Test 2·        Choose only Ten (10) out of the following questions and answer them in good, complete, organized paragraphs! I will be expecting clear, thought out answers, with good evidence from the text, your notes, the PowerPoint, and/or the biographies you’ve read. If you use a biography, make sure you cite it correctly (in-text and works cited entry at the end of the question) so that you avoid plagiarism!  No other outside sources should be used; however, if you use an outside source you DANG sure better cite it correctly (in-text and works cited); otherwise, you will not receive credit for the question. MLA Format·      Each of the questions you choose to answer is worth 20 points, so make the answer a 20-point answer.  o  Hint: For every 10 points, there should be at least a paragraph consisting of 10-12 REAL sentences. o  Every answer should have quotes from the text as evidence of your claims. The questions have already been answered, but each question was suppose to have 10-12 sentences for each answer. If you could add 2-3 more sentences to each question it will be greatly appreciated.1.   Situational irony is a mark of the Realism, and it is often found throughout the Modernism and Post-Modernism movements.  “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge,” “Desiree’s Baby,” and “Richard Cory” all utilize this literary device to make a mark on their readers.  Discuss the effectiveness of this tool in each of these pieces of literature and how it helps each one fit into its time period – “An Occurrence at Owl Creek” = Realism; “Desiree’s Baby” = Modernism; “Richard Cory” = Post-Modernism2.   Many Post-Modernism works are marked by themes of religious hypocrisy.  Choose at least one work from the Post-Modernism list and discuss its use of religious hypocrisy as a theme.  You may choose more than one piece of literature from Post-Modernism and explore the theme of religious hypocrisy if you would like. 3.   Both “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” and A Streetcar Named Desire explore the ideas of “manhood” or masculinity.  How does each one treat this idea and how does each answer the question of “what it takes to be a man?” 4.   Jack London’s “To Build a Fire” took a very different view of Nature than most of Robert Frost’s poetry.  Choose at least one the Robert Frost poem’s that we read that might have something in common with London’s view of Nature as a force that is indifferent to man’s suffering at best and cruel and destructive at worst.  You might want to look at more than one to give you the two paragraphs.5.   Several pieces we read used stream-of-consciousness as a technique for narration.  The most obvious was “The Jilting of Granny Weatherall,” but “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” and “A Worn Path” also used stream-of-consciousness throughout. This technique is often confusing for readers, but what does it add to any of these three stories and why is it so effective?  Is it essential to tell the story of these three people, and if so, why? (Hint: Obviously it is, or I wouldn’t have asked this question). 6.   Using flashbacks is a technique that was used in two of our stories this semester, “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge” and “The Snows of Kilimanjaro.”  In two separate paragraphs (one for each story) explore how the flashbacks worked in each story and what the flashback technique added to the story. Why was it there?7.   Modernism and Post-Modernism thrived on the idea that things are not at all what they appear. Both A Streetcar Named Desireand “Everyday Use” contain this theme. Choose one of these pieces and explain how that piece of literature goes about delivering the idea that things are not what they seem and contrast the appearance with the reality.  Make sure you include what you think the author was trying to tell us with this contrast.8.   Both “The Gilded Six-Bits” and “The Storm” address the theme of adultery, and in true Modernism fashion, neither one takes a traditional view of the topic of adultery.  Choose one of these stories and discuss how the story took the topics of adultery and put a Modernist twist on it. (btw… Chopin was really a Modernist ahead of her time).9.   “A Wagner Matinee” and “A Pair of Silk Stockings” could both be considered firmly in the Modernism genre. Both address the idea that we sometimes give up a life we know, only to miss it once it’s gone.  While this idea/theme has always been around, what makes these two stories so powerful and so “Modern.”  Who is involved in these stories, and why does the theme make us a little uncomfortable?  In essence, what qualifies them as part of the Modernist movement?10.Most of what we read this semester consisted of my “favorites,” but by now, you all know that two of my VERY favorites are Zora Neale Hurston and Booker T. Washington.  Explore what “How It Feels to Be Colored Me” has in common with Washington’s “Atlanta Exposition Address.”  What are the common themes and do you think the two would have agreed on how they saw the word – why or why not?11.We met a couple of characters who long for times gone by – Miniver Cheevy in the poem by the same name and Blanche Dubois in A Streetcar Named Desire. What do these characters have in common and how are they different?  Write a response in which you compare (find the similarities between) these two characters and contrast (find the differences in) them, and maybe discuss why both belong in the Modernism/Post-Modernism genre. 12.Many Modernist and Post-Modernist writers rejected the use of dialect in their works, but Zora Neale Hurston refused to abandon it.  Joel Chandler Harris is another writer who also embraced dialect in his works.  Even though these two writers were as different as they could possible have been, what does their use of dialect have in common and what did it bring to their respective works?   13.“The Snows of Kilimanjaro” and “To Build a Fire” both address the idea of underestimating the power of nature over mankind, and they almost use Nature as a character itself.   Discuss how each story treats this theme and how each author differs in his views of nature based on these stories. 14.A Streetcar Named Desiremay embody the themes and ideas of Post-Modernism more than any other single piece of literature we’ve read.  Focus on two elements of Post-Modernism and make your case that A Streetcar Named Desire is THE Post-Modernist piece of literature to demonstrate those two elements. 15.“The Life You Save May Be Your Own” contains “grotesque” (dishonest, immoral, twisted) characters, Mr. Shiftlet and Mrs. Carter, both.  Choose one of those characters to compare with another “grotesque” character from a different piece of literature. 16.Alice Walker drew some of her inspiration from Zora Neale Hurston, and if you read “Everyday Use,” it was painfully clear that Hurston was a major influence.  What parallels did you see between the two writers based on their works?  Did you see elements from “How It Feels to Be Colored Me” in “Everyday Use?”  If so, where and how?  (Hint: go back and reread “How It Feels to Be Colored Me” after reading “Everyday Use”)17.Several of our stories/poem deal with the concept of sacrifice in some form or another.  Choose one of those stories or poems and discuss the sacrifice that the author is exploring.  Then relate that sacrifice to something that was relevant to the Modernism/Post-Modernism historical events taking place.  What might have prompted that discussion/exploration of sacrifice from that particular author based on the history of the time? (Hint: refer to your PowerPoints for help).18.  Several of our stories/poems have characters who go against society’s rules and question whether it’s ever acceptable to go against what society deems acceptable or unacceptable – this one of the cornerstones of the Modernism and Post-Modernism movements.  Choose one of our stories and tell my why it spoke to you in terms of this theme.  Many of our writers questioned the “status quo;” which one of our writers made you question it as well and why?Please put the corresponding number for the corresponding question.
Test 2 · Choose only Ten (10) out of the following questions and answer them in good, complete, organized paragraphs! I will be expecting clear, thought out answers, with good evidence from the
Lastname 10 Firstname Lastname Instructor’s Name Course Number 16 April 2020 Test 2 1.   Situational irony is a mark of the Realism, and it is often found throughout the Modernism and Post-Modernism movements.  “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge,” “Desiree’s Baby,” and “Richard Cory” all utilize this literary device to make a mark on their readers.  Discuss the effectiveness of this tool in each of these pieces of literature and how it helps each one fit into its time period – “An Occurrence at Owl Creek” = Realism; “Desiree’s Baby” = Modernism; “Richard Cory” = Post-Modernism Situational irony is an essential element of realism theory. Realism is basic research for understanding the real means of political affairs of international standards. Thus, the realism theory is making behind the scene facts clear and evident for the public. In this matter, situational irony is the best tool that can present the hidden realities instead of real faces. This element is observable in modern movement as well as the post-modernism movements. As Robert A. Heinlein stated, “The supreme irony of life is that hardly anyone gets out of it alive.” It is proving that situational irony is bringing out from imaginary life and making the time based on realities. It is the basic theme of realism theory, which is successful with the effectiveness of situational irony. Therefore, situational irony is prominent in the realization of the realism concept. It can support the public to make their understanding efficient (Chrisman, 2019). 2.   Many Post-Modernism works are marked by themes of religious hypocrisy.  Choose at least one work from the Post-Modernism list and discuss its use of religious hypocrisy as a theme.  You may choose more than one piece of literature from Post-Modernism and explore the theme of religious hypocrisy if you would like. Women have the right to adopt the culture as their wish; this is highly discussed work of post-modernism. Post-modernism is the new theory of dealing with social matters with modernity. In this matter, religion is an essential element that cannot be left. This theory is stating religion as a cultural constituent that is being changed with the desire of the individual. According to Malise Ruthven, “Religion in post-modernism is the reflex review of culture and tradition.” In this scenario, religious scholars are declaring the post-modernity against religion. This situation is the cause of the clash between modern and old concepts. This scenario is creating hypocrisy in the community. Religious persons cannot work freely. People are also unable to live with theories of post-modernism (Boyne, 2017). 3.   Both “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” and A Streetcar Named Desire explore the ideas of “manhood” or masculinity.  How does each one treat this idea and how does each answer the question of “what it takes to be a man?” According to “Streetcar named desire,” manhood is the name of cruelty to others. Inhumanity is a disliked behavior in the community. It is the symbol of masculinity in the described theme. With this concept, a man is not a likable personality in the community. People are unable to adopt the traits of manhood with his character. Man is defined with unsympathetic and rude behavior in the population according to the theme of “The Snows of Kilimanjaro.” In this literature, Harry is the character of masculinity. It is showing rudeness in men for social works. They are unable to make them friendly for their families. This scenario is not favorable for the men as we can say that manhood is the pleasant character of the family in the shape of brother, father, and husband (Wang, 2017). 4.   Jack London’s “To Build a Fire” took a very different view of Nature than most of Robert Frost’s poetry.  Choose at least one the Robert Frost poem’s that we read that might have something in common with London’s view of Nature as a force that is indifferent to man’s suffering at best and cruel and destructive at worst.  You might want to look at more than one to give you the two paragraphs. Robert Frost is a famous poet that is using the environment as an ideal tool in his poems. His poem” Nothing Gold Can Stay” is the best description of the ordinary world. According to his poetry, the environment is changing with the passage of time and period. It is giving attraction to the world by bringing brightness and shine. Meanwhile, this is also showing that every shining thing can be dull. The quotation of Robert Frost about the environment is also astonishing as” We love the things we love for what they are.” It means that we like the beauty of Nature. Nature is changing, and we should accept this change. It is a sign of acceptance to make life pleasant. It is part of living to observe shining and dull scenarios (Frost, 2016). 5.   Several pieces we read used stream-of-consciousness as a technique for narration.  The most obvious was “The Jilting of Granny Weatherall,” but “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” and “A Worn Path” also used stream-of-consciousness throughout. This technique is often confusing for readers, but what does it add to any of these three stories and why is it so effective?  Is it essential to tell the story of these three people, and if so, why? (Hint: Obviously it is, or I wouldn’t have asked this question). Stream of consciousness is supporting the effects of literature. It is puzzling the readers with a fantastic complex. Through this technique, readers like to read the story with expressions. The example of this technique is relevant to all literature instances. “The Jilting of Granny Weatherall” is concerned with the stream consciousness technique with the loneliness of Granny. “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” story is confusing readers with isolation concepts due to the death of Harry. “A Worn Path” has the element of stream consciousness, and this is supportive of gaining the attraction of readers by confusing them. It is about the racism concept. This theory is heart touching due to inequality in human beings. Readers like to see the story with stream consciousness (Dimililer, 2019). 6.   Using flashbacks is a technique that was used in two of our stories this semester, “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge” and “The Snows of Kilimanjaro.”  In two separate paragraphs (one for each story) explore how the flashbacks worked in each story and what the flashback technique added to the story. Why was it there? Flashback is the technique of comparison of past with present situation according to the condition of literature. This technique is used in “The Snows of Kilimanjaro” as Helen is going to memorize the past time spending with Harry. This literature is the expression of modernism, and this is presenting a comparison of social and moral values with the flashback technique. In this literature, a comparison of isolation and connection with family is relevant to the flashback technique. “An Occurrence at Owl Creek Bridge” story is relevant to a soldier. The flashback technique is observable with the scene of the execution of Peyton Farquhar. He was a soldier and going to hang. He was going to his past at the time of hanging. The flashback is making this literature attractive and exciting. With this strategy, readers can realize the conflicts between war and peace in the world (Gebeyehu, 2019). 7.   Modernism and Post-Modernism thrived on the idea that things are not at all what they appear. Both A Streetcar Named Desireand “Everyday Use” contain this theme. Choose one of these pieces and explain how that piece of literature goes about delivering the idea that things are not what they seem and contrast the appearance with the reality.  Make sure you include what you think the author was trying to tell us with this contrast. Modernism is a quality of the literature of Tennessee William. It is observable with his story names as “Streetcar named desire.” It is showing the concept of modernism with different characters. For example, the role of Stella is going to make her safe and secure from the mental issues of Blanche. She is acting to make her safety sure in society. In the end, she is going to gain isolation, which is a sign of modernism. As modernism is the mismatch in the appearance and reality of the character. Meanwhile, Blanche is also trying to get happiness. However, he got the freedom from others with making himself alone. These are the signs of modernism in literature and supportive of realizing the characters in reality (Shamina, 2018). 8.   Both “The Gilded Six-Bits” and “The Storm” address the theme of adultery, and in true Modernism fashion, neither one takes a traditional view of the topic of adultery.  Choose one of these stories and discuss how the story took the topics of adultery and put a Modernist twist on it. (btw… Chopin was really a Modernist ahead of her time). “The Storm” is the short story of Kate Chopin, and this is describing the theme of loneliness and strength. The story is relevant to a housekeeper named as Calixta. She is an arrogant and her clash is being described with Alcee. This clash applies to a sexual matter, and this is increasing the level of trouble. The story is going to bring depression and sorrow in the life of Calixta. It means that she is finding the solution to her issues. In this sense, she is making her life alone by leaving her friends and social connections. It is an element of modernism to live alone with the freedom of lifestyle and action. Likewise, the story is pertinent to modernism as this is ending with an unhappy moment; it is the sign of modernism in literature. Consequently, “The Storm” is a famous instance of research that is mentioning the strength in the storm like the potency in the crisis of social life (Filipescu, 2017). 14.A Streetcar Named Desiremay embody the themes and ideas of Post-Modernism more than any other single piece of literature we’ve read.  Focus on two elements of Post-Modernism and make your case that A Streetcar Named Desire is THE Post-Modernist piece of literature to demonstrate those two elements. Post-modernism has various elements that are supportive of realizing this theory in real sense. The postmodern person believes in a single view of the world as Fang is describing, “It is a ‘world singularly polished and mellow poised.” The same scene is relevant to A Streetcar Named Desire as Blanche has no care of Stella or any other person in his life. He is willing to live with his sole opinion and expression. Forgiveness is also the characteristic of the post-modernism theory. It is observable in A Streetcar Named Desire in the character of Stella. She is accepting the modification in her new lifestyle, and she forgives all those persons that were cruel for her in a past life. Now, it is evident that this literature is the demonstration of post-modernism theory. Various characters in this story are expression the specific theory. The realization of post-modernism is also simple with the support of the relevant literature (Silverman, 2017). 15.“The Life You Save May Be Your Own” contains “grotesque” (dishonest, immoral, twisted) characters, Mr. Shiftlet and Mrs. Carter, both.  Choose one of those characters to compare with another “grotesque” character from a different piece of literature.  The character of Calixta in “The Storm” is an immoral character that is living without any care of values. She is a proud girl that is working as a housekeeper. Meanwhile, she is also involved in the sexual clash with a boy. Some critical experts are declaring the whole story of Kate as decadent literature due to dissolute dialogues and scenes. The character of Mr. Shiftlet, “The Life You Save May Be Your Own,” is also immoral. He is unethical, egotistic, and deceitful in this literature. He is acting with a lack of morality, along with his family. It is a symbol of a bad attitude in communal relations. The comparison between Calixta and Shiftlet is based on their bad habits. Both characters are unacceptable in moral, social relationships (Cavalin, 2016). Works Cited Chrisman, James J. “Stewardship theory: Realism, relevance, and family firm governance.” (2019): 1051-1066. Boyne, Roy, and Ali Rattansi, eds. Postmodernism and society. Macmillan International Higher Education, 2017. Wang, Xuefei, and Shuai Han. “On the Psychological Realism of A Streetcar Named Desire.” 2017 7th International Conference on Education, Management, Computer and Society (EMCS 2017). Atlantis Press, 2017. Frost, Robert. The collected poems of Robert Frost. Chartwell Books, 2016. Dimililer, Çelen, and Mustafa Kurt. “The Impact of Collaborative Writing and The Stream of Consciousness Technique on Writing.” (2019). Gebeyehu, Tsegaye Abie. “Analysis of Literary Techniques Employed in the Novel The Revelation: Flashback in Focus.” (2019). Shamina, Vera. “Chekhov’s Imprints in” A Streetcar Named Desire”.” Pertanika Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities (2018). Filipescu, G. A., et al. “Molar pregnancy and thyroid storm-literature review.” ARS Medica Tomitana 23.3 (2017): 121-125. Cavalin, Catherine. “«The Life You Save May Be Your Own»(1968, 1984).” (2016). Silverman, Hugh J., ed. Postmodernism: Philosophy and the arts. Vol. 8. Routledge, 2017.




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