PLEASE I NEED THIS ASSIGNMENT CONVERTED INTO PDF FORMAT AND ALSO THE ARTICLE THAT IS USED SHOULD BE IN PDF FORMAT AND ANY PART OF THE ARTICLE USED TO DO THE ASSIGNMENT SHOULD BE HIGHLIGHTED. TO MAKE THE ASSIGNEMENT EASIER I WILL BE ATTACHING THE TEMPLATE TO FOLLOW,  THE ARTRICLE TO USE FOR THE ASSIGNMENT, AN EXAMPLE OF A FINISHED CHART AND AN EXAMPLE OF A FINISHED HIGHLIGHTED ARTICLE IN PDF FORMARTJournal Article Assignment (60 points)Due: Nov. 23, 2021 before 4:30pm.PDF version of article and chart submitted through BrightspaceCourse Objectives (#’s 1, 2, 3, 5, 7)Please consult the “Article parts” document for a more specific overview of each article section.  Video demonstrations are provided on page 3 of this document.Document Sections:·       The Task·       Accessing Articles·       Getting to the Databases·       Article Types and Selection·       Article Parts·       Creating a Chart Structure·       The Grading Rubric·       Standard Deductions·       Submitting Your Work Through the Drop Box·       A Few Other NotesThe Task:Students are to obtain a whole journal article (instead of just the abstract) from a psychology journal (i.e., not a magazine or newspaper!) to use for chart content creation. ·       You may select an article with any Psychology topic, as long as you choose an article in which researchers actually conducted a study, and not simply a review (called a “literary” article: example) of other research, a “case study” (research with very few subjects), or an article written by a third party summarizing the research (such as a newspaper or magazine article). Therefore, you should see headings (such as Participants, Measures, Results, and Discussion) in your article, or do not use that article! See the “Choosing Articles” link below to see examples.·       After you obtain an article in which the researchers conducted an experiment, you are going to highlight sections of the article (you can do this task with the PDF version of the article and highlight/right-click).  Then, you will use your highlighted content to help you identify information that you will use to populate the columns in the chart.  Make sure to frame your writing so that your classmates may understand it (like the explanation/translation you have completed in prior stages).·       After completing the chart sections, you will upload your chart and the article that you used (each in PDF format).  Further directions are provided below.o   For Mac and Google Chrome users, make sure that you understand how to create and send PDF’s with your devices.Getting started with your research assignment: Getting StartedAccessing Articles:You have access to thousands of articles through the CCBC Databases (and you paid for this access already with your Technology fee). 1.     I will ask you to restrict your searching to CCBC Databases.  Make certain that you are extra careful to acquire the PDF version of the article.2.     You will need access to the whole article (not just the abstract).3.     There is not an article length requirement, but you cannot use articles called “brief reports”. Getting to the Databases:·       Go to the CCBC web page.o   Click on “Library” at the top of the page.§  Select “Article & Research Databases”. (By the way, the ‘Citing Sources” link will take you to a page where you can see APA 7 formatting documents.)·       On the left side of the page, under “Databases by Subject, select “Psychology & Social Science”.o   You will see a shaded block with the words “Best Bets!”.  The PsychArticles link will take you to EBSCOhost, and the Psychology Journals link will take you to ProQuest.  The third link (Social Science Database) takes the user to articles including other social sciences (instead of psychology only), and I would not recommend it because it broadens your search instead of narrows.Article Types & Selection: There are, basically, three categories of articles: Experiment-based (use this type), Literary (do not use), and Case Study (do not use) articles.Selecting research articles: Choosing ArticlesThere are even a few different types of experimental/research articles. ·       A “basic” (my own word) article is pretty straightforward and uses people as subjects and tests are given. (Imagine that you did an experiment with your classmates as participants.  You gave them a test(s) and then wrote up results in an article.)·       A “meta-analysis” article takes earlier articles and combines all the content into one giant study.  The findings are powerful, but the articles can be very difficult. (Imagine that your classmates did their own individual study, and then you took all of their work and tried to combine it into one huge study.)·       A “secondary data analysis” article includes data gathered by someone other than the author.  There might be notations directing you back to the original research to learn about the methods or results. (Imagine that you were going to examine research that was conducted by one of your classmates.  You didn’t collect data, but you did use it.)·       An “article study” occurs when an author studies experimental articles instead of people.  (Imagine that you are going to evaluate studies that have been conducted for something like gender-neutral language.  Each study would be a “participant”.) I don’t recommend using article studies but I won’t prohibit you from trying.·       Literary articles are more like a written paper only.  The authors read other studies and may contribute their own ideas, but there is not an actual study occurring as described in the article.  DO NOT USE THIS TYPE.·       Case studies are types of research where a really small group of people are used.  A definite “tip” is when the subjects are referred to by name.  DO NOT USE THIS TYPE primarily because single-subject or small-group studies do not always fit well into the chart.Article Parts (see the document by that title in the assignment link):Video Demonstration: Highlighting Each Section (Using the Bohnert, Crnic and Lim article) – Article PreviewReference- Article ReferenceRationale- Rationale SectionSubjects/Participants- Subjects/ParticipantsTests/Measures- Tests/MeasuresResults- Results SectionDiscussion- Discussion SectionCreating a Chart Structure:·       I have found that the simplest way to create a chart is to insert a table into a document. ·       How to create a table for the journal chart: Creating a Chart Table·       In short, you should create columns for Reference, Rationale/Prior Research, Participants, Tests/Measures, Results, and Discussion/Conclusions.·       There is a blank chart template next to the directions for your convenience.·       You can modify the chart to your needs.  One simple way to do this is to take the cursor over the line separating two columns.  You can drag for column width.The Grading Rubric: If you want to understand how I will evaluate your work, view the rubric.  Use the rubric as a self-evaluation guide.Deductions:·       If your topic is not relevant to psychology, then you will not receive any credit!·       Do not use “literary” articles or case studies (see descriptions) for this assignment.  If you do, then your work will not be worth more than 15 points total.  ·       Charts received without the PDF version of the article used will receive an 18-point deduction.  If you don’t include an article, and I am not able to find it after searching CCBC databases (ProQuest and EbscoHost), then you will receive a 36-point deduction. (Links are not sufficient replacements for a copy of the article)·       If your selected article is not highlighted sufficiently, then you will receive a 6-point deduction.  “Sufficiently” means that the highlighted content connects reasonably to the charted content. This deduction only applies to those people who attached the article.·       You should send both documents in the single attempt.  If not, then your work will receive a 6-point deduction.·       If you combine the chart and article into one document, then your work will receive a 5-point deduction.·       If the documents are not sent in PDF format, then a three-point deduction will occur per document.·       Your CCBC ID# should be part of the title for your chart.  For example, the title should be phrased something like ID123456789_StageIVchart.pdf.  If not, then it’s a 5-point deduction.·       If more than 30% of your written work (not including the reference) is quoted, then points will be deducted from your total.  A specific number will be determined based on percentage excess, but the minimum number will be 18 points.·       Failure to quote properly will likely result in a grade of “0” on the paper.  Egregious plagiarism will result in an academic accusation of plagiarism, Office of Judicial Affairs.Submitting your work through the Assignment Link:When it comes time to submit your work, you will need to go to the Article Stage link (in the left menu). ·       Select Article Assignment·       Click on the wording of the assignment (which is a link), and you will see details (date due, point value, etc.) of the assignment.  The rubric link is located on this page.·       Look for the link to “Browse My Computer” button and click on it to find your paper. ·       When you “open” the document, you will see that it is listed as an attachment. ·       Go back to “Browse” again, and then find the copy of the article that you saved to your device. ·       Before you click on the “Submit” button, make sure that you see the two items (chart and article) listed.·       After submitting your work, make certain that you can see both documents by going through the submission process again.  You should see something like “Attempt 1” and then see what you sent. There are several file formats that cannot be seen, so be sure to use PDF!  (For you Mac and Chromebook users, be extra careful.)A few other notes:·       There are no re-do’s of this assignment after the due date.  If you get a poor score, then you are stuck with that score.·       You can, however, submit rough drafts before the due date and then use that information to create a better version of your work before the deadline.·       If you need help finding articles, I’ll be glad to help or you can go to the CCBC Library and get help from a Librarian (they are experts at finding information).  Make sure to take a copy of these directions with you.·       Make sure to view your submission to evaluate if your documents were visible.·       Some students believe that their chart can only occupy one page.  That is not accurate.  Use as much space as necessary to do a complete job.·       The #1 reason why students struggle with this assignment is a failure to read/follow the directions.ReferencesGrimes, J. W. (date). Getting started with your research assignment. YouTube. Retrieved fromGrimes, J. W. (date). How to create a table for your journal chart. YouTube. Retrieved fromGrimes, J. W. (Date). Selecting research articles. YouTube. Retrieved fromGrimes, J. W. (date). Using the CCBC database to search for articles. YouTube. Retrieved fromMaylish, D., & Taylor, P. (date). The problems and pitfalls of plagiarism. YouTube. Retrieved from
When you type within this chart, the lines will word-wrap and the column will extend. Using bullet points is an effective way to create logical separation. Make sure to align them to the left margin. Make sure that your final version is saved in PDF format with your CCBC ID as part of the file name (but not your name). Erase these directions when finished with your work. Reference Rationale/Prior Research Subjects/ Participants Tests/Measures Results Discussion/ Conclusions
Article parts Parts of an Article (items in blue text are video hyperlinks): Article Reference: At the beginning of the article, you will see a lot of information that helps you know about the article, such as the title, authors, journal name, volume, pages, etc. When you create your article reference, this is an easy place to go to get that information. An abstract: In the beginning of most research articles, you will see a brief paragraph providing an overview of the whole article. It can be helpful to read. Think of it like a movie preview to the movie, itself. The content would not be sufficient to create a chart because much more detail is provided within the article. Rationale Section: More people struggle with this section than any other, so I’ll try to make this extra clear. This content is usually in the beginning of the article, but it is not identified in the same way that other article sections are identified. Consider this parallel; If you were to drive across the country and plot your course, you would typically do this from point to point (maybe by rest stop or even by state line). As an analogy, consider the trip as broken into one huge process of “connect the dots”. By the time you get to your destination, you understand that the trip did not consist of only the last two dots, but all of the dots earlier in the process. In a sense, a research article contains the same “dots”. When researchers ask an experimental question, they might only look to take on the next “dot” of the trip, but there were a lot of earlier “dots” that were visited. These individual “dots” are described at the beginning of the article. You will read about the findings of other researchers, and these findings are the earlier pieces, or “dots”, in the genesis of the research. For example, let’s say that you were reading an article about a new therapy treatment for anxiety. The authors would probably describe some of the other findings regarding treatments for anxiety discovered by other researchers. In addition, you may also read about what the other treatments failed to provide. As you think logically, the “dots” provided an order that led the researchers to the current research. Look at the citations in this section to help you pick out findings from prior research. Do not confuse rationale with purpose (how the research was conducted) or hypotheses (which are predictions about the findings). I’m interested only in prior research findings. Methods: In the best methods section, the ultimate goal is to provide the reader with enough information that it would allow someone to replicate (or re-do) the research in the exact way that the article researcher conducted the research. Consider this task for a moment. If you were told that subjects received “medicine”, then you don’t know very much detail, but if you read that the subjects received a specifically named medicine, in a specific amount, a specific number of times per day, for a particular duration of days or weeks, and in a particular dosage, then you could repeat the process in the exact same way as the researchers. It is similar for specific tests or measurements. If you read that someone took a test for depression, then that’s pretty vague. If you read that someone took the Beck Depression Inventory, then you would be able to repeat the work in a similar way. Subjects/Participants: These are the “who” of the study. Think about what you would want to know about the people used in the study. From where were they recruited? How many people were used? How old were they (on average)? Was anything mentioned about grade level? Did anything allow them or prevent them from being in the study (such as a pre-existing condition)? This information may reside in a named section, and you may also read about the subjects and their characteristics in the Results section (usually in Table 1). Tests/Measures: In this section, be as specific as possible about what tests/measures were used to gather information from the subjects. For example, was a test used? If so, what was the name of the test? Were questionnaires used? If so, which questionnaires were used? Again, you are trying to be specific, but it is not necessary to re-write the section. Look for phrases such as “was measured” or “was assessed” to help you focus in on what was measured. Be careful not to confuse Procedures (how the research was conducted) with Tests and Measures. Results Section: This is the section that is probably the hardest for people to understand, because most people don’t have a background in statistics to help them. However, there is hope. Most of the numerical “stuff” usually has some explanation in the text around it. In addition, think back to the tests that were conducted. If IQ tests were given, then you should see results regarding those tests. For example, were there differences found between groups? Did one medication seem more effective than another? As a technique, print out a copy of the results and take a marker and draw lines through all of the numbers in the text. You should be left with “the language”, and you might find that more helpful. Take comfort; I do not expect you to be statistical experts. Discussion Section: This section of the article summarizes the findings and puts those findings into context. For example, maybe the authors think that there was a particular reason why one group performed differently than another. How did the authors compare their findings with earlier findings? The authors may also describe some of the limitations/difficulties in their research, or suggestions for future research. This section is meant to try to help the reader understand the “big picture” of the research. References: An author is expected to identify all of the sources used in the creation of their written paper. The citations that were in the body of the document are listed completely (and identified correctly as a “reference”) in the case that anyone wanted to find that exact source. In your chart, you only need to include the reference of the article that you read. Grimes, J.
1 Reference Rationale/Prior Research Subjects/ Participants Tests/Measures Results Discussion/ Conclusions Pehlivanidis, A., Papanikolaou, K., Mantas, V., Kalantzi, E., Korobili, K., Xenaki, L. -A., Vassiliou, G., & Papageorgiou, C. (2020). Lifetime co – occurring psychiatric disorders in newly diagnosed adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or/and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). BMC Psychiatry , 20 (1) , 1 – 12 . 86/s12888 -020 – 02828 -1Â • Need has increased for accurate assessments for adults seeking an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) or Attention deficit hyperactivity (ADHD) disorder due to increased awareness, interest in seeking a diagnosis, and a change in criteria in the DSM -5 • Psychiatric disorders often “overshadow” a diagnosis of ADHD or ASD • Psychiatric disorders co – ocurring with ASD and ADHD contributes to burden on available healthcare services • The rate of ADHD in adults is between 2 and 5% • ADHD is frequently associated with • 326 patients met the criteria (excluded patients with urgent psychiatric issues and active substance use disorders) • Demographic and diagnostic breakdown of participants: • 217 men • 109 women • average age: 31.7 years • ADHD: 151 participants • ASD: 58 participants • Dual ASD+ADHD: 29 participants • No neurodevelopment (NN) disorder: 88 participants • Questionnaire is used to gather demographic, educational, occupational, and clinical data from patients and their relatives • Autis m Quotient: subjective self – assessment questionnaire measuring expression of autistic traits • Empathy Quotient: subjective self – assessment questionnaire to measure empathy • Barkley Adult ADHD Rating Scale -IV: questionnaire to measure current ADHD traits and the impairments caused, as well as childhood symptoms • Two hour interview using MINI: questionnaire developed by psychiatrists to • ~73% of subjects with ADHD, 50% of subjects with ASD, ~73% of subjects with ADHD+ASD, and ~76% of the subjects with no neurodevelopmen t disorder reported lifetime occurrence of psychiatric diagnoses • The NN group had a significantly higher rate of bipolar disorder than the ASD only group • The ADHD groups had a significantly higher rate of substance use disorder than non – ADHD groups (NN & ASD) • ~37% of all ADHD subjects had three or more co – occuring disorders • Depression was the most common disorder reported: 37.3% of ADHD, 29.3% of ASD, 24.1% in • The high rate of psychiatric disorders found in the ADHD groups is consistent with prior research • The ASD only group showed a lower rate of psychiatric disorders when compared with prior research, possibly explained by prior research including both ADHD+ASD subjects and ASD only subjects, whereas this study separated these groups • The group of subjects who did not receive a neurodevelopment al disorder diagnosis also showed a high rate of psychiatric disorders and researchers believe this group of patients may seek a neurodevelopment al explanation 2 co -existing psychiatric disorders • In a study including 20 countries, 23% of ADHD cases are comorbid with one psychiatric disorder, 14% of cases with two disorders, and 14% with three disorders • Most common psychiatric disorders associated with ADHD are mood disorders, anxiety disorder, substance use disorder, and behavioral disorders (22%,34%,11%,1 5%, respectively) • A population study of 40k adults showed ADHD patients have anxiety, depression, substance use disorder, and other disorders 4x to 9x more often than non -ADHD adults • Co -occuring depression in ADHD leads to assess for psychiatric disorders (including depression, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, social phobia, pbsessive compulsive disorder, anxiety disorder, psychotic disorder, alcohol dependence, substance use disorder, and antisocial personality disorder • Psychiatrist assessment of subject • Final diagnoses use data obtained with above tests, team meeting of clinicians, and DSM -5 ADHD+ASD, and 31.3 in NN • Bipolar disorder was found in 9.3% of ADHD, 3.5% in ASD, 13.8% in ADHD+ASD, and 19.3% in NN • Panic disorder(PD), social phobia(SP), and generalized anxiety(GAD): ADHD – 4.6% with PD, 16.7% with GAD, 3.3% with SP. ASD – 6.9% with PD, 13.8% with GAD, 1.7% with SP. • ADHD+ASD – ~10% for each disorder. NN – 10.2% with PD, 12.3% with SP, and 12.5% with GAD • Obsessive Compulsive disorder: 10% of ADHD, 10% of NN, 8.6% of ASD, and 24.1% in ADHD+ASD • Psychotic disorder: 10% of ADHD, 6.9% of ASD, ~20% of ADHD+ASD, and 5.7% of NN • Substance use disorder: 26.6% of when their conditions don’t improve with treatment • Depression: subjects had a higher rate of depression when compared to prior research, probably explained by prior research being population studies and this research is on psychiatry patients. Clinicians should be aware of overlapping symptoms in depression and ADHD when assessing patients, and should be aware ASD patients may have more difficulty explaining or describing depression • Bipolar disorder: lower rates of co – occuring BD in this study may be explained by the features of the subjects. The subjects were adults seeking a first time ADHD and/or ASD 3 poorer quality of life • Among psychiatric patients, 10 -20% of the patients will have ADHD • Rate of ASD is about 1-2% in developed countries • ASD signs in in high functioning individuals may go unnoticed and these individuals have a higher rate of psychiatric disorders • Research estimates 73 -81% of ASD individuals will meet criteria for at least one other psychiatric disorder • Most previous research on adults with ASD has focused on depression, anxiety, OCD, ADHD, and personality disorders • Other diagnoses are also common, and patients seen clinically will have a higher rate than general popuation • Diagnostic criteria for ASD and ADHD, 3.5% of ASD, 20.7% of ADHD+ASD, and 11.4% of NN • Antisocial personality disorder: 7.3% of ADHD, 2.5% of ASD, 13.8% of ADHD+ASD, and 11.4% of NN. diagnosis, possibly meaning those individuals were less impaired to begin with leading to delay in diagnosis. Manic episodes in BD may be mistaken for ADHD symptoms, and clinicians should take a thorough history to differentiate ADHD and BD symptoms • Anxiety disorders: ADHD findings were consistent with prior research (except social phobia was lower), ASD findings were consistent except for lower social phobia. The authors believe this may be explained by their own difficulty differentiating diagnoses, prior research participant s may have been misdiagnosed with ASD vs SP, and participants of this study are assumed to be 4 ADHD has changed to allow a dual diagnosis of ADHD and ASD in the DSM -5, which was previously exclusionary • Data on adults with both ASD and ADHD is limited but evidence shows 37 -43% of adults with ASD have had or have an ADHD diagnosis • 10% of patients who were first diagnosed wtih ADHD in adulthood had an ASD diagnosis at some point • Large Swedish study showed that ASD and ADHD are rarely diagnosed together, with 86% of only 14 dual diagnosis patients having other psychiatric disorders • Only two population studies researching ASD, ADHD, and other comorbid diagnoses in adults, one of high functioning. The authors conclude that more research is needed to better diagnose anxiety in ADHD and ASD individuals, and to differentiate between anxiety symptoms and ADHD/ASD symptoms. • OCD: ADHD and NN findings were consistent with prior research, ASD had a higher rate than previous research, and authors had no comparison data for the ADHD+ASD group. Difference in ASD findings might be explained by population studies underestimating ASD and OCD rates. OCD presentation can be confused with ADHD and/or ASD symptoms. Authors conclude that thorough evaluations are necessary to parse out OCD and 5 which in Norway • Previous population studies show adults with both ASD and ADHD have higher rates of co – morbid psychiatric illness than in adults with only ADHD or only ASD • Substance Use Disorder is more common in adults with ADHD than without ADHD • Individuals with ADHD and/or ASD who do not receive a diagnosis until adulthood are a unique patient population • ADHD is underdiagnosed and patients are often misdiagnosed or do not receive adequate treatment • 7-16% of Adult patients in psychaitric facilities are diagnosed with ASD for the first time (vs 1-2% in general population) neurodevelopment al disorders. • Psychotic disorder: ADHD findings are consistent, ASD findings are low but prior research has shown wide ranging rates, and ADHD+ASD findings are consistent with prior research, but not statistically significant. Authors conclude that similar presenting symptoms in ADHD, ASD, and psychotic disorder highlight the need for thorough assessments to prevent misdiagnosis. • Substance use disorder: ADHD findings were consistent, ASD findings showed a lower rate, and ADHD+ASD findings showed a higher rate of SUD compared to prior research. These differences may be explained by cultural differences of 6 • Adults with ASD often go to their primary care giver first when seeking help • Adults with undiagnosed ADHD and ASD are often high functioning with the cost of high rates of co -morbid psychiatric illnesses • Diagnostic criteria for adults referred for an ADHD or ASD diagnosis are lacking . research subjects and by the exclusion of patients with an active SUD from this study. • Features of SUD can present similarly to ADHD and/or ASD symptoms. Authors conclude that patients with ADHD are at higher risk of having SUD. However, they also conclude that similar symptoms makes differential diagnosis difficult. • Antisocial personality disorder: ADHD findings were lower than prior research which authors attribute to the participant characteristics, while ASD findings were consistent. Authors conclude that clinicians may mistake ADHD or ASD for antisocial personality disorder, and may refer patients with ASPD diagnosis for an ADHD 7 evaluation. • Overall, authors conclude that evaluation of patients for neurodevelo pment al disorders should be thorough and performed by experienced clinicians. Clinicians should be aware of the high rate of co – occuring psychiatric disorders in ADHD and autism, as well as the differences, to correctly diagnose patients. A correct diagnosis or diagnoses is “essential [to] changing the prognosis” of the disorder(s). • Limitations of the study include a small sample size, uneven sex/ gender distribution, investigating only 10 psychiatric disorders co – occuring with ADHD or ASD, and lack of a general population 8 control group. Findings may not be generalizable to all ADHD and ASD patients, and more, larger scale research on these patients should be performed.

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