Question: Why is the rise of China a positive development for Russia, according to Russia today?Need to make 10 powerpoints slidesAll resources and information attachedhttps://youtu.be/GBp_NgrrtPMhttps://youtu.be/Hg_NzL4iigkhttps://youtu.be/XXxaoLUPR80Discussion Article
Assessing Cultural and Regime-Based
Explanations of Russia’s Foreign Policy.
‘Authoritarian at Heart and Expansionist by
ANDREI P. TSYGANKOV
Scholars disagree on how to interpret Russia’s assertive foreign policy. According to some observers,
Russia’s authoritarian culture and political system have historically required the Kremlin to depend on
the Western threat image at home and to engage in revisionist behaviour abroad. These observers
recommend that Western nations abstain from engaging Russia as an equal contributor to shaping the
global system. This article assesses the validity of the authoritarian expansionism theory by comparing
it to other prominent perspectives on foreign policy, realism and constructivism. The article argues
that, by perceiving Russia’s historical and institutional distinctness as fundamentally threatening to the
West, the theory overlooks important sources of foreign policy contestation at home and potentially
varying directions abroad. The article selects the historically important cases of the Crimean War, the
Cold War and the Russia–Georgia War to demonstrate the theory’s flaws and to highlight the role of
factors other than Russia’s authoritarianism in the nation’s foreign policy.
RUSSIA’S INTERNATIONAL BEHAVIOUR CONTINUES TO provoke lively disagree-
ments among scholars and policy makers alike. While some view Russia as largely
accommodationist and non-threatening to the West, others perceive the Kremlin’s
objectives as expansionist and disrespectful towards existing international rules.1 The
arrival of Barak Obama to power in the USA and his attempts to ‘reset’ relations with
Russia have yet to clarify the question of the motives for the Kremlin’s international
behaviour. Those on the sceptical side argue that the reset advocates misread Russia’s
intentions and undermine Western allies (Kramer 2010a, 2010b; Cohen 2010; LeVine
2010). According to this line of reasoning, Russia’s authoritarian culture and political
The author thanks the editors of Europe-Asia Studies and two anonymous reviewers for their
comments and suggestions. The usual disclaimers apply.
1For examples of scholarship on Russia’s foreign policy, see Trenin (2009), Mankoff (2009),
Tsygankov (2010), Lucas (2009), Bugajski (2009) and Kanet (2009).
Vol. 64, No. 4, June 2012, 695–713
ISSN 0966-8136 print; ISSN 1465-3427 online/12/040695-19 ª 2012 University of Glasgow
system require the Kremlin to depend on the Western threat image at home and to
engage in revisionist behaviour abroad (Shlapentokh 2009; Cohen & Dale 2010;
Shevtsova 2010). It leads to the conclusion that the Western nations are better off
trying to contain or transform Moscow, rather than engaging with it as an equal
contributor in shaping the global system.
Behind the policy debate about Russia’s intentions are profound theoretical,
histor4/1/2023, 7:29 pmUNITED STATES OF AMERICA
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UNITED STATES OF AMERICA
EMPIRE AND AN EMPIRE OF THE EAST?
WHERE DID WE GET TO BEFORE THE BREAK?
IS IT JUST ABOUT TERRTITORY (UKRAINE AND TAIWAN) OR IS IT ABOUT IDEAS (FREEDOM VERSUS DICTATORSHIP) AS WELL?
WHERE IS ALL THIS HEADING?
UGLY AMERICAN OR EMPIRE OF LIBERTY? – THERE ARE TWO BIG STORIES ABOUT THE UNITED STATES IN THE WORLD TODAY.
FOR CENTURIES, THE UNITED STATES DENIED THAT IT WAS AN EMPIRE. NOW MOST COMMENTATORS ARE HAPPY TO DESCRIBE
IT AS AN EMPIRE, BUT AS A DIFFERENT EMPIRE TO, SAY, THE RUSSIAN EMPIRE.
CHINA AND USA RUB UP AGAINST EACH OTHER IN THE SOUTH CHINA AND EAST CHINA SEAS.
SINCE THE 1500S, WHAT IS NOW THE UNITED STATES LOOKED LIKE A EUROPEAN EMPIRE
REMEMBER THAT THERE HAS ONLY BEEN A UNITED STATES SINCE 1776.
Of course, the Americas were settled from Asia and by roaming 20,000 years hunter ago. gatherer bands between 11
Another was Europe thing and to not think China about that is the conquered fact that the it Americas in the 1500s.
For the best part of one thousand years, 300- with wars, 1300, no migrations Europe unity was (except and a squabbling
invasions. Christianity) jumble and of states many
EUROPEANS WERE CLOSEST TO THE AMERICAS – CLOSER THAN THE ROMANS, INDIANS OR CHINESE!
EUROPEANS WERE RELATIVELY POOR AND WARLIKE WITH POWERFUL INCENTIVES TO SAIL THE OCEAN AND TO ROB
RESOURCES WHERE THEY COULD.
Vasco Da Gama rounded the Cape of Good Hope, making it clear that there was an easy sea route to the Indian Ocean, India and the
SPICE ISLANDS. THE MONGOLS HAD BLOCKED THE LAND ROUTE – THE OLD SILK ROAD. It opened up sea routes to the East
Indies for the spice trade. Da Gama’s objective was a faster route to the East African slave trades. Da Gama was a wealthy slave
trader out for personal gain.
CHRISTOPHER COLUMBUS IN 1492 HOPED TO SAIL WEST TO THE RICHES OF ASIA BUT HE HAD UNDERESTIMATED THE SIZE OF
THE EARTH BY ABOUT HALF. AND COLUMBUS DID NOT REALISE THAT THE AMERICAN CONTINENT STOOD IN HIS WAY. BY THE
1500S EUROPEANS HAD COLONISED JUST ABOUT ALL OF THE AMERICAS AND DISPOSSESSED THE NATIVE AMERICANS.
4/1/2023, 7:29 pmUNITED STATES OF AMERICA
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It was not long before the Colombian Exchange brought great wealth to Europe and disease and slavery to the Americas. The
marriage of racism and imperialism led European to enforce widespread enslavement and exploitation of millions of people in the
Americas. Diseases such as smallpox did the heavy lifting in terms of facilitating European imperialism.
Doris Lee, ‘Thanksgiving’ (ca. 1935). Gratitude in the face of challenges. 1620 the pilgrims compared their exodus to the exodus from
Egypt. HThe War in Ukraine May Be Impossible to Stop.
And the U.S. Deserves Much of the Blame.
ProQuest document link
In the Paris daily Le Figaro this month, Henri Guaino, a top adviser to Nicolas Sarkozy when he was president of
France, warned that Europe’s countries, under the shortsighted leadership of the United States, were
“sleepwalking” into war with Russia. Mr. Guaino was borrowing a metaphor that the historian Christopher Clark
used to describe the origins of World War I.
Naturally, Mr. Guaino understands that Russia is most directly to blame for the present conflict in Ukraine. It was
Russia that massed its troops on the frontier last fall and winter and —having demanded from NATO a number of
Ukraine-related security guarantees that NATO rejected —began the shelling and killing on Feb. 24.
But the United States has helped turn this tragic, local and ambiguous conflict into a potential world conflagration.
By misunderstanding the war’s logic, Mr. Guaino argues, the West, led by the Biden administration, is giving the
conflict a momentum that may be impossible to stop.
He is right.
In 2014 the United States backed an uprising —in its final stages a violent uprising —against the legitimately
elected Ukrainian government of Viktor Yanukovych, which was pro-Russian. (The corruption of Mr. Yanukovych’s
government has been much adduced by the rebellion’s defenders, but corruption is a perennial Ukrainian problem,
even today.) Russia, in turn, annexed Crimea, a historically Russian-speaking part of Ukraine that since the 18th
century had been home to Russia’s Black Sea Fleet.
One can argue about Russian claims to Crimea, but Russians take them seriously. Hundreds of thousands of
Russian and Soviet fighters died defending the Crimean city of Sevastopol from European forces during two sieges
—one during the Crimean War and one during World War II. In recent years, Russian control of Crimea has seemed
to provide a stable regional arrangement: Russia’s European neighbors, at least, have let sleeping dogs lie.
But the United States never accepted the arrangement. On Nov. 10, 2021, the United States and Ukraine signed a
“charter on strategic partnership” that called for Ukraine to join NATO, condemned “ongoing Russian aggression”
and affirmed an “unwavering commitment” to the reintegration of Crimea into Ukraine.
That charter “convinced Russia that it must attack or be attacked,” Mr. Guaino wrote. “It is the ineluctable process
of 1914 in all its terrifying purity.”
This is a faithful account of the war that President Vladimir Putin has claimed to be fighting. “There were constant
supplies of the most modern military equipment,” Mr. Putin said at Russia’s annual Victory Parade on May 9,
referring to the foreign arming of Ukraine. “The danger was growing every day.”
Whether he was right to worry about Russia’s security depends on one’s perspective. Western news reports tend 4/1/2023, 7:50 pmFull article: Assessing Cultural and Regime-Based Explanations of R…Foreign Policy. ‘Authoritarian at Heart and Expansionist by Habit’?
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Assessing Cultural and
of Russia’s Foreign Policy.
‘Authoritarian at Heart and
Expansionist by Habit’?
Andrei P. Tsygankov
Pages 695-713 | Published online: 08 May 2012
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Scholars disagree on how to interpret Russia’s
assertive foreign policy. According to some
observers, Russia’s authoritarian culture and
political system have historically required the
Kremlin to depend on the Western threat
image at home and to engage in revisionist
behaviour abroad. These observers
recommend that Western nations abstain
from engaging Russia as an equal contributor
to shaping the global system. This article
assesses the validity of the authoritarian
expansionism theory by comparing it to other
prominent perspectives on foreign policy,
realism and constructivism. The article argues
that, by perceiving Russia’s historical and
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