Please see Attachment for InstructionsPlease Reply to the following 2 Discussion posts:
APA format with intext citation
Word count minimum of 150 words per post
References at least one high-level scholarly reference per post within the last 5 years in APA format.
DISCUSSION POST # 1 Thalia
Cholinesterase inhibitors are commonly prescribed for the treatment of dementia symptoms (Mayo Clinic, 2022).
Donepezil (Aricept) is approved to treat all stages of the disease (Mayo Clinic, 2022). It’s taken once a day as a pill. Side effects include atrial fibrillation, hypertension, hypotension, vasodilation, ecchymoses, GI upset, frequent urination, weight loss, arthritis, muscle ramps, headache, drowsiness, fatigue, sedation, and dizziness (Vallerand & Sanoski, 2020).
Galantamine (Razadyne) is approved to treat mild to moderate Alzheimer’s (Mayo Clinic, 2022). Side effects include bradycardia, GI upset, incontinence, extrapyramidal symptoms, and syncope (Vallerand & Sanoski, 2020).
N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist
Memantine (Ebixa) is used for moderate to severe dementia (Vallerand & Sanoski, 2020). Side effects include hypertension, rash, weight gain, urinary frequency, anemia, fatigue, and headache (Vallerand & Sanoski, 2020).
Behavior disturbances associated with progressive dementia include symptoms such as depression, anxiety psychosis, agitation, aggression, disinhibition, and sleep disturbances (Müller-Spahn, 2003). Some evidence shows that symptoms such as depression and anxiety are common in early stages of dementia and aggression, psychosis, and behavioral problems occur in advanced stages (Müller-Spahn, 2003). Treatment of agitation in dementia include non-pharmacologic and pharmacologic interventions including behavioral management, environmental modifications, interventions using sound and light, and social interaction groups and antipsychotics, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, beta-blockers, and anticonvulsants (Müller-Spahn, 2003). Research found that citalopram (CeleXA) and perphenazine (Trilafon) were more effective than placebo in the treatment of aggression and psychosis in demented patients (Müller-Spahn, 2003).
DISCUSSION POST # 2 Astrid
Q3. What is levodopa, and how is it used in the treatment of Parkinson’s disease? What are the adverse effects of levodopa that might be expected in this patient?
Mr. Lacy is a 65-year-old man diagnosed with Parkinson’s disease (PD) that has progressed over the years. PD is a progressive condition involving the loss of neurons in the susbtantia nigra and a depletion of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain, which results in smooth, coordinated muscle movement impairment (Dlugash & Story, 2021). It is recommended that he be treated with levodopa. Levodopa is the precursor to dopamine, and it is used as a dopamine replacement agent for the treatment of PD (Gandhi & Saadabadi, 2022). Levodopa
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