discounted prices in local
currencies 2. Title II – Famine relief 3. Title III – Food bartered for strategic raw materials
ii. Goal: “to increase the consumption of U.S. agricultural commodities in foreign
countries, to improve the foreign relations of the U.S. and for other purposes”
iii. 1954-1977: Title I sales accounted for 70% of food aid
iv. By mid-1960s, food aid accounted for 25% of world wheat exports,
determined prices for traded foods
v. Food aid stabilized American agricultural economy and Third World industry,
two mutually conditioning parts of the development project
q. Food Dependency
i. Food distribution programs in Third World rewarded “development alliances”
(of manufacturers, labor unions, urban professionals, and middle classes), supported consumer
purchasing power, subsidized labor, stabilized urban politics, improved climate for industrial
ii. Impacts of food aid varied depending on the resources of particular countries
and their development policies
1. South Korea: success due to government centralized management of its
rice culture and the supply of labor to the industrial centers
2. Columbia: agricultural collapse as government did not protect farmers
from price competition from imports of discounted wheat. Depeasantization led to urban
underemployment and low-wage economy
iii. It was cheaper for governments to import wheat as food for their growing
urban populations than to fund production, transport and distribution of local food, but it built
“food dependency.”
1. Payments for food in “counterpart funds” could be spent only by U.S.
agencies in recipient country, on a range of activities such as infrastructural projects, supplies for
military bases, loans to U.S. companies (especially local agribusiness operations), locally
produced goods and services, and trade fairs
2. Governments promoted new diets
iv. Rising consumption of imported wheat across the Third World
1. By 1978, the Third World was receiving more than three-quarters of
American wheat exports.
2. Per capita consumption of wheat rose by nearly 2/3 and all cereals
(except wheat) by 20 percent
3. Per capita consumption of traditional root crops declined by more than
20 percent.
a. Traditional “peasant foods” replaced by new “wage foods”
(grains and processed foods) consumed by urban workers
v. Rising consumption of imported wheat in Third World countries was linked to
two far-reaching changes:
1. Erosion of peasant agriculture
2. Industrial labor force expanded as small producers moved to cities for
low-wage jobs
vi. In the conventional development model, these social trends occur within a
national framework. In reality, via the development project, they occurred within an international
political-economic framework
Remaking Third World Agricultures
r. PL-480 intended to create future markets for sale of U.S. grains but also exported the
highly unsustainable agribusiness model of “petro-farming”
i. Petroleum fuels industrial agriculture via mechanization, inorganic fertilizers,
pesticides, herbicides and seed varnishes, abandoning agriculture’s natural biological base
s. The Global Livestock Complex
i. “Dietary modernization” was a result of food-aid policy as much as of rising
1. During the food-aid regime surplus grain was cheap enough to feed
livestock so more affluent Third World consumers shifted from eating grain to animal protein
ii. Hamburger commodity chain contributes to deforestation and global warming
(via carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide and methane)
1. 1960-1990: 25% of Central American rainforest converted to pasture
for cattle for an expanding U.S. fast food industry
2. U.S. cattle production shifted from open-range to grain feeding
3. Factory farms in U.S. annually produce over 1 billion tons of manure,
laden with chemicals, antibiotics and hormones, which leach into rivers and water tables
iii. Exports of feed grains were promoted through counterpart funds and loans for
firms to establish local livestock and poultry industries in Third World,
1. Increased animal protein consumption among middle classes t. Case
Study: Egypt, food, and class relations
i. Growing feed grains trade changes social diets as societies transform
ii. Middle-class Third Worlders embraced First World diets (more animal
iii. Rather than reflecting individual choice, dietary differentiation reflects who
controls production of certain foods, and how consumption patterns distribute among social
1. Example: Rising incomes, complemented by U.S. and Egyptian
government subsidies, fostered a switch from legumes and maize to wheat and meat products.
2. Wealthy consumers dine “up” on animal protein, while the working
poor dine either on food aid grains or the low end of the food chain: low-protein starchy diets, or
little at all.
iv. Global livestock complex formed , with livestock production expanding across
the Third World, and specialized feed grain supply zones concentrating in the First World and in
“middle-income” countries
The Green Revolution
u. A “package” of plant-breeding agricultural technologies that increased production of
corn, wheat and beans by 300% from 1943 to 1963
v. Developed by the Rockefeller Foundation in Mexico, with the Ford Foundation in the
Philippines, and in Nigeria and Colombia
i. Promoted heavily by U.S. land grant university system and large, capitalized
w. Principal medium through which U.S. chemical agriculture model was introduced to
Third World
x. Specter of population growth led to technological solution of focusing on national
y. Conversion of wartime nitrogen production and nerve gases to inorganic fertilizer and
insecticides caused political pressure to extend chemical agriculture
z. High-yielding varieties (HYVs) of hybrid seeds were heavily dependent on diseaseand
pest-resisting chemical protections in the form of fungicides and pesticides
aa. Intensive irrigation and fertilization were necessary to optimize macro-nutrient yields
bb. Consequences:
i. Reduce employment opportunities for poor or landless peasants
ii. Industrial farming displaced “peasant foods” produced with methods of croprotation, compromised soil fertility, ruptured natural regeneration and renewal
iii. Increased rural income (and gender) inequalities among, and within, farming
iv. 1993 – 2003: 100,000 farmer suicides in India
Anti-rural Biases of the Development Project:
cc. Third World governments’ development policies systematically privileged urban
interests and expressed the modernist belief in peasant redundancy
dd. Growing rural poverty, marginalization and activism led to land reform movement
i. U.S. Alliance for Progress (1961): Program coordinated nationally-planned
agrarian reform across Latin America
1. to undercut insurgencies
2. to stabilize rural populations via a U.S.-inspired family farming model
ii. Land reforms exempted commercialized farmland and redistributed on what
was left: frontier lands, leading to considerable “re-peasantization”
iii. Resettlement schemes on frontiers privileged males, excluded women,
relocated rural poverty through industrial farming for export, and destroyed tropical forests
ee. 1960s: World Bank devised a new poverty alleviation program of credit for
smallholding peasants to stabilize rural populations, with mixed success
ff. Long-term assault on peasant agriculture has continued through colonialism, food
dumping and institutional support of commercial and export agriculture
gg. Result: “Planet of slums” – migration of displaced peasants to overcrowded urban
centers in Latin America, Asia, Africa
hh. Lesson: Neither resettlement of peasants nor their integration into monetary relations
is a sustainable substitute for supporting agro-ecological methods
ii. Development project was multilayered: national economic growth strategies dovetailed
with bilateral and multilateral international aid
jj. The Third World was incorporated into a singular project, despite variations
kk. Third World countries were integrated into Western influence through military and
economic aid, technological transfer, and food subsidies
ll. Industrialization required national and international transfer of rural resources
mm. Development set a global dynamic in motion among national economies, but Third
World countries also localized the process of global development
nn. This chapter explored an example of how technology transfers shape the rise of new
social structures
i. As First World agriculture expanded, new industrial classes emerged in the Third
ii. Green revolution technologies stimulated social differentiation, urban migration and
relocation of industrial jobs to the Third World
iii. The international division of labor was reshaped

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