Using the attached documents create a literature review.The literature review serves as the foundation for your final research paper. A well-written literature review is broad in scope and illustrates the extent to which you understand the current research related to your topic. Toward this end, you’ll need to dig through the databases in the college library to find peer-reviewed articles and research studies published in academic journals. To achieve the broad scope necessary, include 9-15 scholarly (peer reviewed) sources related to your field of study. Do not rely on non-scholarly periodicals, websites, dictionaries, encyclopedias, research starter guides, or similar sources.Literature reviews do not advocate for or against a particular position, and do not reflect personal opinions, beliefs, or values. Instead, you will need to think critically and draw upon a broad collection of relevant academic studies and articles so you can recognize diverse arguments and themes as you analyze and synthesize findings from current scholarly research, theory, and practice. By “current” we mean research studies published since 2000. You may choose to use a few select older studies (<10% of all sources) to illustrate how researchers’ understanding of the issue has evolved through time. You must, however, draw explicit connections between historical studies and contemporary theory and practice.Those studies then seek to examine the “gap” issue and thus contribute new research to the body of knowledge in the field of study. Your literature review will stop short of identifying gaps and opportunities. Instead, you will conclude your literature review with a section summarizing, in your own words, the most prominent research and findings related to your topic. You must support your summation by drawing upon well-reasoned evidence from your literature review with appropriate citation and explaining how these findings contribute to the literature and collective knowledge in the field of study. Please do not include any discussion of the methodologies used in the studies.Depending on the number of scholarly sources used, your literature review should be approximately 2,000-2,500 words, and should not exceed 3,000 words. (Word counts exclude title pages, headers, and reference list.)A well-structured literature review cannot be written in one or two attempts; be prepared to develop multiple drafts. Review, reorganize, revise, and rewrite until you’ve demonstrated the level of scholarship expected of a degree-seeking candidate.Be sure it includes:·        At least 9-15 scholarly sources·        Current sources (10% can be older, but nothing earlier than 2000) Using the attached documents create a literature review. The literature review serves as the foundation for your final research paper. A well-written literature review is broad in scope and illustra RUNNING HEAD: VIOLENCE AGAINST HEALTHCARE PROVIDERS 1 Causes of violence against health workers and how we can resolve them Meaning of violence against health workers and how we can resolve them Introduction            Hospitals are essential places in human life. However, proper healthcare is what is most important and is what defines a hospital. How often do you say” thank you” after getting treatment from a hospital? How often do you say “hi “to doctors, nurses and hospital cleaners? Well, I guess these are things you rarely do. As a healthcare administrator and manager, tasked with managing healthcare providers, it wise to internalize on issues affecting hospital workers. This will express care and appreciation for hospital workers all over the world. The importance of this article is to appreciate all hospital staff as well as to acknowledge their excellent work. By doing this, hospital workers will be motivated to provide proper healthcare.  Violence against Healthcare Providers            A significant number of violence makers in hospitals are patients or close relatives of patients. Violence to hospital staff can be verbally or even physical. Cameron (1998), adds that 45% of health providers have experienced verbal abuse within the last 15 working days. Most verbal cases are from drunk patients, while physical ones can be from mentally impaired patients. Health care workers, in particular, face dramatically higher risks for nonfatal assault (Elliot, 1997). However, cases of doctors being violated have been witnessed. One of the reasons why doctors are attacked is the feeling that doctors can treat a patient in the wrong way just for financial gains. Secondly, others believe a doctor must treat a patient and failure to do so they can take action in their own hands. Thirdly, waiting for a doctor for long periods has made patients feel as if very little attention is given to their concerns and often results in violence. According to Smith-Pittman and McKoy (1999), healthcare providers are not immune to destruction, and hence, it should be controlled.         Nurses, on the other hand, also go through a tough time coping with patients. This may arise mostly when they are administering drugs or giving injections. During this time, patients may use verbal abuses which may be due to their illnesses or medicines side effects. Also, relatives bringing their patients have been seen to lack patience as the nurse has to operate within the hospital rules. Others have been seen to demand favors, and if they hit a dead-end, this results in violence against the nurse.             Other severe violence is faced by providers from mental facilities where there’s a huge barrier in terms of communicating and also conduct. Providers get it rough, especially when controlling mentally impaired patients which in most cases result in attacks and even verbal violence. According to Harulow (2000), at least one-third of nurses are attacked by patients or patients’ friends.             Violence on healthcare providers only has negative impacts. Some of them can be poor services or inadequate healthcare workers which may result in even death of patients. Levin and Hewitt (1998), confirmed that solutions to the assault of health workers in the US have started taking root. For this to end, both the patients and healthcare workers need to acquire more communication skills, taking note of violent patients and knowing how to handle them, running away from situations that may cause chaos, educating patients and their relative's on proper communication skills and improving the whole healthcare sector.  Conclusion            As discussed, it's evident that healthcare workers are violated. What is so absurd is the people who require their help the most (patients are the ones attacking them). It does not have to be this way. For better results, the patients need to look after the providers, and in return, they can receive proper healthcare. On the other hand, providers need to watch for signs of aggression when treating their patients. References Cameron, L. (1998). Verbal abuse: A proactive approach. Nursing Management, 29(8), 34. Elliott, P. P. (1997). Violence in health care. Nursing Management, 28(12), 38. Harulow, S. (2000). Ending the silence on violence [Nurses are exposed to high levels of workplace violence] — Australian Nursing Journal: ANJ, The, 7(10), 26. Levin, P. F., Hewitt, J. B., & Misner, S. T. (1998). Insights of nurses about the assault in hospital‐based emergency departments. Image: the journal of nursing scholarship, 30(3), 249-254. Smith‐Pittman, M. H., & McKoy, Y. D. (1999, September). Workplace violence in healthcare environments. In Nursing Forum (Vol. 34, No. 3, pp. 5-13). Oxford, UK: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Using the attached documents create a literature review. The literature review serves as the foundation for your final research paper. A well-written literature review is broad in scope and illustra LITERATURE REVIEW: A SYNTHESIS MATRIX LA 498-CBE Approved Research Topic: My approved research topic is causes of violence against healthcare workers and how we can resolve them. JOURNAL NAME, ARTICLE NAME, DATE, PERMALINK AUTHOR(S) FOCUS/PURPOSE OF STUDY RESULTS AGREEMENTS WITH OTHER RESEARCHERS CONTROVERSIES/DISAGREEMENTS WITH OTHER RESEARCHERS IMPLICATIONS FOR FUTURE RESEARCH & PRACTICE Violence against doctors, a serious concern for healthcare organizations to ponder about Ahmed, Farah; Khizar Memon, Muhammad; Memon, Sidra Aggression; Violence; Protection; Harassments; Organization; Structure. Aggression and Violence against primary care physicians is reportedly common in Pakistan but there is no any documented study to-date on this burning issue. Similar to other research, this focus was in Pakistan. Focus is in Pakistan highlighting one country, does not discuss global implications. Need follow up case studies and types of providers and aggressors. Workplace Violence against Nurses, Job Satisfaction, Burnout and Patient Safety in Chinese Hospitals Liu, Jiali; Zheng, Jing; Liu, Ke; Liu, Xu; Wu, Yan; Wang, Jun; You, Liming Workplace violence against nurses remained a concern in building healthy work environments. Workplace violence was associated with less nurse job satisfaction, higher incidences of burnout and lower patient safety. Nurse job satisfaction and burnout mediated the effects of workplace violence on patient safety. Similar results with other studies. This study was only on nurses in China. Expand the study to include other hospital staff and providers. Workplace Violence Toward Mental Healthcare Workers Employed in Psychiatric Wards d'Ettorre, Gabriele; Pellicani, Vincenza Workplace violence (WPV) against healthcare workers (HCWs) employed in psychiatric inpatient wards is a serious occupational issue that involves both staff and patients; the consequences of WPV may include increased service costs and lower standards of care. assaults; psychiatric inpatients; risk assessment; risk management; violence Same type of results in a different kind of healthcare facility Focus was in a psychiatric setting where all patients are considered unstable. The purpose of this review was to evaluate which topics have been focused on in the literature and which are new in approaching the concern of patient violence against HCWs employed in psychiatric inpatient wards, in the past 20 years. Violence towards Emergency Nurses Ramacciati, Nicola; Ceccagnoli, Andrea; Addey, Beniamino; Rasero, Laura Physical and verbal aggression against health professionals, particularly nurses Attacks against healthcare providers has become more prevalent, the most vulnerable being nurses working in the Accident and Emergency Department. Research shows mostly the same results as other studies Focus was mostly in nurses on the emergency setting. Most international research into this issue focused on quantifying aggression, describing its nature, identifying perpetrators, stratifying risk and implementing preventive or mitigating interventions. Few studies investigated the nurses’ subjective perceptions. Preventing Emergency Department Violence through Design Lenaghan, Patricia A.; Cirrincione, Nicole M.; Henrich, Steven Historical trends of workplace violence showing the effect of threats and assaults on staff and regulations affecting workplace violence. Evidence-based considerations to inform the design of emergency departments to reduce, mitigate, or prevent violence against staff, visitors, and patients. Similar results with other studies but has more focus on policies referencing violence in the workplace. None found. Can these policies mitigate violence if implemented in more healthcare settings? Effectiveness of training on de-escalation of violence and management of aggressive behavior faced by health care providers in public sector hospitals of Karachi. Lubna Baig, Sana Tanzil, Shiraz Shaikh, Ibrahim Hashmi, Muhammad Arslan Khan, Maciej Polkowski Considering high burden of violence against healthcare workers in Pakistan APPNA Institute of Public Health developed a training to prevent reactive violence among healthcare providers. The purpose of this training was to equip healthcare providers with skills essential to control aggressive behaviors and prevent verbal and non-verbal violence in workplace settings. This study assesses the effectiveness of training in prevention, de-escalation and management of violence in healthcare settings. The overall self-perceived mean score of Confidence in Coping with Patient Aggression Instrument “(CCPAI)” scale was significantly higher in intervention group as compared to control group. No statistically significant difference was observed between intervention and control groups with regard to frequency of violence faced by HCPs post training and major perpetrators of violence. Violence against healthcare workers needs to be controlled. A quasi-experimental study was conducted in October, 2016 using mixed method concurrent embedded design. The study assessed effectiveness of de-escalation trainings among health care providers working in emergency and gynecology and obstetrics departments of two teaching hospitals in Karachi. Quantitative assessment was done through structured interviews and qualitative through Focus Group Discussions. Healthcare providers` confidence in coping with patient aggression was also measured using a standard validated tool”. De-escalation of violence training was effective in improving confidence of healthcare providers in coping with patient aggression. Predictors of Trivialization of Workplace Violence Among Healthcare Workers and Law Enforcers Steve Geoffrion; Nathalie Lanctôt; André Marchand; Richard Boyer; Stéphane Guay This study aims to identify individual and organizational predictors of trivialization of violence in 2 work sectors: healthcare and law enforcement. On the basis of data from a survey conducted among 1,141 workers from healthcare (e.g., nurses, orderlies.) and law enforcement (e.g., police, security agents), individual (sex, age, exposure to violence), and organizational factors (violence prevention training, support from colleagues and supervisors, presence of a “zero tolerance” policy and safety of physical environment) were used to predict trivialization of violence. Among the respondents of the final sample of the present study, 29.9% reported being the victim of at least one SVA in the past 12 months prior to their completion of the questionnaire, whereas 57.4% reported being the victim of at least one MVA. On the other hand, 43.2% recalled witnessing at least one SVA, whereas 62.6% stated having witnessed at least one MVA. Does having a controlled work environment help mitigate the risk? This study has some limitations. Because the survey is based on a convenience sample, the findings are not generalizable to the healthcare and law enforcement populations. Overall, our victimization variables were all positively skewed. On the basis of the identification of predictors of trivialization of workplace violence, this study has several implications for the practice of threat assessment and management. Violence against healthcare workers in a pediatric emergency department. Gillespie GL; Gates DM; Miller M; Howard PK The purpose of this qualitative study was to describe the workplace violence (WPV) that occurred in a pediatric ED and the negative effects on the workers. Participants perceived that both genders and all occupational groups were at risk for experiencing verbal and physical WPV. Common perpetrator characteristics were patients receiving a psychiatric evaluation and visitors exhibiting acute anxiety. Effects were experienced by workers, perpetrators, patient bystanders, and healthcare employers. It is concluded that WPV is a problem in this pediatric ED, and interventions need to be implemented to promote the safety of the workers and patients. Regardless of the Healthcare department, workplace violence continues to be a concern. Mirrors other finding only in a pediatric department. Findings from this study are limited in that participant interviews used only self-report data; violent events were not triangulated with safety-event reports or occupational injury reports. It is possible that the true scope of physical violence and physical injuries due to violence is higher than that described in this study. Another limitation is that participants might not have been able or were not ready to talk about all aspects of their experiences with WPV. In addition, participants were requested to limit the discussion to the single most stressful experience with WPV over the previous 6 months. Findings from this study suggest the need for two additional research studies. First, the incidence of WPV in a pediatric ED needs to be determined. It is anticipated that WPV in pediatric EDs is a much greater problem than currently appreciated in the literature, albeit of less frequency than in adult EDs. Second, there is a need to develop and test interventions aimed at reducing the incidence of WPV and decreasing the severity of negative consequences of WPV in a pediatric ED. It is believed that an intervention developed through an action research process in collaboration with ED stakeholders is likely to demonstrate a significant reduction in the incidence and severity of violent events. Violence against healthcare workers. Hinsenkamp M The objective evaluation of the problem is indispensable to counteract the trivialisation, the internalisation and unacceptable tolerance of the violence. Solutions are not easy but they are varied. Realistic and non-bailable penalties should be increased significantly to dissuade such aggression, but there should also be measures to protect medical personnel including training them to manage violent behaviour. On a broader scale, the youngest members of the population should be taught to respect and assist medical personnel. Violence against medical personnel due to drug abuse, ignorance, intolerance and a lack of respect has become an ordinary daily occurrence. It can come from patients, from relatives or friends, and sometimes from delinquents. None noted. It has taken time for these aggressions to be reported as for many years they were more or less considered part of professional confidentiality by health workers and even minimized by the hospital administration. However, their frequency has increased to the point where some medical unions are now reacting.

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